David Waltham asked:
Why do some batteries last much longer than other less expensive brands? And are different types more suitable for certain applications than others where the savings would not be as great?
Fundamentally, a battery is a chemical reaction going on, and part of that chemical reaction is it pushes electrons from one side of the battery to the other side. So, actually, you have two halves of a chemical reaction, one which absorbs electrons and another that gives them out. And the only way that the chemical reaction can carry on is when these electrons are going around and getting back to the other side through your circuit and they can do work when it's doing that. Now, there are lots of different chemical reactions you can use and so, basically, the number of atoms – the number of molecules which can be active or which can move electrons across is important. The more you can get in the battery, the more current, more charge you can store in the battery.
So, you've got to have lots of complex things that hold it together, which take up space and take up weight – and, normally, it's only on the surface where these things can react. So, any kind of centre of an electrode which isn't able to react with things is useless and doesn't work very well. So, basically, the way they last longer is by having more of the battery, which is active, you can do different chemical reactions which can store more energy, take up less space. You can also use different chemical reactions if to produce different voltages. So, a lithium ion battery is at 3V whereas a standard one and a half volt alkaline cell is 1.5V, and a rechargeable battery is 1.2 volts.
Different batteries have different properties. Alkaline cell will last for a very, very long time. It doesn't lose its charge. It could just sit back and it will last for several years. It has a shelf life of several years. Whereas a rechargeable battery will just discharge itself in maybe a month or so. Also, a rechargeable battery can give out much more current. So, if you've got a high current application, a rechargeable battery works a lot better. So, yes, there are different circumstances where some are better than others.
Derek asked the Naked Scientists: Why do some batteries last much longer than other, cheaper ones and by what method is this achieved? Derek, Wellingborough What do you think? Derek , Thu, 25th Mar 2010
Presumably you mean primary (non rechargeable) batteries. All such batteries produce their electricity by using a chemical reaction which only happens when an electric current is allowed to pass between the positive and negative electrodes. This is in effect the reverse of electrolysis when chemicals (notably metals) can be separated from a conducting (ionic) solution by passing an electrical current through it. This chemical reaction can only continue until the reagents run out. There are several different chemical reactions that are used. the original one (the Le Clanche cell) uses a reaction using zinc metal and an acidic gel with a carbon positive electrode. These have relatively short lives and are standard batteries. Alkaline batteries use manganese ions and have much longer lives better storage properties and greater current capacity. There are several other primary cell reactions that are used mostly in button cells for low power applications and very long shelf lives.
The chemistry of the cell determines the basic energy-capacity of the cell.
My lantern has a five watt fluorescent U-tube. Battery life tends to be short with it. Has anyone got any recommendations as to what batteries I should be using? The makers don't recommend rechargeables. rhade, Tue, 30th Mar 2010
Can you answer why a standard 1.5 volt 2500mAH energizer battery lasts 30 hours in a console controller while a 1.2v 2300mAH rechargeable battery lasts about 3 hours before having to be charged again in the same controller the charges aren't that different. If the voltages were both 1.5 the rechargeable would should last 27.5 hours so how is a .3v drop making such a huge difference in the usage time Daniel, Sat, 26th Sep 2015