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Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #50 on: 04/01/2009 23:19:54 »
Calcium, reactive, silvery-white metallic element. In group 2 of the periodic table. Calcium has six stable and several radioactive isotopes. A malleable and ductile metal, calcium rapidly tarnishes to yellow on exposure to air. Calcium is fifth in abundance among the elements in the Earth's crust, but it is not found uncombined in nature. It occurs in many highly useful compounds, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), of which calcite, marble, limestone, and chalk are composed; calcium sulphate (CaSO4) in alabaster or gypsum; calcium fluoride (CaF2) in fluorite; calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) in rock phosphate; and in many silicates. In cold, dry air, calcium is not readily attacked by oxygen, but when heated it unites vigorously with the halogens, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Calcium reacts violently with water, forming the hydroxide Ca(OH)2 and releasing hydrogen. The metal is obtained mainly by electrolysis of fused calcium chloride, a costly process. Until recently the pure metal had little use in industry. It is being used to an increasing extent as a deoxidizer for copper, nickel, and stainless steel. Because calcium hardens lead when alloyed with it, lead-calcium alloys are excellent for bearings, superior to ordinary lead antimony for grids in storage batteries, and more durable as sheathing for lead-covered cable. Calcium is present in teeth and bones (as a calcium hydroxyphosphate), and in many body fluids essential to muscle contraction, the transmission of nerve impulses, and the clotting of blood.
 

Offline miriam0920

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #51 on: 05/01/2009 01:31:16 »
Since you are studying chemistry you have to know that the flame's colour it's not blue but lilac:

Lilac?  Do you want to debate with me too?

 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #52 on: 05/01/2009 03:17:52 »
Since you are studying chemistry you have to know that the flame's colour it's not blue but lilac:
Lilac?  Do you want to debate with me too?
Are you addressing me?
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #53 on: 05/01/2009 15:14:23 »
Since you are studying chemistry you have to know that the flame's colour it's not blue but lilac:

Lilac?  Do you want to debate with me too?
No, no, it was just to give you some more informations. (Maybe I said it badly because of my not perfect knowledge of english language). They could ask you this at an exam.

I know of a teacher of analythical chemistry at university in Florence, who one day (many years ago) asked a student which colour is Ni++ in water solution. The student replied "green". The teacher: just "green"? The student replied yes, and he didn't pass the exam. The correct answer for the teacher was "apple green"!  :)
(It's not a joke).

