(and presumably you eat the blueberries, bioaccumualted toxins and all?)
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Messages - Mazurka
« on: 14/05/2013 14:56:29 »
Chris, experimenting on oneself is slightly old fashioned, but it has resulted in numerous breakthroughs in the past
(and presumably you eat the blueberries, bioaccumualted toxins and all?)
« on: 14/05/2013 11:39:55 »
There is no particular "meaning" to the 400ppm level other than as human beings we tend to like nice round numbers - hence the pseudo "science" of numerology. 400 ppm does not represent a “tipping point” or some other sort of point of no return, it is merely a symbolic milestone.
It is entirely true to say that life as we know it would not exist without the CO2 and the greenhouse effect. However, it is facile(*) to suggest that more carbon in the atmosphere is unequivocally a good thing. Changing weather and climate patterns are more likely to result in poor harvests rather than the enhanced ones some people anticipate due to higher CO2 levels because we are growing things in the “wrong” place. These impacts may be compounded by impacts on populations of pollinator species and land use issues caused by the demands of a burgeoning global population. I would accept that higher CO2 is good for life generally, but it is hard to see how it is good for Homo sapiens specifically.
Whilst in the controlled conditions of a lab or commercial greenhouse, increased CO2 can significantly boost growth in some plants, the evidence in the real world does not support it, where, more often than not, other factors – such as soil fertility and water availability are the limiting factors to growth/ production. There are also species that respond to increasing temperatures by reducing growth (often to limit moisture loss).
It is also expected, that increased energy in the atmosphere is likely to result in increasing numbers of extreme weather events – these can devastate production on a local/ regional scale. Good examples of this include the shortage of the right quality wheat for weetabix due to the poor summer in the UK last year http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-northamptonshire-22248961 or the devastation of the Italian basil crop in 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5267796.stm whilst, of course, any one weather event is impossible to (scientifically) link to increasing CO2, it is an increasingly reasonable connection to make.
We are entering almost entirely uncharted territory climate wise. This is because the paleo-historic temperature increases, whether resulting from Milankovitch cycles, or other mechanisms, appears to drive increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. In the current situation, the reverse is true - the consensus is that increasing CO2 will drive temperatures upwards. The only occasion when there is clear evidence that this happened before is the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. The PETM resulted in a mass extinction (and subsequent re-radiation) of foraminifera species (a kind of plankton) but also in the diversification of mammal species. Unfortunately, the cause of the PETM is unclear, although there is a lot of academic interest in it.
* as is much of the assumption heavy analysis / group think posted on Anthony Watt’s site.
Far be it for me to disagree with Jim Bob, I feel compeled to put my pedants hat on and say that it is weathering not erosion that made the rocks so soft.
I would also add that the mass of rock is not well correlated with its strength or resistance to weathering. For example two different sandstones may appear to be identical (colour, grain size etc) but one will weather more quickly as it is less well cemented than another.
« on: 24/04/2013 09:56:17 »
It is still possible (in England) to get raw untreated milk (green top) directly from farms or from the milkman. It is unlawful for the farm/ milkman to promote its sale, however, if you can find someone selling it - try it is is delicious.
It comes with a blob of cream on the top - the consistency and taste varies through the year reflecting the cows diet.
There is of course a health risk associated with raw milk, but due to the hygiene standards (low bacterial counts) that the big diary companies (Arla, Dairy Crest etc.) insist on farmers acheiving this risk is minimal.
The sole downside (as far as I am concerned) is that the milk goes off far more quickly than the (pale imitation) pasturised & homogonised milk more comonly sold... My nose tells me when this has happened!
« on: 04/04/2013 15:53:34 »
If you are suggesting that democracy should be a considerable number of tiers starting with a base unit of the neighbourhood then a number of neighbourhoods forming a town and a number of towns forming a district and a number of districts forming a county and a numebr of counties foming a region and a number of regions forming a country... With each tier electing representatives to the tier above, you may be interested in the writings of Marx.
If you look at the history of geology as a science, you will note that it is quite happy to revise its paradigm when sufficient evidence is presented. The theory of plate tectonics is actually (as scientific theories go) fairly young and is still developing. There is plenty of scope to refine elements of it.
