The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists Forum

Author Topic: Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?  (Read 117577 times)

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #100 on: 14/01/2009 22:42:53 »
Silver, white, lustrous metallic element that conducts heat and electricity better than any other metal. Chemically silver is not very active. It is insoluble in dilute acids and in alkalis but dissolves in concentrated nitric or sulphuric acid, and it does not react with oxygen or water at ordinary temperatures. Sulphur and sulphides attack silver, and tarnishing is caused by the formation of silver sulphide on the surface of the metal. Eggs, which contain a considerable quantity of sulphur as a constituent of protein, tarnish silver extremely quickly. Small amounts of sulphide, which occurs naturally in the atmosphere and which, as hydrogen sulphide (H2S), is added to natural gas used domestically, tarnish silver. Silver ranks about 66th among elements in natural abundance in crustal rocks. It occurs in the pure state to a small extent. Pure silver is also found associated with pure gold in the form of an alloy known as electrum, and considerable amounts are recovered in the processing of gold.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #101 on: 16/01/2009 02:03:56 »
Cadmium, silvery-white metallic element that can easily be shaped. The element ranks about 65th in natural abundance among the elements in the Earth's crust. When heated, cadmium burns in air with a bright light, forming the oxide CdO. Cadmium may be electrolytically deposited as a coating on metals, chiefly iron or steel, on which it forms a chemically resistant coating. Cadmium lowers the melting point of metals with which it is alloyed; it is used with lead, tin, and bismuth in the manufacture of fusible metals for automatic sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and electric fuses. An alloy of cadmium with lead and zinc is used as a solder for iron. Cadmium salts are used in photography and in the manufacture of fireworks, rubber, fluorescent paints, glass, and porcelain. Cadmium has been used as a control or shielding material in atomic energy plants because of its high absorption of low-energy neutrons. Cadmiun sulphate (3CdSO4•8H2O) is used as an astringent. Cadmium sulphide (CdS), formed as a bright yellow precipitate when hydrogen sulphide is passed through a solution of cadmium salt, is an important pigment known as cadmium yellow. The selenide CdSe is also used as a pigment. Cadmium and solutions of its compounds are highly toxic, with cumulative effects similar to those of mercury poisoning.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #102 on: 16/01/2009 02:04:44 »
Indium, soft, malleable, silvery-white metallic element. The element is in group 13 of the periodic table. It ranks 63rd in order of abundance of the elements in the surface of the Earth. Indium never occurs as a free metal and is usually found as the sulphide In2S3; in certain zinc blendes; and in tungsten, tin, and iron ores. It is used as an alloying agent with non-ferrous metals, in bearing alloys, and in nuclear-reactor control rods. Certain indium compounds have unique semiconductor properties.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #103 on: 17/01/2009 00:05:33 »
Tin, metallic element that has been used by people since ancient times. Tin is in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin forms stannic acid, H2SnO4, when heated in air or oxygen at high temperatures. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid to form stannous chloride, SnCl2, and in aqua regia to form stannic chloride, SnCl4, and it reacts with sodium hydroxide solution to form sodium stannite and hydrogen gas. In cold and very dilute nitric acid, tin dissolves to form stannous nitrate and ammonium nitrate; in concentrated nitric acid, it produces metastannic acid, H2SnO3. The two hydroxides of tin, Sn(OH)2 and Sn(OH)4, are produced by adding a soluble hydroxide to solutions of stannous and stannic salts. Stannous oxide, SnO, a black insoluble powder, is obtained by heating stannous oxalate in the absence of air. In the presence of air, stannous oxide burns to form the dioxide, or stannic oxide, SnO2, a white insoluble solid. Tin is a widely sought metal and is used in hundreds of industrial processes throughout the world. In the form of tinplate, it is used as a protective coating for copper vessels, various metals used in the manufacture of tin cans, and similar articles. Tin is important in the production of the common alloys bronze (tin and copper), solder (tin and lead), and type metal (tin, lead, and antimony). It is also used as an alloy with titanium in the aerospace industry and as an ingredient in some insecticides. Stannic sulphide, known also as mosaic gold, is used in powdered form for bronzing articles made of plaster of paris or wood.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #104 on: 17/01/2009 00:06:57 »
Antimony, bluish-white, brittle, semi-metallic element. Antimony generally shows the properties of a metal, but sometimes shows those of a non-metal. It exists in several distinctly different physical forms, the most common of which is metallic in appearance. Antimony ranks about 64th in natural abundance among the elements in crustal rock. It occasionally occurs as a free element, usually associated with silver, arsenic, or bismuth. It crystallizes in the hexagonal system but crystals are rarely found. It has a hardness of 3. The principal ore of antimony is stibnite, a sulphide of antimony. Among the important compounds of antimony are tartar emetic, a double tartrate of antimony and potassium used as a medicinal agent; red antimony sulphide, used on safety matches and in vulcanizing rubber; glass of antimony, a mixture of antimony sulphide and oxide, used as a yellow pigment in glass and porcelain; and butter of antimony, antimony trichloride, used for bronzing steel, as a mordant in dyeing, and as a caustic in medicine.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #105 on: 18/01/2009 04:26:56 »
