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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #150 on: 06/02/2009 22:33:06 »
Uranium, chemically reactive radioactive metallic element that is the main fuel used in nuclear reactors. Uranium has three crystalline forms, of which the one that forms at about 770° C  is malleable and ductile. Uranium is soluble in hydrochloric and nitric acids, and it is insoluble in alkalis. Uranium displaces hydrogen from mineral acids and from the salt solutions of such metals as mercury, silver, copper, tin, platinum, and gold. When finally divided, it burns readily in air at 150°to 175°C. At 1000° C , uranium combines with nitrogen to form a yellow nitride. Uranium never occurs naturally in the free state but is found as an oxide or complex salt in minerals such as pitchblende and carnotite. It has an average concentration in the crust of the Earth of about 2 parts per million, and, among the elements, ranks about 48th in natural abundance in crustal rocks. Pure uranium consists of more than 99 per cent of the isotope uranium-238, less than 1 per cent of the fissile isotope uranium-235, and a trace of uranium-234, formed by radioactive decay of uranium-238. In the classical procedure for extracting uranium, pitchblende is broken up and mixed with sulphuric and nitric acids.
Uranium dissolves to form uranyl sulphate, UO2SO4; radium and other metals in the pitchblende ore are precipitated as sulphates. With the addition of sodium hydroxide, uranium is precipitated as sodium diuranate, Na2U2O7•6H2O, known also as the yellow oxide of uranium.  After the discovery of nuclear fission, uranium became a strategic metal, and its uses were at first restricted mainly to the production of nuclear weapons. In 1954 the United States government relaxed controls to permit leasing of uranium enriched in the isotope uranium-235 to various private and foreign agencies for the development of nuclear power. The potential of uranium as a vast source of industrial power became apparent with the launching in 1954 of the first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus. Conventional power plants producing 60,000 kW of electricity consume about 18 million kg of coal per month. A 60,000 kW nuclear power plant requires only 7kg of uranium-235 per month.
 

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« Reply #151 on: 08/02/2009 01:03:58 »
Neptunium, radioactive metallic element with an atomic number of 93. Neptunium is one of the transuranic elements in the actinide series of the periodic table. Neptunium is a silvery metal that exists in at least three different crystalline forms, hence the variations in relative density (from 18 to 20). The element is reactive and shows four ionic oxidation states. It is produced by bombardment of uranium-238 with neutrons; the resultant uranium-239 decays radioactively by emitting a beta particle to form neptunium-239. The neptunium isotope in turn emits a beta particle, forming the important isotope plutonium-239, one of the materials of which atomic bombs are made. Isotopes of neptunium with mass numbers from 228 to 242 are known. The most stable, neptunium-237, has a half-life of 2.14 million years. Neptunium occurs in nature in trace amounts in uranium ores but is produced artificially. It is used as a component in neutron detection devices.
 

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« Reply #152 on: 08/02/2009 01:05:18 »
Plutonium, radioactive metallic element that is used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Trace amounts of the element have been found in uranium ores, but plutonium is prepared in relatively large quantities today in nuclear reactors. Chemically, plutonium is reactive, its properties resembling those of the rare earth elements. The silvery metal, which becomes slightly yellow through oxidation caused by exposure to air, exists in six crystalline forms and has four different oxidation states. The metal gives off heat because of its radioactivity; 15 different isotopes of plutonium, ranging in mass number from 232 to 246, are known. The most important isotope, plutonium-239, has a half-life of 24,360 years, and is produced by   bombarding uranium-238 with slow neutrons. This forms neptunium-239, which in turn emits a beta particle and forms plutonium-239. Plutonium is the most economically important of the transuranic elements because plutonium-239 readily undergoes fission and can be both used and produced in quantity in nuclear reactors. It is also used in making nuclear weapons. It is an extremely hazardous poison due to its high radioactivity. Plutonium-238 has been used to power equipment on the Moon by means of the heat it emits.
 

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« Reply #153 on: 09/02/2009 03:01:40 »
Americium, symbol Am, artificially created, malleable, radioactive metallic element somewhat similar to lead. It was discovered in 1944 and 1945 by the American physicist Glenn Seaborg and his associates at the University of Chicago. They synthesized the americium isotope of mass number 241 by bombarding plutonium 239 with neutrons. Americium isotopes with mass numbers 237 to 247 have been formed; they are all radioactive, with half-lives of from 0.9 minute (americium 232) to about 7,400 years (americium 243). Americium 243 is used as target material in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators for the production of even heavier synthetic elements.
 