I would also go so far as to suggest - as with several subjects - the more you know the more complicated it becomes - there are always exceptions and there is always room for discussion and debate. The peripheral history of science is littered with rumor or anecdote of suppressed knowledge that seldom add up to much.
One of the biggest issues facing geological theory is that the timescales over which much of it occurs are mind boggling. We have to rely on Hutton’s principle of uniformitarianism as it is impossible to replicate plate tectonics in the lab. The other issue is that our understanding of the sub surface is from pin pricks (boreholes) and indirectly from reflected and refracted seismic waves so our modeling the interior of the planet is undoubtedly imperfect. For a bit of context - the Kola Borehole - drilled 12,262m into the crust. The earths diameter is 12,742 km - is there any surprise that there are questions over elements of tectonic theory?
The photos show pumice which is a result of rapid cooling of blobs of lava ejected from a volcano. In the magam chamber it is under pressure and when it is ejected it depressurises, whilst cooling leaving lots of bubbles frozen in the rock matrix. It can only form in high viscosity lavas (felsic or silicic).
This frozen rock foam floats until capiliary action fills more than a ctricial number of vesicles (rock bubbles) and it sinks.
The romans used it as a low denisty aggregate for concrete domes (such as the Pantheon)
Technically it is a description of a texture rather than of compostion so is not limited to oceanic settings. I do not understand the referrence to subduction except as Bass says that island arc volcanism tends towards highly differentiated lavas...
On the basis fo getting fed up with large and memory/ process hungry freeware, when I recently upgraded a desktop I signed up with Eset - which seems to be great - and if you can be bothered to trawl around all of the reviews and comparison sites seems to get reasonbaly favourable reviews. In addition they offer packages for covering multiple machines...
No bother with it over the last 5 months.
Geology, Palaeontology & Archaeology / Re: Strange green borings found drilling into iron oxide wasteland« on: 26/02/2013 09:26:52 »
It could also be to do with the oxidation state of the iron.
Marlstone formations (e.g. Blue Anchor formation) such as those seen on parts of the South Wales coast near Cardiff, can show distinct red and green beds. The green beds were formed in low oxygen conditions.
« on: 31/01/2013 09:24:49 »
I am glad to hear it!
I have his address if that helps?
« on: 29/01/2013 16:32:14 »
woodnot as a dinosaur then?
are you back now JB?
An interesting proposition,
Other than the aesthetics, I am not sure that what advantage the tessellation adds – I cannot see that it is more load bearing than an individual cuboid brick/ block? It also strikes me that individual blocks having more potential to fail.
For construction purposes if the blocks were sufficiently large it may be possible to use dowels (through the top/ bottom) of the crossbars of the I ‘s to hold a temporary wall type structure together (without cement) or bolts This would resist tension (as the dovetails would) and also the deformation of the structure (kicking it in). It would also allow changes in wall angle.
From a practical point of view temporary (polar bear proof) buildings rather than tents are best achieved using cheap prefabricated panels (such as profiled steel cladding) bolted onto a structural frame (i.e. a metal tent!). This gives the compromise between strength and weight. It is possible to get a fairly large barn on the back of a single wagon.
I guess the key issue is materials. Clay bricks would not fire consistently (or strongly) enough to tessellate neatly; Cast concrete (such as the pavers pictured) might work to a certain size without reinforcement (although I struggle to see the advantage of a conventional concrete block); Metal would be expensive, potentially heavy and thermally dismal; (engineered) wood might work and plastic might work...
Simply - blood flow - as long as oxygenated blood is reaching them cells will not rot except in some very unusual cases - although when necrosis (cell death) has started the byproducts of it can rapidly poison otherwise healthy tissue.
If deprived of oxygen ( ischemia ) cells start to die and then start breaking down fairly quickly. For example a blood clot causing a stroke (Transitory Ischemic Attack) can result in brain damage due to oxygen depreivation to brain cells. Another example is where a limb is crushed such as by a boulder. If this cannot be removed very quickly (within about 1/4 hour) the reuslting breakdown of cells releases toxins into the blood, which when the limb is released can flood back into the body and if not properly treated on scene are likely to be fatal
Anyone interested in SuDS should look at http://www.susdrain.org/
SuDS have been with Town and Country planning for well over 10 years, however local councils had little power to require developers include them as part of developments, although some did to avoid other problems, or to get round otherwise insurmountbale objections to developments. The Flood and Water Management Act (when implemented over the next two years) will change this and will give the issue more weight as a "material consideration" in the planning process.
