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Author Topic: What are you studying in your Science Class this week?  (Read 9430 times)

Offline Karen W.

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What are you studying in your Science Class this week?
« Reply #25 on: 29/09/2007 03:26:29 »
Ooh fun! LOL
 

Offline Simulated

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« Reply #26 on: 29/09/2007 13:14:34 »
Yes
 

Offline Karen W.

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« Reply #27 on: 29/09/2007 18:31:17 »
yes fun or charles's and Boyle's?
 

Offline Simulated

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« Reply #28 on: 29/09/2007 19:08:46 »
Yes everything
 

Offline Karen W.

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« Reply #29 on: 29/09/2007 19:28:25 »
Here is wiki's on Charles's Law

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles's_law

Charles's law
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


In thermodynamics and physical chemistry, Charles' law is a gas law and specific instance of the ideal gas law, which states that:

    At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature (in kelvin) increases or decreases.

The law was first published by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802, but he referenced unpublished work by Jacques Charles from around 1787. This reference has led to the law being attributed to Charles. The relationship had been anticipated by the work of Guillaume Amontons in 1702.

The formula for the law is:

    \frac{V}{T} = k

where:

    V is the volume of the gas
    T is the temperature of the gas (measured in Kelvins)
    k is a constant.

In other more thermodynamics-based definitions, the relationship between the fixed mass of a gas at constant pressure is inversely proportional to the temperature applied to the system, which can be further used by stipulating a system where α represents cubic expansivity of a gas, with θ representing the temperature measured of the system in Kelvins:

    V \varpropto T

    V = Vo(1 + αθ)

To maintain the constant, k, during heating of a gas at fixed pressure, the volume must increase. Conversely, cooling the gas decreases the volume. The exact value of the constant need not be known to make use of the law in comparison between two volumes of gas at equal pressure:

    \frac{V_1}{T_1} = \frac{V_2}{T_2} \qquad \mathrm{or} \qquad \frac {V_2}{V_1} = \frac{T_2}{T_1} \qquad \mathrm{or} \qquad V_1\cdot T_2 = V_2\cdot T_1.

Basically, as the temperature increases the volume of the gas increases.
 

Offline Karen W.

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« Reply #30 on: 29/09/2007 19:31:49 »
Here is wiki on Boyle's law

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boyle's_law


Boyle's law
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law) is one of the gas laws and basis of derivation for the ideal gas law, which describes the relationship between the product pressure and volume within a closed system as constant when temperature remains at a fixed measure; both entities remain inversely proportional.[1][2] The law was named for chemist and physicist, Robert Boyle who published the original law in 1662. The law itself can be defined succinctly as:
   For a fixed amount of gas kept at a fixed temperature, P and V are inversely proportional.[2]    
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 History
    * 2 Definition
          o 2.1 Relation to kinetic theory and ideal gases
          o 2.2 Equation
    * 3 See also
    * 4 References

[edit] History

    Main article: History of thermodynamics

Boyle's Law is named after the Irish natural philosopher Robert Boyle (Lismore, County Waterford, 1627-1691) who was the first to publish it in 1662. The relationship between pressure and volume was brought to the attention of Boyle by two friends and amateur scientists, Richard Towneley and Henry Power, who discovered it. Boyle confirmed their discovery through experiments and published the results. According to Robert Gunther and other authorities, Boyle's assistant Robert Hooke, who built the experimental apparatus, may well have helped to quantify the law; Hooke was accounted a more able mathematician than Boyle. Hooke also developed the improved vacuum pumps necessary for the experiments. The French physicist Edme Mariotte (1620-1684) discovered the same law independently of Boyle in 1676, so this law may be referred to as Mariotte's or the Mariotte-Boyle law.

[edit] Definition

[edit] Relation to kinetic theory and ideal gases

Boyle's law is the most fundamental of the 23 gas laws, which states the constant relationship between pressure and volume within a system which does not have pressure or temperature at extreme ranges; high pressure or temperatures showing deviations from the law.[3] The law was not likely to have deviations at the time of publication due to limits upon technology, but as further technological advances occurred limitations of the approach would have become known, as Boyle's law relates more effectively to real gases[3] due to its description of such gases consisting of large numbers of particles moving independently of each other.[3]

In 1738, Daniel Bernoulli derived Boyle's law using Newton's laws of motion with application on a molecular level, but remained ignored until c. 1845, when John Waterston published a paper building the main precepts of kinetic theory, but was rejected by the Royal Society of England until the later works of James Prescott Joule, Rudolf Clausius and Ludwig Boltzmann firmly established the kinetic theory of gases and brought attention to both the theories of Bernoulli and Waterston.[4]

The ongoing debate between proponents of Energetics and Atomism led Boltzmann to write a book in 1898, which endured criticism up to his suicide in 1901.[4] Albert Einstein in 1905 showed how kinetic theory applied to the Brownian motion of a fluid-suspended particle, which was confirmed in 1908 by Jean Perrin.[4] From these perspectives upon kinetic theory, the derivation of Boyle's Law can be achieved through its assumptions.

