Andy McIntosh, University of Leeds
Chris - And itís not just popcorn that goes pop! Bombardier beetles are so-called because they quite literally bombard their predators with explosions from their rear-ends. They can actually expel boiling liquid over distances of a few feet. Now researchers have worked out how they do it and by copying their strategy they hope to build better aerosols and more efficient engines...one of the scientists doing that work is Andy McIntosh.
Andy - These insects, bombardier beetles, are found mainly in the hot parts of the world. Although I believe they have been discovered on the south coast of England. They can be as large as two centimetres but usually theyíre a bit smaller than that. They have in their backsides the most amazing combustion chamber, Chris, which is about one millimetre long or smaller. They mix two chemicals: hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide. Even before they come into the chamber (and nobody quite knows why) they donít react in the very small tube that comes in. In the chamber there is a mixture now of catalysts: peroxidase and catalase. These cause the reaction to go much faster than it normally would which then heats up the water which is also there. It tries to expand but it canít initially expand and it canít vaporise therefore and boil properly until an exhaust valve, which is just a bit of cuticle - which wonít really give way until there is a pressure rise sufficient to make it give way Ė when that goes then it basically suffers a vapour explosion. This all happens in 1/400th or even 1/500th of a second.
Chris - This is like you unscrewing the cap of a radiator of a car engine thatís hot and the water still boiling as the pressure goes off. This is happening in the back end of this insect?
Andy - All the time when itís doing this, yes. It will do it for a few seconds. Youíre getting a huge number of blasts. If it goes on for ten seconds then obviously if itís doing it 400 times a second you can work out how many blasts itís doing.
Chris - Why would it do this?
Andy - Basically this beetle is being preyed on. Creatures like birds, spiders, ants are trying to get at this creature and they usually donít win. Very rarely a spider might be able to wrap it round in its web and eventually eat it but thatís rare. Theyíre usually stunned by this horrible mixture which is hot. Although they wonít be killed by it theyíre be so stunned they wonít be able to do anything for a few minutes and the beetle runs away.
Chris - Itís an intriguing adaptation. Itís amazing to think the beetle doesnít burn itself in the process. There must be some kind of adaptation that protects it. When you zoom in on the apparatus this beetle uses to do this what does that tell you about how it works?
Andy - As I mentioned earlier there is an exhaust valve that doesnít give way until thereís a particular pressure. Also you should note that there is an inlet valve which is, as the explosion takes place there is an expansion which causes the whole chamber to begin to pinch the inlet valve. As it explodes that stops more stuff coming in. What we didnít realise was that there was an exhaust valve which was made out of a bit of a cuticle which would only stretch under a particular pressure. We reckon itís about 1.2 or 1.3 bars. Weíre not really quite sure. Nobodyís been able to get an instrument small enough to measure it.
Chris - The one thing that strikes me, when you hear a story like this is there are so many applications for what amounts to a spray gun. Could you copy this?
Andy - Yes. Just be aware that people are already using this pulse combustion idea for engines. There is such a thing as a pulse combustor engine. And indeed it was used in the V1: the Germanís didnít realise that was the same was what was happening with the beetle. Without realising it people have been using this type of idea already. What is unique about this is that it gives a facility for, if we can copy it, for actually getting a spray of liquid and controlling the droplet sizes if we know how to get the valve system working properly. Rather than relying on a passive system which is what the beetle does we have introduced an active system whereby we control when the inlet of water comes in and the outlet of steam and water takes place. Weíre able to actually use the idea of the beetle, not on the chemistry but on the physics of this valve system, to actually get some very unique spray gun (as you call it) applications.
Chris - Engine have to atomise fuel to get the fuel into the cylinder quickly and in a very widely distributed and with a very uniform particle size. That means the burn would be better straight away.
Andy - Absolutely. Thatís one of our major interested areas that weíre developing. We know that we can, without using a huge amount of pressure to atomise the fuel which is what usually happens. We know that we can do this with much lower pressures, albeit weíre using a vapour explosion idea from the beetle. We are using some pressure but nowhere near the pressures that people use at the moment. Also thereís aerosols and other applications that these can be used for, maybe other pharmaceuticals as well.
Chris - I was going to say therapeutically because there are instances where you want to get very uniform, very fine droplet nebulised mixtures, for example. These will then be carried on the air deep into someoneís lungs. Could you do something like that with this?
Andy - Yes. We think we can although we think thatís a little bit of a long way off at the moment. Weíre pretty sure that just by using water, not fuel obviously (as in the fuel injector idea) but just using water we think we can use that as a spray which can produce steam and water which actually cools down pretty quickly and can take a drug which is in solution into a targeted area in the patient. Weíre not quite sure yet whether this will work out but weíre certainly looking into that.
Chris - Leeds University's Andy McIntosh, who's working with the organisation Swedish Biomimetics 3000 to copy the bombardier beetle's spray technique.