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Author Topic: Is TB (tuberculosis) returning to the UK and other western countries?  (Read 35274 times)

Offline iko

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Yeah, atypical Mycobacteria
are between the 'fastidious'
germs I am so much fond of...
They are not 'returning' at
all, they have been around
us all the time!



Exposure to Mycobacterium marinum can lead to a rare infection known as swimming pool granuloma" or "aquarium granuloma." About 3 weeks after the bacteria enters through a break in the skin, usually on the hands, reddish bumps appear. This infection can be prevented by avoiding contact with contaminated water and wearing gloves or washing thoroughly when cleaning aquariums.
Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc
.

more about atypical mycobacteria:

 



« Last Edit: 29/09/2007 15:00:14 by iko »
 

Offline Quantum_Vaccuum

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so wouldn't other small mammals also be a big cause to TB?

There is no reason it should be limited to small mammals (although I suppose in the highly managed environments of Europe, small mammals tend to get around more); but as I said above, I don't actually know which other species are susceptible (although I did see reference to some variants of TB affecting voles).

One interesting issue is that the bacteria that causes TB is closely related to the bacteria that causes leprosy.

Reading background to this, I noticed:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nontuberculous_mycobacteria
Quote
Over the past 25 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of NTM cases seen by clinicians across the United States and Canada.

The correct name of NTM is "nontuberculous mycobacteria." There is no such bacteria called "nontuberculosis microbacteria."

Mycobacteria are a family of small, rod-shaped bacilli that can be classified into 3 main groups for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment:

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which can cause tuberculosis: M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, , M. microti and M. canetti.
  • M. leprae which causes Hansen's disease or leprosy.
  • Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are all the other mycobacteria which can cause pulmonary disease resembling tuberculosis, lymphadenitis, skin disease, or disseminated disease. Pulmonary NTM infections include: MAC (mycobacterium avian complex), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare; faster-growing M. abscessus, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum; and less common strains such as M. kansasii and M. xenopi.

Unlike TB and leprosy, which are primarily spread by human-to-human contact, NTM is believed to be contracted from the environment, hence its alternative label, "environmental bacteria." NTM is believed to exist naturally in soil and water.

my friend is researching TB for a science report, and he told me that any mammal is capibile of having TB =[
 

Offline Quantum_Vaccuum

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Yeah, atypical Mycobacteria
are between the 'fastidious'
germs I am so much fond of...
They are not 'returning' at
all, they have been around us all the time!


so are they just becoming more resistant to our immunes and vaccinations?

 

Offline iko

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Tuberculosis bacterial strains are becoming more and more resistant to standard chemotherapy.
Hygienic standards and social condition (poverty, malnutrition etc.) seem to make the real difference and allow the slow rise of these dreadful pathogens.
In the old days a drop of TB cases was observed either in vaccinated or unvaccinated populations, at the same rate, when health conditions had been simultaneously improved.

ikod

As I wrote before, vaccination has big limits in TB.
This type of bacteria interacts with the defense system in such a peculiar way that an healthy lifestyle (proper food, hygienic standards) might(*) play a major role in keeping this pathogen under control.
Immunodeficient patients (AIDS) are at risk and a sort of reservoir for this germ.
Poverty, promiscuity and lack of hygienic facilities in underdeveloped countries are contributing to the new epidemics.  Obviously some strains of TB bacteria became resistant to specific drugs that had been used over the years, and this is a problem for affected patients.
For the whole population -as it was in the old days- prevention and isolation of infectious patients are the most important presidia against TB.
New drugs are under investigation.
Old stuff is being 'rediscovered': vitamin D (cod liver oil had been used in TB patients) may help over weeks and months, preventing reactivation or supporting standard treatment of TB sufferers.

ikod

(*)'might' here stands for:
"I'm not a professor, this is just a chat, plus I learned English from a book!"  ;D
« Last Edit: 30/09/2007 05:28:00 by iko »
 

Offline jordan23

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Another source is people returning from 3rd world countries who had not been priorly inocculated.
newbielink:http://www.pqdvd.com/windows-mobile-tv.html [nonactive]
newbielink:http://www.pqdvd.com/windows-mobile-tv.html [nonactive]
 

Offline iko

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from:  http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/tb/vaccine_development/bcg/en/index.html


BCG - the current vaccine for tuberculosis

Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is the current vaccine for tuberculosis. It was first used in 1921. BCG is the only vaccine available today for protection against tuberculosis. It is most effective in protecting children from the disease.