[edit] Equation

The mathematical equation for Boyle's law is:

    \qquad\qquad pV = k

where:

    p denotes the pressure of the system.
    V is the volume of the gas.
    k is a constant value representative of the pressure and volume of the system.

So long as temperature remains constant at the same value the same amount of energy given to the system persists throughout its operation and therefore, theoretically, the value of k will remain constant. However, due to the derivation of pressure as perpendicular applied force and the probabilistic likelihood of collisions with other particles through collision theory, the application of force to a surface may not be infinitely constant for such values of k, but will have a limit when differentiating such values over a given time.

Forcing the volume V of the fixed quantity of gas to increase, keeping the gas at the initially measured temperature, the pressure p must decrease proportionally. Conversely, reducing the volume of the gas increases the pressure.

Boyle's law is commonly used to predict the result of introducing a change, in volume and pressure only, to the initial state of a fixed quantity of gas. The "before" and "after" volumes and pressures of the fixed amount of gas, where the "before" and "after" temperatures are the same (heating or cooling will be required to meet this condition), are related by the equation:

    p1V1 = p2V2

Boyle's law, Charles's Law, and Gay-Lussac's Law form the combined gas law. The three gas laws in combination with Avogadro's law can be generalized by the ideal gas law.

[edit] See also

    * Laws of science
    * Scientific laws named after people

[edit] References

   1. ^ Levine, Ira. N (1978). "Physical Chemistry" University of Brooklyn: McGraw-Hill Publishing
   2. ^ a b Levine, Ira. N. (1978), p12 gives the original definition.
   3. ^ a b c Levine, Ira. N. (1978), p11 notes that deviations occur with high pressures and temperatures.
   4. ^ a b c Levine, Ira. N. (1978), p400 -- Historical background of Boyle's law relation to Kinetic Theory

 

Offline Karen W.

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« Reply #31 on: 29/09/2007 19:33:39 »
Here is some good basic stuff, For Einstein! LOL

http://library.thinkquest.org/10429/low/gaslaws/gaslaws.htm
 

Offline Karen W.

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« Reply #32 on: 29/09/2007 19:37:35 »
Study this link of info and do the worksheet if you like I am going to give it a look see too! It looks way above my head.. But I will learn something anyways!

http://www.fordhamprep.org/gcurran/sho/sho/lessons/lesson73.htm



This is a worksheet designed to help you. You can print it out and do the calculations!

http://www.fordhamprep.org/gcurran/sho/sho/worksheets/worksht73a.htm
 

Offline Karen W.

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What are you studying in your Science Class this week?
« Reply #33 on: 29/09/2007 19:40:09 »
Maybe Dave can give or Paul can give us a couple experiments that will better help demontrate some of these gas ideas and promote my understanding better! LOL
 

Offline Simulated

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« Reply #34 on: 30/09/2007 23:46:08 »
Yeah all I need to know is whats in the text book! Thanks anyways Karen!
 

Offline Karen W.

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« Reply #35 on: 01/10/2007 03:43:02 »
Well Then Tell me what your text book says so we can talk about it?
 

Offline Simulated

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« Reply #36 on: 01/10/2007 14:27:49 »
Ben why ain't you in here?
 

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« Reply #37 on: 01/10/2007 15:56:34 »
Listening to my head scramble as I need to get ready to go!
 

Offline Simulated

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« Reply #38 on: 02/10/2007 22:50:00 »
Yeah test over all this stuff Thursday
 

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« Reply #39 on: 03/10/2007 00:14:30 »
It seems advanced for even me!
 

Offline Simulated

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« Reply #40 on: 03/10/2007 00:34:59 »
Yeah..It is
 

Offline Karen W.

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« Reply #41 on: 03/10/2007 00:51:19 »
 Thanks alot RYAN!!! LOL J/K
 

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What are you studying in your Science Class this week?
« Reply #42 on: 03/10/2007 05:41:36 »

 

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