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Author Topic: Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?  (Read 117716 times)

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #25 on: 02/01/2009 00:51:08 »
Are you asking me to find a compound of sodium that is insoluble? I could do with a bit of homework right now :P :P
« Last Edit: 02/01/2009 08:33:16 by Chemistry4me »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #26 on: 02/01/2009 00:54:49 »
Well, according to Wikipedia: There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25•4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4. Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7•H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form. So I guess any of those will do to precipitate Na out of solution... unless I have misunderstood your question :)


« Last Edit: 02/01/2009 03:22:59 by Chemistry4me »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #27 on: 02/01/2009 03:20:25 »
Aluminium, the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust. The element is in group 13 of the periodic table. Aluminium is a strongly electropositive metal and extremely reactive. In contact with air, aluminium rapidly becomes covered with a tough, transparent layer of aluminium oxide that resists further corrosive action. For this reason, materials made of aluminium do not tarnish or rust. The metal reduces many other metallic compounds to their base metals. For example, when thermite (a mixture of powdered iron oxide and aluminium) is heated, the aluminium rapidly removes the oxygen from the iron; the heat of the reaction is sufficient to melt the iron. This phenomenon is used in the Thermit process for welding iron. The metal is becoming increasingly important architecturally, for both structural and ornamental purposes. Aluminium siding, storm windows, and foil make excellent insulators. The metal is also used as a material in low-temperature nuclear reactors because it absorbs relatively few neutrons. Aluminium becomes stronger and retains its toughness as it gets colder and is therefore used at cryogenic temperatures. Because of its light weight, ease of forming, and compatibility with foods and beverages, aluminium is widely used for containers, flexible packages, and easy-to-open bottles and cans.
 

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #28 on: 02/01/2009 05:19:01 »
Silicon, semimetallic element that is the second most common element on Earth, after oxygen. Silicon is prepared as a brown amorphous powder or as grey-black crystals. It is obtained by heating silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO2), with a reducing agent, such as carbon or magnesium, in an electric furnace. Silicon is not attacked by nitric, hydrochloric, or suphuric acids, but it dissolves in hydrofluoric acid. It dissolves in sodium hydroxide, forming sodium silicate and hydrogen gas. At ordinary temperatures silicon is impervious to air, but at high temperatures it reacts with oxygen, forming a layer of silica that does not react further. At high temperatures it also reacts with nitrogen and chlorine to form silicon nitride and silicon chloride. Silicon constitutes about 28 per cent of the Earth's crust. It does not occur in the free, elemental state, but is found in the form of silicon dioxide and in the form of complex silicates. Silicon-containing minerals constitute nearly 40 per cent of all common minerals, including more than 90 per cent of igneous-rock-forming minerals. The mineral quartz, varieties of quartz (such as cornelian, chrysoprase, onyx, flint, and jasper), and the minerals cristobalite and tridymite are the naturally occurring crystal forms of silica. Silicon dioxide is the principal constituent of sand. Silicon is a semiconductor, in which the resistivity to the flow of electricity at room temperature is in the range between that of metals and that of insulators.
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #29 on: 02/01/2009 16:54:18 »
Well, according to Wikipedia: There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25•4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4. Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7•H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form. So I guess any of those will do to precipitate Na out of solution... unless I have misunderstood your question :)

It's too simple! To precipitate sodium from a solution into an insoluble salt of sodium, you have to find a chemical which instead is soluble! If, e.g., you want to precipitate sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, you should show me how this pure compund can form adding some chemical to the Na+ solution. Does it exist, for example, a soluble bismuthate which forms BiO3- ions in solution and that this ions react with Na+ ions forming pure sodium bismuthate?
« Last Edit: 02/01/2009 17:00:38 by lightarrow »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #30 on: 03/01/2009 01:25:17 »
Oh... right, okay, let me see....
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #31 on: 03/01/2009 01:44:22 »
Hmm... this is harder than I thought.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #32 on: 03/01/2009 01:56:55 »
What do you define as soluble or insoluble?
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #33 on: 03/01/2009 02:16:44 »
Okay, sodium uranate can be prepared by reacting U3O8 with sodium carbonate
That's about the only one I can find at the moment
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #34 on: 03/01/2009 02:19:57 »
Phosphorus, reactive non-metallic element that is important to living organisms and has many industrial uses. Phosphorus is in group 15 of the periodic table. Phosphorus exists in three main allotropic forms: ordinary (or white) phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. Of these, only white and red phosphorus are of commercial importance. When freshly prepared, ordinary phosphorus is white, but it turns light yellow when exposed to sunlight. It is a crystalline, translucent, waxy solid, which glows faintly in moist air and is extremely poisonous. It ignites spontaneously in air at 34° C and must be stored under water. It is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in organic solvents, and very soluble in carbon disulphide. It does not occur in the free state but is found mostly as a phosphate, as in phosphate rock and apatite. It is also found in the combined state in all fertile soil and in many natural waters. Red phosphorus is a microcrystalline, non-poisonous powder. It sublimates at 416° C and has a relative density of 2.34. Black phosphorus is made by heating white phosphorus at 200° C  at very high pressure. The most important commercial compounds of phosphorus are phosphoric acid and the salts of phosphoric acid, called phosphates. The bulk of phosphorus-containing compounds are used as fertilizers. Phosphorous compounds are also used in clarifying sugar solutions, weighing silk, and fireproofing, and in such alloys as phosphor bronze and phosphor copper. White phosphorus is used in the making of rat poison, and red phosphorus is used in matches.
 