Tellurium (Latin, tellus, “Earth”), silver-white, brittle, semimetallic element. Tellurium is a comparatively stable element, insoluble in water and hydrochloric acid but soluble in nitric acid and aqua regia. Tellurium reacts with an excess of chlorine to form tellurium dichloride, TeCl2, and tellurium tetrachloride, TeCl4. It is oxidized by nitric acid to produce tellurium dioxide, TeO2, and by chromic acid to produce telluric acid, H6TeO6. In combination with hydrogen or certain metals, it forms tellurides such as hydrogen telluride, H2Te, and sodium telluride, Na2Te. Tellurium ranks about 78th in natural abundance among the elements in the Earth's crust. It occurs in the pure state or is found in combination with gold, silver, copper, lead, and nickel in such minerals as sylvanite, petzite, and tetradymite. Occasionally it is found in rocks as tellurite (or tellurium dioxide), TeO2. The slime from lead and copper refineries and the flue dust from telluride-gold deposits are the principal commercial sources. It is also prepared by reduction of telluric oxide, forming a greyish-white, metallic powder. Tellurium is used in the manufacture of rectifiers and thermoelectric devices and in semiconductor research. With other organic substances, it is employed as a vulcanizing agent in the processing of natural and synthetic rubber; and in antiknock compounds for petrol. It is used also to impart a blue colour to glass. Colloidal tellurium is an insecticide, germicide, and fungicide.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #106 on: 18/01/2009 04:28:42 »
Iodine, chemically reactive element, a blue-black solid at room temperature. In group 17 of the periodic table. Unlike the lighter halogens, iodine is a crystalline solid at room temperature. The lustrous, blue-black, soft substance sublimes when heated, giving off a violet vapour with a stinging odour like that of chlorine. The vapour rapidly condenses again on a cold surface. The only isotope that occurs in nature is stable, but several radioactive ones have been produced artificially. The element in its pure form is poisonous. Iodine, like all halogens, is chemically active. It is only slightly soluble in water, but it dissolves readily in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide. It is also soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and other organic reagents. Iodine is a relatively rare element, ranking about 62nd in abundance on Earth, but its compounds are widespread in sea water, soil, and rocks. Iodine is medicinally very important because it is an essential trace element, present in a hormone of the thyroid gland that is involved in growth-controlling and other metabolic functions. Without iodine, stunted growth and conditions such as goitre can result. Thus in areas where iodine is not sufficiently abundant naturally, iodine-containing salt serves to make up the deficit. In medicine, iodine-alcohol solutions and iodine complexes have been used as antiseptics and disinfectants. More broadly, various iodine compounds find use in photography, the making of dyes, and cloud-seeding operations. In chemistry, various iodine compounds serve as strong oxidizing agents, among other uses.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #107 on: 19/01/2009 03:14:32 »
Xenon, symbol Xe, colourless, odourless gaseous element with an atomic number of 54. In group 18 of the periodic table, xenon is one of the noble gases. Xenon was discovered in England by William Ramsay and Morris Travers on July 12, 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon. Naturally occurring xenon is made of nine stable isotopes, the most of any element with the exception of tin, which has ten. It was formerly believed to be chemically inert, but since 1962 several compounds of xenon have been prepared. Xenon hexafluoroplatinate was the first chemical compound of xenon. Xenon is used principally in such lighting devices as high-speed photographic tubes. Xenon is present in the atmosphere in minute amounts.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #108 on: 19/01/2009 03:16:15 »
Caesium, symbol Cs, white, soft, chemically reactive metallic element. In group 1 of the periodic table, caesium is one of the alkali metals. Caesium ranks about 46th in natural abundance among the elements in crustal rocks. The natural source yielding the greatest quantity of caesium is the rare mineral pollux (or pollucite). Caesium also occurs in lepidolite, carnallite, and certain feldspars. It is extracted by separating the caesium compound from the mineral, transforming the compound thus obtained into the cyanide, and electrolysis of the fused cyanide. Caesium can also be obtained by heating its hydroxides or carbonates with magnesium or aluminium and by heating its chlorides with calcium. Commercial caesium usually contains rubidium, with which it usually occurs in minerals and which resembles it so closely that no effort is made to separate them. Like potassium, caesium oxidizes readily when exposed to air and is thus used to remove residual oxygen from radio vacuum tubes. Because of its property of emitting electrons when exposed to light, it is used in the photosensitive surface of the cathode of the photoelectric cell. The radioactive isotope caesium-137, which is produced by nuclear fission, is a useful by-product of atomic-energy plants. Caesium-137 emits more energy than radium and is used in medical and industrial research, for example as an Isotopic Tracer.
 