History of the vaccine
Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) containes a live attenuated (weakened) strain of Mycobacterium bovis. It was originally isolated from a cow with tuberculosis by Calmette and Guren who worked in Paris at the Institute Pasteur. This strain was carefully subcultured every three weeks for many years. After about thirteen years the strain was seen to be less virulent for animals such as cows and guinea pigs. During these thirteen years many undefined genetic changes occurred to change the original stain of M. bovis. This altered organism was called BCG. In addition to the loss of virulence, other changes to BCG were noted. These included a pronounced change in the appearance of colonies grown in the laboratory. Colonies of M. bovis have a rough granular appearance whereas colonies of BCG are moist and smooth.

Today there are several strains of “BCG”.
BCG was first used as a vaccine to protect humans against tuberculosis in 1921. At first, cultures of BCG were maintained in Paris. Later, it was subcultured and distributed to several laboratories throughout the world where the vaccine strain called BCG continued to be maintained by continuous subculture. After many years it became clear that the various strains maintained ain different laboratories were no longer identical to each other. Indeed, it was likely that all the various strains maintained by continuous subculture continued to undergo undefined genetic changes. Indeed, the "original" strain of BCG maintained at in Paris had continued to change during the subcultures needed to maintain the viability of the culture. To limit these continuing changes the procedures needed to maintain the strain were modified. Today, the organism is maintained in several laboratories using a "seed lot" production technique to limit further genetic variation using freeze-dried (also called lyphilized) cells so that each batch starts with the same cells.

SafetyAfter extensive tests in animals, BCG was first used as a vaccine in 1921. It was given orally to infants. Since this time the vaccine has been widely used. Today, it is estimated that more than 1 billion people have received BCG.

BCG is widely used and the safety of this vaccine has not been a serious issue until recently. There is a concern that use of the vaccine in persons who are immune compromised may result is an infection caused by the BCG itself. Also, even among immune competent persons, local reactions, including ulceration at the site of vaccination may result in shedding of live organisms which could infect others who may be immune compromised.

The early use of BCG was marked by a tragic accident. In Lubeck more than 25% of the approximately 250 infants who received a batch of the vaccine developed tuberculosis. It was later recognized that this batch was accidentally contaminated with a virulent strain of M. tuberculosis.

BCG production and substrains
The BCG vaccines that are currently in use are produced at several (seven?) sites throughout the world. These vaccines are not identical. To what extent they differ in efficacy and safety in humans is not clear at present. Some differences in molecular and genetic characteristics are known. What is not known is if the "BCG" from one manufacturer is "better" than one produced at another site. Each BCG is now know by the location where it is produced. For example, we have BCG (Paris), BCG (Copenhagen), BCG (Tice) and BCG (Montreal) among others.



Another source is people returning from 3rd world countries who had not been priorly inocculated.mobile TV
pocket pc TV

It is not so easy.
Malnourished children and adults living in precarious hygienic condition may have lower immune defenses and cannot be vaccinated safely against TB.


« Last Edit: 20/10/2007 09:44:45 by iko »
 

Offline Seany

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Hi..

I know someone who has recently gotten Tuberculosis.. God knows how.
They are only about 7-8 years old.
We are all very curious as to how he got it..
I was wondering what the symptoms were?

He needs to get treated for over 6 months, 2 pills everyday.
And his little sister 5-6 years old has also got it off him, pretty easily.

I am curious of the symtoms, and whether it is dangerous for his age?
And whether it really does take 6 months for this treatment?
 

Offline Karen W.

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I have heard that treatment is long!.. I wonder if the treatment is efficient to rid them of it or do they only treat symptoms... can they get rid of it completely???

I heard that back New York way they had several cases back there also!

So it never really went away eh?
« Last Edit: 01/04/2008 00:36:52 by Karen W. »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Yeah, atypical Mycobacteria
are between the 'fastidious'
germs I am so much fond of...
They are not 'returning' at
all, they have been around
us all the time!



Exposure to Mycobacterium marinum can lead to a rare infection known as swimming pool granuloma" or "aquarium granuloma." About 3 weeks after the bacteria enters through a break in the skin, usually on the hands, reddish bumps appear. This infection can be prevented by avoiding contact with contaminated water and wearing gloves or washing thoroughly when cleaning aquariums.
Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc
.

more about atypical mycobacteria:

 





Yikes are those lesions from the  disease?
 

Offline Karen W.

