Science Questions

How much does the wind slow down when passing through a turbine?

Tue, 4th Oct 2016

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Mark Harnett asked:

When wind turbines create electricity they reduce energy from the air. How much does the wind slow down after passing through the turbine? Can you put an efficiency number on a turbine like the binders on solar panels


Caroline Steel had a breeze answering this question...Wind turbine

Caroline - So the short answer is yes you can. When the wind turns a blade of a wind turbine it does in fact lose speed because of the sheer effort it takes to turn those blades. Now this isnít something we really need to worry about. I know thereís been some speculation that this could change climate and this would have vastly terrible implications but, realistically, with the number of wind turbines we have at the moment, that decrease in wind speed is actually, completely, negligibly, unimportantly, small. Unless youíre in a wind farm, in which case you donít want to put wind turbines downwind of wind turbines.

But, anyway, we can work out an efficiency for them by looking at how much energy they get out of the wind, so how much does the wind slow down versus how much energy they can output. And it actually turns out that wind turbines are relatively inefficient because thereís a lot of friction between the blades and the rotor in the middle. So they have an efficiency ofÖ it changes hugely but about forty per cent would be an okay guess. So, yes, in comparison to other energy formats wind turbines are fairly inefficient but, luckily, weíve got a lot of wind so it doesnít really matter.

Chris - But a solar panelís only what twenty/twenty-five percent efficient?

Caroline - Yeah. So solar panels are fairly inefficient as well. Thatís something we have to live with when weíre using forces to power things really.


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