Rowan, Australia asked:
I've noticed it takes my eyes a few minutes to adjust when walking outside into the dark but my dog can run out and she seems to see everything as if it was daylight. Is this because they can only see black and white or something else?
Chris - Youíve got two important questions there. First of all, getting used to the dark. Weíll have to think John Gamel for this, who is an ophthalmologist over in America and he sent me some ideas. One of the most important points with eyes getting used to the dark is actually how your eyes see in the first place. Which is when that youíre looking at something, There are beams or rays of light of certain wavelengths or colours coming into your eye and they interact with the photo pigment. A chemical which is sensitive to certain wavelengths which is in your retina. When the light waves hit that pigment, they cause the pigment to change its configuration. It is so called bleach. When it changes its configuration, it then signals the cell to change its behaviour so thatís basically how the retina turns light waves into brain waves. Itís turning the information into pulses of nerve activity the brain can understand. For a period of time, when that pigment has been bleached, it canít to respond to light again until its regenerated, until its shape goes back to its original starting confirmation. So, when you go from a very light area where on average many of your pigment molecules in your retina will be being bleached out any given time and then you go into the dark; Many of those bleached-pigment molecules will slowly turn back into unbleached pigment molecules, theyíre sensitive again. So, in other words, the longer you spend in the dark, the more pigment molecules becomes sensitive and therefore, the more sensitive your eyes become.
Thatís the first point. The second one is also that the retina is a very dynamic electrical organ. There are two different ways in which the retina responds to light. There are cone cells, which are not very sensitive to light. They need a lot of light to activate them, but they see in colour and then all the rod cells which are very sensitive to light. But, they can only see in black and white, and what the eye can do is at low light conditions, you can connect via electrical coupling called a gap junction some rod cells to the cone cells and what this means is that the rod cells trigger the cones at a lower amount of light and they otherwise would need to turn them on. So, as a result, you can actually see in colour at much lower light than you would otherwise. It takes a little while for these gap junction connections between the different classes of rods and cones to actually get activated. So, thereís also that process of adaptation.
Now, in terms of what happens when your dog goes out into the dark. The reason dogs can see so well at night is because in common with many animals that are nocturnally active, dogs have a structure at the back of their eye called a tapetum lucidum which is Latin for bright carpet. If you look at the back of the dogís eye also sheep have this, cows have this, horses have this. The back of the eye is very, very reflective and shiny. This means that any light that comes into the eye that misses the retina the first time can bounce off the back of the eye and back on to the retina. The benefit then is that it makes the eye much more sensitive to light, but slightly less able to pinpoint precisely where the light is coming from. So, thereís a small loss of acuity which comes at the cost of increased sensitivity. So, thatís basically how your dog can see much better in the dark than you can.
Dave - So, is this tapetum lucidum the reason why if you try to light the dogís eyes they bright up so brightly?
Chris - When you shine light into a person and you see this when you do flash photography and you see red eye. The human retina looks red to the camera because the light illuminates the very dense rich blood supply at the back of the eye because the retina has one of the highest metabolic rates of all the tissues in the whole body. But, in the dog or one these other animals, because the back of the eye has this tapetum lucidum, this bright carpet. The light that goes into the eye immediately turns around and bounces straight back out again in that very demonic way. Itís because itís like reflecting at the back of the eye that makes your dogís eyes look very bright, but the same thing doesnít happen with the human.
Dave - Also, I think the lens focuses the light straight back where it came so all the light which you shone into the eye comes right back at you standing next to the torch.
Rowan Jennion asked the Naked Scientists: I've noticed it takes my eyes a few minutes to adjust when walking outside into the dark but my dog can run out and she seems to see everything as if it was daylight. Is this because they can only see black and white or something else? Cheers Rowan Australia - Podcast What do you think? Rowan Jennion, Mon, 23rd Mar 2009
http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=949.0 should cover it pretty well. Chemistry4me, Mon, 23rd Mar 2009