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« Reply #35 on: 03/01/2009 02:22:22 »
Sulphur, tasteless, odourless, light yellow non-metallic element. All forms of sulphur are insoluble in water, but the crystalline forms are soluble in carbon disulphide. When ordinary sulphur melts, it forms a straw-coloured liquid that turns darker with additional heating and then finally boils. When molten sulphur is slowly cooled, its physical properties change in accordance with the temperature, pressure, and method of crust formation. Sulphur thus exists in a variety of forms called allotropic modifications, which consist of the liquids Sλ, and Sµ, and several solid varieties. Sulphur combines with hydrogen and the metallic elements in the presence of heat to form sulphides. The most common sulphide is hydrogen sulphide, H2S, a colourless, poisonous gas with the odour of rotten eggs. Sulphur combines also with chlorine in several proportions to produce sulphur monochloride, S2Cl2, and sulphur dichloride, SCl2. When burned in air, sulphur combines with oxygen to form sulphur dioxide, SO2, a heavy, colourless gas with a characteristic, suffocating odour. Sulphur dioxide is released into the atmosphere in the combustion of fossil fuels, such as gas, petroleum, and coal, and constitutes one of the most troublesome air pollutants.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #36 on: 03/01/2009 05:30:11 »
It's too simple! To precipitate sodium from a solution into an insoluble salt of sodium, you have to find a chemical which instead is soluble! If, e.g., you want to precipitate sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, you should show me how this pure compund can form adding some chemical to the Na+ solution. Does it exist, for example, a soluble bismuthate which forms BiO3- ions in solution and that this ions react with Na+ ions forming pure sodium bismuthate?
Do you have an answer?
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #37 on: 03/01/2009 09:30:26 »
It's too simple! To precipitate sodium from a solution into an insoluble salt of sodium, you have to find a chemical which instead is soluble! If, e.g., you want to precipitate sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, you should show me how this pure compund can form adding some chemical to the Na+ solution. Does it exist, for example, a soluble bismuthate which forms BiO3- ions in solution and that this ions react with Na+ ions forming pure sodium bismuthate?
Do you have an answer?
A possible solution of the problem is to use potassium exahydroxyantimonate:

KSb(OH)6

a solution of that salt added to an unknown solution, in the presence of sodium forms a white precipitate of sodium exahydroxyantimonate:

Sb(OH)6- + Na+ → NaSb(OH)6

To prepare KSb(OH)6 you make react KOH with antimonic acid HSbO3:

KOH + HSbO3 + 2H2O → K+ + Sb(OH)6-
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #38 on: 03/01/2009 09:32:03 »
Ok, I did not know that...
 

Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #39 on: 03/01/2009 09:37:48 »
Ok, I did not know that...
Maybe you will study that in a few months or in the second year.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #40 on: 03/01/2009 09:40:31 »
Is that something that you have studied? I'm wondering why you think I am a student :) :-\
I don't blame you, its probably because of my poor knowledge of science... :D :D
« Last Edit: 03/01/2009 09:42:24 by Chemistry4me »
 

Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #41 on: 03/01/2009 09:49:37 »
Is that something that you have studied? I'm wondering why you think I am a student :) :-\
I don't blame you, its probably because of my poor knowledge of science... :D :D
Ok, indeed I thought you were studying chem at university..
Those things are taught during the qualitative analysis courses.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #42 on: 03/01/2009 09:53:29 »
I am humbled... 8) 8) [:I] [:I]
 

Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #43 on: 03/01/2009 15:19:04 »
I am humbled... 8) 8) [:I] [:I]
Why? You would have a reason if you had already studied these things but you wouldn't know them the same... :)
« Last Edit: 03/01/2009 15:20:59 by lightarrow »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #44 on: 04/01/2009 02:33:40 »
I am humbled... 8) 8) [:I] [:I]
Why? You would have a reason if you had already studied these things but you wouldn't know them the same... :)
Huh? I'm not sure what you mean.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #45 on: 04/01/2009 02:36:35 »
Chlorine, greenish-yellow gaseous element, in group 17 of the periodic table. The gas has an irritating odour and in large concentrations is dangerous; it was the first substance used as a poison gas in World War I. Free chlorine does not occur in nature, but its compounds are common minerals, and it is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Chlorine is an active element, reacting with water, organic compounds, and many metals. Four oxides have been prepared: Cl2O, ClO2, Cl 2O6, and Cl2O7. Chlorine will not burn in air, but it will support the combustion of many substances; an ordinary paraffin candle, for example, will burn in chlorine with a smoky flame. Chlorine and hydrogen can be kept together in the dark, but react explosively in the presence of light. Chlorine solutions in water are familiar in the home as bleaching agents, or in weaker solutions as a sterilizing agent, for example in swimming pools and public water systems. A few parts per million of chlorine can be added to drinking water to kill bacteria, and the chlorine then removed with sodium sulphite prior to distribution to homes. Industrial chlorine is produced by treating salt with nitrogen oxides or by oxidizing hydrogen chloride. Chlorine is shipped as a liquid in steel bottles.
 

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #46 on: 04/01/2009 02:38:27 »
Argon, inert gaseous element that is the third most prevalent gas in the Earth's atmosphere. In group 18 of the periodic table, argon is one of the noble gases. Argon was discovered in 1894 by the British scientists Sir William Ramsay and Baron John William Strutt Rayleigh. They were led to this discovery by a discrepancy between the density of supposedly pure nitrogen, prepared from air, and actually pure nitrogen, prepared from ammonium nitrate. Argon is composed of monatomic molecules and is colourless and odourless. It constitutes 0.93 per cent of the atmosphere. Argon is produced commercially by the fractional distillation of liquid air. It is used in large quantities to fill electric light bulbs. If air is left in incandescent bulbs, the filament burns; if the bulb is evacuated, as was formerly done, the tungsten filament tends to evaporate, blackening the inside of the bulb. To prevent this evaporation, the bulb can be filled with nitrogen, which is the least expensive gas for the purpose, or argon, which is better, as it is a poorer conductor of heat and so cools the filament less. Argon is also used in one type of neon lamp. Whereas pure neon gives a red light, argon gives a blue light. Argon tubes require a lower voltage than neon tubes, and for this reason small amounts of argon are sometimes mixed with neon. Argon is also used in electric-arc technology, in gas lasers, and in arc welding.
 

Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #47 on: 04/01/2009 16:27:02 »
I am humbled... 8) 8) [:I] [:I]
Why? You would have a reason if you had already studied these things but you wouldn't know them the same... :)
Huh? I'm not sure what you mean.
Do you have a degree in Chemistry?
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #48 on: 04/01/2009 22:55:15 »
Ok, it seem that I have been taken out of context, what I should have said was "I am humbled that you think I am a university student 8) 8) [:I] [:I]"

Do you have a degree in Chemistry?
No  [:I]
« Last Edit: 04/01/2009 23:16:51 by Chemistry4me »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #49 on: 04/01/2009 23:15:57 »
Potassium, (from Latin kalium, “alkali”), chemically reactive, extremely soft metallic element. In group 1 of the periodic table. Potassium exists in three natural isotopic forms, with mass numbers 39, 40, and 41. Potassium-40 is radioactive and has a half-life of 1.28 billion years. The most abundant isotope is potassium-39. Several radioactive isotopes have been artificially prepared. Potassium is found in nature in large quantities, ranking eighth in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth, in various minerals such as carnallite, feldspar, saltpetre, greensand, and sylvite. Potassium bromide (KBr), a white solid formed by the reaction of potassium hydroxide and bromine, is used in photography, engraving, and lithography, and in medicine as a sedative. Potassium chromate (K2CrO4), a yellow crystalline solid, and potassium dichromate, or potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7), a red crystalline solid, are powerful oxidizing agents used in matches and fireworks, in textile dyeing, and in leather tanning. Potassium iodide (KI), a white crystalline compound that is very soluble in water, is used in photography for preparing gelatin emulsions and in medicine for the treatment of rheumatism and overactivity of the thyroid gland. Potassium nitrate (KNO3), a white solid prepared by fractional crystallization of sodium nitrate and potassium chloride solutions, is used in matches, explosives, and fireworks, and in pickling meat.
 

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
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