Furthermore, in response to the increasing hardsurfacing of suburban gardens to provide parking, in 2008 the government proposed some changes to "permitted development rights" to restrict the amount of hardsurfacing a householder could create on their property https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/permeable-surfacing-of-front-gardens-guidance I don't think these ever came into force.
More on the implementation of the Flood and Water Management Act 2010 at
Finally, I disagree that this is a strictly urban problem whislt surface flash flooding in areas away from existing water courses is caused by poor infiltration and urban impermeable surfaces - unsustainbale changes in upland land management and other farming practice (such as large scale land drainage have exacerbated many flooding problems by reducing the length of time that the hills hold their water. Whilst there is increasing recognition of this problem and drains (aka "grips") cut into peat bogs are being filled in and issues surrounding stock density and reforrestation are being looked into, the only possible conclusion is that we are not managing the land as well as we need to address problems such as climate change (which for the the UK at least, seems to mean increased rainfall. )
« on: 05/12/2012 15:02:44 »
I would suggest one of the biggest problems with such a discussion is that there has not been enough (robust) lifecycle analysis to compare the different technologies meaningfully. This problem is compounded by received wisdom and "propoganda" deliberately and inadvertently spread by both sides of the debate.
I recently came across this document
Which appears to be quite well balenced - and if nothing else referrenced (although I do not have easy access to some of the journals referrenced, so I am taking the words of the authors on trust to a certain extent)
I appreciate that wind is only one aspect of the debate, but it is currently the most viable and straightforward to deploy (both on and off grid) and is probably the most useful "low carbon" technology to discuss.
Carbon fibre has superior vibration dampening properties and is lighter than aluminium - which is why most topermost end tripods are made of it.
Yes Carbon fibre can shatter, but what is it you are photographing that puts the tripod (and presumably the camera and photographer) at that sort of risk?!?
I think top end tripods that don't have leg braces tend to have a pretty solid (often) ratcheted stop at the top of the leg, allowing the legs to go wider, which simply gives more options such as low angle shots etc.
If vibration is an issue consider wood. I've got an old wooden theodolite tripod (which admitedly is quite heavy) I converted with a bit of fiddling and a decent ball head, perfect for taking long exposure pictures in quarries / mines / construction sites and a friend who goes whale watching swears by his german Berlback(SP?) as he can use a longer lens than he could otherwise comfortably hold...
Cheapest, quickest, dirtiest, lightest holiday solution (for compacts or lightweight dslr) is to get a bolt of the right diameter to fit the tripod mount on the camera. Get a 2litre PET bottle (e.g. pop bottle) put the bolt throught the lid, fill the bottle with sand et voila...
« on: 12/11/2012 13:49:40 »
Slightly off topic, I came across this article recently:
Which refers to the excellent novel the "The Diamond Age" by Neal Stephenson.
The article is about what happened when the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project delivered some boxes of tablet pc's to two villages in Ethiopia, taped shut, with no instructions whatsoever.
The PETM is a fascinating episode as (I think) it is the only warming event where increase in CO2 levels preceded rising temperatures.
This is important as other warming events - attributable to milankovitch cycles - rise in temperature preceded rising CO2 levels. This relationship is often cited by those that do not accept anthropogenic climate change as an "inconvienient truth" in (the political) arguments about the need to cut CO2 emissions etc.
« on: 25/10/2012 08:20:23 »
(Spirit) Vinegar is a fantastic, if slightly odourous, substance for all manner of household cleaning tasks. I used some the other day to very succesfully remove all of the scale and gunk from the shower head by simply leaving it soaking for a couple of hours.
So I was wondering, is it possible to thicken it up (to at least the consistency of bleach) whilst retaining its cleaning power to use it to clean the grout between the tiles?