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« Reply #154 on: 09/02/2009 03:02:43 »
Curium, symbol Cm, radioactive element with an atomic number of 96. The element is made by bombarding the synthetic element plutonium with accelerated particles. Curium is a heavy metal similar in properties to uranium, plutonium, and americium. Thirteen isotopes, ranging in mass number from 238 to 250, have been discovered; the most stable isotope of curium has an atomic weight of 247. Most isotopes of curium decay by emission of alpha particles; because alpha radiation is not highly penetrating, curium isotopes, particularly curium-244, can be used without heavy shielding as sources of thermoelectric power for use in satellites and crewless space probes. In another application, curium-242 carried to the Moon by the Surveyor 5, 6, and 7 spacecraft was used to bombard the soil of the Moon with alpha particles. Measurements of the energy of alpha radiation backscattered from the soil revealed the kind and quantity of chemical elements in the soil.
 

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« Reply #155 on: 09/02/2009 03:03:10 »
Berkelium, artificially created radioactive metallic element. An isotope of mass number 243 with a half-life of 4.6 hours was produced by bombarding americium-241 with alpha particles accelerated in a particle accelerator called a cyclotron. Nine more isotopes were subsequently produced, bringing the total range of mass numbers from 242 to 251. The most stable isotope of berkelium, with a half-life of about 1,400 years, has a mass number of 247.
 

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« Reply #156 on: 09/02/2009 03:03:47 »
Californium, symbol Cf, artificially created radioactive element with an atomic number of 98. The scientists created californium-245 by bombarding curium-242 with alpha particles in a 152-cm cyclotron, a type of particle accelerator. Californium-245 rapidly decays, with the emission of alpha particles, having a half-life of 44 minutes. Isotopes, with mass numbers from 240 to 255, were subsequently prepared. Californium-249 is the result of beta decay of berkelium-249. The heavier californium isotopes are produced by neutron bombardment of berkelium-249, which increases the number of protons in the nucleus. Californium-252, with a half-life of 2.6 years, has an unusually high rate of spontaneous fission, with an abundant emission of neutrons. It has practical application as a high-intensity neutron source in electronic systems and in medical research. The most stable isotope of californium, with a half-life of about 900 years, has a mass number of 245.
 

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« Reply #157 on: 09/02/2009 03:04:54 »
Einsteinium, symbol Es, artificially created radioactive element with an atomic number of 99. Isotopes of einsteinium with mass numbers ranging from 243 to 256 are known. The element was discovered in 1952 in the debris produced by a thermonuclear explosion. The isotope first identified had an atomic mass of 253 and a half-life of 20 days. Subsequently, the most long-lived of all the known einsteinium isotopes, einsteinium-254, was prepared by irradiating plutonium in a nuclear reactor; however, only small amounts are now being produced.
 

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« Reply #158 on: 09/02/2009 03:05:28 »
Fermium, artificially created radioactive element with an atomic number of 100. Subsequently fermium was prepared synthetically in a nuclear reactor by bombarding plutonium with neutrons and in a cyclotron by bombarding uranium-238 with nitrogen ions. Isotopes with mass numbers from 242 to 259 have been produced; fermium-257, the longest-lived of these isotopes, has a half-life of 80 days. The element was named fermium in 1955 in honour of the Italian-American nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi. Fermium does not have any industrial applications.
 

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #159 on: 09/02/2009 10:10:24 »
what is the role of solutions[solute+solvent in chemistry?
 

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« Reply #160 on: 10/02/2009 02:51:42 »
No please, not in this thread.
 

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« Reply #161 on: 10/02/2009 03:22:04 »
Mendelevium, symbol Md, artificially created radioactive element with an atomic number of 101. Named after the Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev, mendelevium-256 was discovered in 1955 at the University of California, Berkeley; it was produced by bombarding einsteinium-253 with alpha particles accelerated in a cyclotron. The isotope produced had a half-life of about 1.3 hours. The most stable isotope, mendelevium-258, has a half-life of 54 days.
 