Offline lightarrow

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 4586
  • Thanked: 7 times
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #109 on: 19/01/2009 14:30:42 »
Rubidium and Caesium in water:
« Last Edit: 19/01/2009 14:33:03 by lightarrow »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #110 on: 19/01/2009 21:47:42 »
Barium, soft, silvery, highly reactive metal. Barium was first isolated in 1808 by the English scientist Sir Humphry Davy. The element reacts vigorously with water and rapidly corrodes in moist air. In fact, the element is so reactive that it only occurs in nature as a compound. Its most important compounds are the minerals barium sulphate and barium carbonate (witherite), BaCO3. An alkaline earth metal, barium is the 14th most common element, making up 1/2000th of the crust of the Earth. Barium metal has few practical applications, although it is sometimes used in coating electrical conductors in electronic apparatus and in car ignition systems. Barium sulphate (BaSO4) is used as a filler for rubber products, in paint, and in linoleum. Barium nitrate is used in fireworks, and barium carbonate in rat poisons. A form of barium sulphate, which is opaque to X-rays, is used for the X-ray examination of the gastrointestinal tract
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #111 on: 19/01/2009 21:49:48 »
Lanthanum (Greek lanthanein, “to escape notice”). Lanthanum is often regarded as the first member of the lanthanide series, to which it gives its name. It burns in air at about 450° C to form lanthanum oxide, La2O3. It forms colourless trivalent salts, including one of the strongest trivalent bases, which is used by analytical chemists. It generally occurs with other rare earth elements in such minerals as apatite and monazite and in certain kinds of calcite and fluorspar. It is fairly common, ranking 28th in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Impure lanthanum is used in alloys such as misch metal, of which lanthanum is a major constituent. Cigarette-lighter flints are made from this alloy. Lanthanum oxide is used in certain types of optical glass.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #112 on: 20/01/2009 23:55:24 »
Cerium, soft, grey metallic element that is the most abundant of the rare earth elements. Cerium ranks 26th in natural abundance among the elements in the Earth's crust. It occurs with other rare earth metals in monazite, which is found widely distributed worldwide. It also occurs in the minerals cerite, found in Sweden, and allanite, found in Greenland and the United States. Metallic cerium is chiefly found in an iron alloy that composes the flints used in cigarette lighters. Ceric oxide was formerly employed in the manufacture of gas mantles. Compounds of cerium are employed in small quantities in the manufacture of glass, ceramics, arc-lamp electrodes, and photoelectric cells. Cerous nitrate has been used medicinally in the treatment of seasickness and chronic vomiting. Ceric sulphate is used as an oxidizing agent.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #113 on: 20/01/2009 23:56:33 »
Praseodymium, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 59. Praseodymium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Praseodymium was discovered in 1885 by the German chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach, who separated it from neodymium. A mixture of the two elements had formerly been considered a single element, called didymium. Praseodymium is a paramagnetic metal that corrodes rapidly in moist air. It forms green trivalent salts. Praseodymium is widely distributed in nature and ranks 37th in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth. It is found in cerite and other rare earth minerals. It is used, with small amounts of other rare earth metals, in magnesium alloys and in misch metal, an alloy used for cigarette-lighter flints and as a deoxidizer in alloys and vacuum tubes. A mixture of praseodymium and neodymium is used to tint goggles for welders.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #114 on: 21/01/2009 22:38:02 »
Neodymium, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 60. Neodymium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Neodymium and praseodymium had previously been regarded as a single element, called didymium. Neodymium ranks 27th in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. It forms trivalent salts, which are rose-red or reddish-violet in colour. The metal's oxide, Nd2O3, is used in the glass of colour-television tubes to increase contrast, and in lasers
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #115 on: 21/01/2009 22:38:48 »
Promethium, radioactive metallic element with an atomic number of 61. Promethium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Promethium was one of the last elements to be identified. In 1926 evidence from spectroscopic analysis indicated the existence of the element in various minerals, and the names illinium and florentium were proposed for the element. The fission of uranium is known to produce several radioactive isotopes with atomic number 61. Isotopes with mass numbers from 134 to 155 have been investigated. The most stable isotope of promethium, which has a mass number of 147, has a half-life of 2.6 years; visible amounts of this isotope have been prepared. The metal has been used in atomic batteries and as a beta-particle source in thickness gauges.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #116 on: 22/01/2009 00:36:47 »
Please stick to the order the elements appear in the periodic table..
 