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I was immunized as a child. Can someone get the disease latter without re immunization or is that permanent protection??
« Last Edit: 01/04/2008 03:09:00 by Karen W. »
 

another_someone

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I was immunized as a child. Can some one get the disease latter without reimmunization or is that permanent protection??

I believe the immunisation does wear off after a time, but it will give a degree of permanent protection, but reduced protection as time progresses.
 

Offline Karen W.

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Thanks George.. do you know if they offer a second TB shot as one reaches older ages?
 

another_someone

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Hi..

I know someone who has recently gotten Tuberculosis.. God knows how.
They are only about 7-8 years old.
We are all very curious as to how he got it..
I was wondering what the symptoms were?

He needs to get treated for over 6 months, 2 pills everyday.
And his little sister 5-6 years old has also got it off him, pretty easily.

I am curious of the symtoms, and whether it is dangerous for his age?
And whether it really does take 6 months for this treatment?

Generally, TB is considered not that easy to catch - it usually is only contagious in between people who are in close proximity to each other for a long time (which is why it was usually considered a disease that was prominent amongst people living in crowded environments).

The problem is that it is a slow growing bacteria, so it can take many years before you actually get any symptoms.  Mostly the disease remains dormant, and you can be infected for decades without knowing it, but if you are run down, or your immune system is compromised (maybe caused by malnourishment, or some other illness), then the TB that has been dormant can get a grip.

It is because it is slow growing that it is not easy to catch, but if you do catch it, it can be pretty stubborn and can take a long time to get rid of.

There are different types of TB, and some are more common in non-humans, but can spread to humans (this used to be a problem with drinking unpasteurised milk, where you could get bovine TB).
 

another_someone

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Thanks George.. do you know if they offer a second TB shot as one reaches older ages?

Have not heard of anything - but until relatively recently, the feeling was that TB was becoming less of a threat, and so maybe it was felt the boosters would not be needed.
 

Offline Seany

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Hi..

I know someone who has recently gotten Tuberculosis.. God knows how.
They are only about 7-8 years old.
We are all very curious as to how he got it..
I was wondering what the symptoms were?

He needs to get treated for over 6 months, 2 pills everyday.
And his little sister 5-6 years old has also got it off him, pretty easily.

I am curious of the symtoms, and whether it is dangerous for his age?
And whether it really does take 6 months for this treatment?

Generally, TB is considered not that easy to catch - it usually is only contagious in between people who are in close proximity to each other for a long time (which is why it was usually considered a disease that was prominent amongst people living in crowded environments).

The problem is that it is a slow growing bacteria, so it can take many years before you actually get any symptoms.  Mostly the disease remains dormant, and you can be infected for decades without knowing it, but if you are run down, or your immune system is compromised (maybe caused by malnourishment, or some other illness), then the TB that has been dormant can get a grip.

It is because it is slow growing that it is not easy to catch, but if you do catch it, it can be pretty stubborn and can take a long time to get rid of.

There are different types of TB, and some are more common in non-humans, but can spread to humans (this used to be a problem with drinking unpasteurised milk, where you could get bovine TB).

I am pretty sure it's not about drinking unpasteurised milk that he got TB..
It might be that he's had TB for a while, but have never shown symptoms and it may have just appeared because he might be under a lot of stress. He is currently taking piano, violin, and english lessons as well as school everyday. (It's Korea I tell you.. Everyone attends classes after school, most people my age come back home at about 12 at night)

But his sister seemed to catch it pretty easily from him. We are worried their parents are going to catch it too.
 

Offline Bored chemist

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His parents were probably vaccinated when they were young and also they probably have a more robust immune system. They might catch it, but it's no suprise it got his sister rather than his parents.
 

Offline Seany

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Right..
How come the treatment is a simple pill every day for 6 months?
Would this get rid of it completely?
 

Offline iko

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If you want to learn more...
go to a proper scientific website:

 

Offline Seany

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Thanks ikoD
 

Offline iko

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Offline Seany

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YAYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
 

Offline JimBob

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I have a friend who had to go the the VA (Veterans Administration) hospital for some long term care for an intestinal problem. While there he contracted TB  - he was on 3 drugs for over a year and they are still not sure that he will ever be free of the microbe.

 
 

Offline Seany

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That is worrying..
Is this because TB is now immune to antibiotics??
 

Offline iko

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That is worrying..
Is this because TB is now immune to antibiotics??

Indeed Seany.     http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/content/interviews/interview/893/
 

Offline Seany

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So there currently isn't a treatment for it??
 

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