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« Reply #162 on: 10/02/2009 03:22:52 »
Nobelium, symbol No, radioactive metallic element with an atomic number of 102. The element is named after the Swedish inventor and philanthropist Alfred Bernhard Nobel. Nobelium is not found in nature but is produced artificially in the laboratory. The isotope was created by bombarding curium isotopes with carbon ions. Chemically, the properties of nobelium are unknown, but because it is an actinide, its properties should somewhat resemble those of the rare earth elements. Isotopes with mass numbers from 250 to 259 and 262 are known. The most stable isotope, nobelium-259, has a half-life of 58 minutes. The most common isotope, nobelium-255, has a half-life of a few minutes.
 

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« Reply #163 on: 10/02/2009 03:23:52 »
Lawrencium, symbol Lr, artificially created radioactive metallic element with an atomic number of 103. Named in honour of the American physicist Ernest Lawrence. A mixture of californium isotopes was bombarded with boron ions to produce short-lived lawrencium isotopes. Isotopes with mass numbers from 255 to 260 have been prepared. The most stable isotope, with a half-life of about 3 minutes, has a mass number of 260. Only small amounts of lawrencium have been produced.
 

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« Reply #164 on: 10/02/2009 03:25:35 »
Rutherfordium, unstable chemical element with atomic number 104. Russian scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, who claimed to have synthesized the element in 1964, proposed the name kurchatovium, in honour of Russian atomic physicist I. V. Kurchatov. According to a convention adopted in 1980 for naming elements 104 and beyond, however, the element was named unnilquadium. In 1997 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted the recommendation of the American Chemical Society to name the element rutherfordium. Modern atomic theory  predicts that element 104 would be chemically similar to hafnium. At least 14 isotopes of rutherfordium have been synthesized.
 

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« Reply #165 on: 11/02/2009 03:12:41 »
Dubnium, symbol Db, produced artificially by nuclear fusion. Each dubnium atom has a very large nucleus. The large number of particles in the nucleus makes the atom unstable and causes the atom to split apart into smaller components soon after it is created. Element 105 was previously called hahnium, after German physical chemist Otto Hahn. Russian scientists first created dubnium by bombarding atoms of the element americium with neon atoms, creating unstable dubnium isotopes. Because the nucleus of the dubnium atom contains so many particles, the atom undergoes spontaneous fission, a process in which the atom quickly breaks into smaller “daughter” components. In 1970, scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the United States produced dubnium-260 through high-speed collisions of californium atoms with nitrogen atoms, yielding an element with a lifespan of 3.0 seconds.
Dubnium-262, the most stable isotope of element 105 was produced in 1970 and 1971, which has a lifespan of 68 seconds. Scientists expected dubnium to be a corrosion-resistant, shiny, silvery metal that reacts with oxygen under certain conditions. However, scientific observations reveal that dubnium deviates from other Group 5 elements, and appears to share complex properties of the elements plutonium and protactinium instead. Scientists theorize that the properties of dubnium may diverge from other Group 5 elements because the massive positive charge of all the protons in the Db nucleus causes the surrounding electrons to orbit at rates approaching the speed of light. This phenomenon, known as the relativistic effect, may alter the expected paths of the electrons spinning around the dubnium nucleus, possibly affecting the chemical properties of this element.
 

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« Reply #166 on: 11/02/2009 03:15:59 »
Seaborgium, symbol Sg, it is produced artificially by nuclear fusion. The large number of particles in the nucleus makes the atom unstable and causes the atom to split apart into smaller components soon after it is created. The IUPAC named element 106 seaborgium to honour Nobel Laureate Glenn T. Seaborg, who co-discovered plutonium and nine other transuranic elements. Seaborgium, which was previously called unnilhexium, is the first element that was named after a living person. The scientists made seaborgium by the nuclear fusion of the smaller elements californium and oxygen. Scientists at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, also produced seaborgium at nearly the same time in 1974. The Berkeley scientists discovered seaborgium-263, an isotope with a lifespan of about 1.6 seconds. A joint research effort between American and Russian scientists produced the most stable isotopes of element 106, seaborgium-265 and seaborgium-266, with a lifespan of about 32 seconds and 40 seconds, respectively. The most stable isotope of this element is the seaborgium-266. Scientists expected seaborgium to share properties with other Group 6 elements. Supporting this expectation, scientists have found that seaborgium forms the chemical complex, SgO2Cl2, with chlorine and oxygen. This complex is analogous to complexes that molybdenum and tungsten form with chlorine and oxygen.
 