Offline erickejah

  • Sr. Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 347
  • Parking? I make my own parking spot!!
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #117 on: 22/01/2009 01:48:08 »
Please stick to the order the elements appear in the periodic table..
done
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #118 on: 22/01/2009 20:49:22 »
Samarium, hard, brittle, lustrous metallic element. Samarium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. The metal ignites in air at about 150°C. Like other rare earth metals, it is found in minerals such as cerite, gadolinite, and samarskite. It is 40th in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Samarium forms chiefly trivalent compounds; the salts are pale yellow in colour. Samarium oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #119 on: 22/01/2009 20:50:01 »
Europium, soft, silvery metallic element that is among the least abundant of the rare earth elements. Europium is in the lanthanide series of the periodic table.It ranks 50th in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust; it occurs in monazite, bastnaesite, and other rare earth minerals, as well as in fission products of uranium, thorium, and plutonium. Europium is used as a phosphor activator. The screen of a colour-television tube is treated with europium, which, when bombarded with electrons, produces the colour red. Because it readily absorbs neutrons, europium is used in the control of nuclear fission in reactors
 

Offline erickejah

  • Sr. Member
  • ****
  • Posts: 347
  • Parking? I make my own parking spot!!
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #120 on: 22/01/2009 23:12:17 »
Rubidium and Caesium in water:
I wonder how much Caesium cost??
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #121 on: 22/01/2009 23:15:24 »
Have a look here
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #122 on: 23/01/2009 20:54:08 »
Gadolinium, silvery-white metallic element. Gadolinium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Gadolinium occurs with other rare earth elements in many minerals, such as samarskite, gadolinite, monazite, and some varieties of Norwegian ytterspar. It is the 41st element in order of abundance in the crust of the Earth. Gadolinium oxide was first separated from other rare earth elements by the Swiss chemist Jean de Marignac in 1880. The oxide and many salts of gadolinium have been prepared. Gadolinium oxide is white and the salts are colourless. Because gadolinium has the largest known cross section, or stopping power, for neutrons of any element, it is used as a component of control rods in nuclear reactors. Like the other rare earth elements, it is used in electronic apparatus such as capacitors and masers; in metal alloys; in high-temperature furnaces; and in apparatus for magnetic cooling.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #123 on: 23/01/2009 20:55:12 »
Terbium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. It ranks about 58th in natural abundance among the elements in crustal rock. It occurs in minute quantities as a white oxide known as terbia, Tb2O3, in such minerals as gadolinite. Terbium has potential applications in alloys, refractory (high-temperature) materials, and electronic apparatus.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

  • Neilep Level Member
  • ******
  • Posts: 7709
    • View Profile
Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #124 on: 25/01/2009 01:06:47 »
Dysprosium, metallic element. Dysprosium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. Dysprosium is 42nd in abundance among the elements in the Earth's crust. The compounds of dysprosium are found in gadolinite, xenotime, euxenite, and fergusonite in Norway, the United States, Brazil, India, and Australia. Its salts are either yellow or yellow-green in colour, the most common being a chloride (DyCl3), a nitrate (Dy(NO3)3•5H2O), and a sulphate (Dy2(SO4)3•8H2O). The salts of dysprosium have an extremely high magnetic susceptibility. Dysprosium usually occurs as the white oxide dysprosia (Dy2O3), with erbium and holmium, two other rare earth elements. Dysprosia is sometimes used in the control rods of nuclear reactors
 

The Naked Scientists Forum

Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #124 on: 25/01/2009 01:06:47 »

 

SMF 2.0.10 | SMF © 2015, Simple Machines
SMFAds for Free Forums