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« Reply #167 on: 11/02/2009 03:17:39 »
Bohrium, it is produced artificially by nuclear fusion. The IUPAC changed the name of element 107 from unnilseptium to bohrium to honour Danish physicist and Nobel laureate Niels Bohr, who made important contributions to nuclear physics and the understanding of atomic structure. Bohrium was first created in 1981 by researchers at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany, by the nuclear fusion of two smaller elements, bismuth and chromium. German scientists at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory created bohrium-262, an isotope with a lifespan of only 0.204 seconds. It is the most stable isotope of element 107. Bohrium belongs to Group 7 in the periodic table. Manganese, technetium, and rhenium all form stable oxides, are all metallic solids with melting points above 1200° C , and all readily dissolve in acids. Because elements in the same group, or column, on the periodic table often share similar properties, scientists expect bohrium to share properties with other Group 7 elements. However, because of the limited amount of bohrium that can be produced and its short lifespan, scientists have been unable to determine the chemical properties of this unstable element.
 

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« Reply #168 on: 12/02/2009 02:45:14 »
Hassium, symbol Hs. It is produced artificially by nuclear fusion. In 1997, the IUPAC named element 108 hassium, which was previously called unniloctium, to honour the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany. Researchers at this laboratory discovered elements 107, 108, 109, 111, and 112. The name “hassium” is derived from the German state Hassia, which is where the research was performed. Hassium was first created in 1984 by nuclear fusion of the smaller elements lead and iron. Scientists at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory discovered hassium-265, an isotope with a lifespan of only 0.0036 seconds. The most stable isotope of element 108 is hassium-263, which has a lifespan of 2 seconds. Hassium belongs to Group 8 (VIIIb) on the periodic table together with iron, ruthenium, and osmium which are all shiny, silvery metallic solids with melting points above 1500° C. These elements form stable oxides. Because elements in the same group, or column, on the periodic table often share similar properties, scientists expect hassium to share properties with other Group 8 elements. However, because of the limited amount of hassium that can be produced, and its short lifespan, scientists have been unable to determine the chemical properties of this unstable element.
 

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« Reply #169 on: 12/02/2009 02:47:43 »
Meitnerium, symbol Mt. The IUPAC changed the name of element 109 from unnilennium to meitnerium in order to honour Austrian-Swedish physicist Lise Meitner, a pioneer in the field of nuclear fission. Meitnerium was first created in 1982 by researchers at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany, by nuclear fusion of the smaller elements bismuth and iron. Because the meitnerium nucleus contains so many particles, meitnerium is unstable. German scientists at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory created meitnerium-266, an isotope with a lifespan of only 0.0068 seconds. The most stable isotope of element 109 is meitnerium-268, which has a lifespan of 0.14 seconds. Meitnerium belongs to Group 9 on the periodic table, which also includes cobalt, rhodium, and iridium which are shiny, silvery metallic elements with melting points above 1500°C. Scientists expect meitnerium to share properties with other Group 9 elements. However, because of the limited amount of meitnerium that can be produced, and its short lifespan, scientists have been unable to determine the chemical properties of this unstable element.
 

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« Reply #170 on: 12/02/2009 02:49:15 »
Darmstadtium, symbol Ds, previously called ununnilium. It is produced artificially by nuclear fusion. Darmstadtium was created by nuclear fusion of the smaller elements lead and nickel. Because the darmstadtium nucleus contains so many particles, darmstadtium is unstable. German scientists at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory discovered darmstadtium-269, an isotope with a lifespan of only 0.0022 seconds. Bombarding lead with nickel for over two days in the German laboratory produced only three atoms of darmstadtium. The most stable isotope of darmstadtium is darmstadtium-271 which has a lifespan of 0.0172 seconds. Darmstadtium belongs to Group 10 on the periodic table, which also includes the naturally occurring elements nickel, palladium, and platinum which are all whitish-silver, shiny metals that are both malleable and ductile. Under normal conditions, these metals are resistant to corrosion, each forms a complex with four chloride ions, and all react with oxygen when heated. Because of the limited amount of darmstadtium that can be produced, and its extremely short lifespan, scientists have been unable to fully determine the chemical properties of this highly unstable element.
 

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« Reply #171 on: 12/02/2009 02:50:36 »
Roentgenium, symbol Rg, previously called unununium. It was named roentgenium in 2004 after the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, the discoverer of X-rays. Roentgenium was created by nuclear fusion of the smaller elements bismuth and nickel. Because the roentgenium nucleus contains so many particles, roentgenium is unstable. Roentgenium-272, the first confirmed isotope of the element, has a very brief lifespan of 0.003 seconds. Roentgenium-279, with a lifespan of 0.34 seconds, and roentgenium-280, with a lifespan of 7.2 seconds, have since been created. Roentgenium belongs to Group 11 on the periodic table, which also contains the naturally occurring elements copper, silver, and gold which all have the ability to conduct heat and electricity, and to form alloys with other metals. Scientists expect roentgenium to share properties with other Group 11 elements. However, because of the very limited amount of roentgenium that has been produced, and its extremely short lifespan, scientists have been unable to fully determine the chemical properties of this unstable element.
 

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« Reply #172 on: 12/02/2009 02:51:54 »
Ununbium, symbol Uub. chemical element with atomic number 112. Scientists at the Heavy-Ion Research Laboratory created an atom of ununbium that contained 165 neutrons, labelled ununbium-277. Ununbium was created by nuclear fusion of the smaller elements lead and zinc. Ununbium-277 has a very brief lifespan of 0.00048 seconds. By 1998, ununbium-277 was the only confirmed isotope of ununbium. Other isotopes of ununbium would be forms of the element with the same number of protons in the nucleus, but a different number of neutrons. Ununbium belongs to Group 12 on the periodic table, which also contains the naturally occurring elements zinc, cadmium, and mercury which have high boiling points and low melting points, they are all reactive with oxygen, sulphur, and the halogens. Because elements in the same group, or column, on the periodic table often share similar properties, scientists expect ununbium to share properties with other Group 12 elements. However, because of the very limited amount of ununbium that has been produced, and its extremely short lifespan, scientists have been unable to determine the chemical properties of this unstable element.
 

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« Reply #173 on: 12/02/2009 02:54:28 »
Ununquadium, symbol Uuq, chemical element with atomic number 114. The element is not found in nature but can be produced artificially by nuclear fusion. Ununquadium belongs to Group 14, a column of the periodic table that also contains naturally occurring elements such as tin and lead. Because elements in the same group of the periodic table often share similar properties, scientists expect ununquadium’s properties to resemble those of tin and lead. Scientists have been unable to examine ununquadium’s chemical properties, however, because of the limited amount and short life span of the isotope of ununquadium that has been produced. Scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, produced an atom of ununquadium late in 1998. They produced the new element artificially by using a particle accelerator to bombard a plutonium target with a highly accelerated beam of calcium atoms. When a calcium atom slammed into a plutonium atom in just the right way, they apparently fused into an isotope of ununquadium, called ununquadium-289. The super-heavy ununquadium-289 isotope produced at Dubna took about 30 seconds to decay; all other known atoms with similar numbers of particles packed into their nuclei decay in a fraction of a second.
 

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« Reply #174 on: 12/02/2009 03:03:04 »
Ununpentium, chemical element with an atomic number of 115 it is presumably a solid at 298 K, and probably metallic and silvery white or grey in appearance. Not commercially available. Experiments resulting in the formation of element 115 were reported on the 2nd February 2004. Only four nuclei were identified and the claim has not yet been ratified, but the results are now published in a reputable peer-reviewed journal. Currently, the identification of element 115 is yet to be confirmed by IUPAC, but the experiments leading to element 115 are now published in a prestigious peer reviewed journal. Atoms of americium-243 were bombarded with ions of calcium-48 using a device called a cyclotron. This produced one atom of ununpentium-287 and three atoms of ununpentium-288. All four atoms quickly decayed into other elements.  These decays resulted in isotopes of element 113. These isotopes of element 113 are also radioactive and underwent further a-decay processes to isotopes of element 111 and so on down to at least element 105. Ununpentium’s most stable isotope, ununpentium-228, has a half-life of about 87 milliseconds. It decays into ununtrium-284 through alpha decay..Since only a few atoms of ununpentium have ever been produced, it currently has no uses outside of basic scientific research.
 

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