http://www.uncp.edu/home/mcclurem/ptable/ni.htm
« Last Edit: 06/01/2009 18:07:22 by lightarrow »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #54 on: 05/01/2009 23:18:38 »
Scandium, soft silver-white metallic element with an atomic number of 21. Scandium is one of the transition elements in the periodic table. Scandium was discovered in 1879 by the Swedish chemist Lars Fredrik Nilson, eight years after the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev had predicted, on the basis of the periodic law, that the element exists in nature and that its properties resemble those of the element boron. Scandium is sometimes regarded as one of the rare earth elements. Scandium occurs in rare minerals such as wolframite. It is 31st in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. It forms trivalent, colourless salts.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #55 on: 05/01/2009 23:20:22 »
Titanium, silver-white metallic element used principally to make light, strong alloys. Titanium is soluble in certain acids, and aqueous solutions of the metal can be prepared, but it is not directly dissolved by water. The metal is extremely brittle when cold, but is readily malleable and ductile at a low red heat. Titanium burns in oxygen to form titanium dioxide, and it burns in nitrogen to form titanium nitride, TiN. Titanium forms the salts titanium tetrachloride, TiCl4; titanium trichloride, TiCl3; and titanium dichloride, TiCl2. It ranks ninth in abundance among the elements in the crust of the Earth but is never found in the pure state. Because of its strength and light weight, titanium is used in metallic alloys and as a substitute for aluminium. Alloyed with aluminium and vanadium, titanium is used in aircraft for fire walls, outer skin, landing-gear components, hydraulic tubing, and engine supports. The compressor blades, discs, and housings of jet engines are also made of titanium. A supersonic transport, flying at speeds between 2,410 and 3,220 km/h, uses from 14 to 45 tonnes of titanium. Titanium is also widely used in missiles and space capsules. The relative inertness of titanium makes it available as a replacement for bone and cartilage in surgery and as a pipe and tank lining in the processing of foods. It is used in heat exchangers in desalination plants because of its ability to withstand salt-water corrosion.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #56 on: 06/01/2009 01:24:04 »
Just type 'potassium flame colour' into Google images and you can decide whether it is blue or lilac.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #57 on: 06/01/2009 21:25:22 »
Vanadium, silver-white metallic element . Vanadium takes a high polish and is one of the hardest of all metals. Vanadium is soluble in nitric and sulphuric acids and insoluble in hydrochloric acid, dilute sodium hydroxide, and dilute alcohol. Vanadium forms several acidic oxides, the most important of which are the dark green trioxide, V2O3, and the orange pentoxide, V2O5. Other important compounds include vanadium monosulphide, VS; vanadium trisulphide, V2S3; vanadium dichloride, VCI2; vanadium trichloride, VCI3; vanadium dihydroxide, V(OH)2; and metavanadic acid, HVO3.Vanadium ranks about 19th in abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. It is never found in the pure state, but occurs in combination with various minerals throughout the world. Because of its hardness and great tensile strength, the metal is used in many alloys such as ferrovanadium, nickel vanadium, and chrome vanadium. Chrome-vanadium steels are used in the production of springs and in transmission gears and other engine parts. Titanium-vanadium alloys are used for missile cases, jet-engine housings, and nuclear-reactor components. As a catalyst, vanadium has largely replaced platinum in the manufacture of sulphuric acid and is employed widely as a photographic developer, as a reducing agent, and as a drying agent in various paints.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #58 on: 06/01/2009 21:39:34 »
Chromium, grey metallic element that can take on a high polish. Chromium ranks about 21st in natural abundance among the elements in crustal rocks. Chromium can replace part of the aluminium or iron in many minerals, imparting to them their unique colours. Many precious gemstones owe their colour to the presence of chromium compounds. In chromites and chromic salts, chromium has a valence of +3. Most of these compounds are green, but some are red or blue. Chromic oxide (Cr2O3) is a green solid. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is a red-orange, water-soluble solid that, when mixed with gelatin, gives a light-sensitive surface that is very useful in photographic processes. More than half the production of chromium goes into metallic products, and about another third is used in refractories. It is an ingredient in several important catalysts. The chief use of chromium is to form alloys with iron, nickel, or cobalt. The addition of chromium imparts hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance to the alloy. In the stainless steels, chromium makes up 10% or more of the final composition. Because of its hardness, an alloy of chromium, cobalt, and tungsten is used for high-speed metal-cutting tools. When deposited electrolytically, chromium provides a hard, corrosion-resistant, lustrous finish. For this reason it is widely used as body trim on cars and other vehicles.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #59 on: 06/01/2009 23:17:08 »
Manganese, a silvery-white, brittle metallic element used principally in making alloys. Manganese metal corrodes in moist air and dissolves in acid. The metal does not occur in the free state, except in meteors, but is widely distributed over the world in the form of ores. It ranks about 12th in abundance among elements in the Earth's crust. Manganese is used principally in the form of alloys with iron, obtained by treating pyrolusite in a blast furnace with iron ore and carbon. The most important of these alloys, which are used in steelmaking, are ferromanganese, containing about 78% manganese, and spiegeleisen, containing from 12 to 33% manganese. Small amounts of manganese are added to steel as a deoxidizer; large amounts are used to produce a very tough alloy, resistant to wear. Safes, for example, are made of manganese steel containing about 12% cent manganese. Non-ferrous manganese alloys include manganese bronze (composed of manganese, copper, tin, and zinc), which resists corrosion from sea water and is used for propeller blades on boats and torpedoes, and manganin (containing manganese, copper, and nickel), used in the form of wire for accurate electrical measurements because its electrical conductivity does not vary appreciably with temperature.
 

Online Bored chemist

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #60 on: 07/01/2009 19:57:36 »
I think Iron's next in the sequence. A fairly well known metal since about the 3rd millennium BC.
The second commonest metal in the earth's  crust (after Al). Seldom used in the pure state but very widely used as the major component of the collection of alloys called steel. The name, so I believe, is derived from the Anglo Saxon "iren", but I don't know where they got the name from. The symbol Fe is from the Latin word for iron; Ferrum.
One of the few elements that is magnetic.
There are a number of biological roles for iron, but the best known is hemoglobin the red, oxygen carrying, pigment of blood (at least in most vertebrates, some other animals use a copper based pigment)
 

Offline Make it Lady

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #61 on: 07/01/2009 20:19:48 »
Name: Mercury
Symbol: Hg
Atomic Number: 80
Atomic Mass: 200.59 amu
Melting Point: -38.87 °C (234.28 K, -37.966 °F)
Boiling Point: 356.58 °C (629.73 K, 673.844 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 80
Number of Neutrons: 121
Classification: Transition Metal
Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral
Density @ 293 K: 13.456 g/cm3
Color: Silver



Atomic Structure
   
Number of Energy Levels: 6

First Energy Level: 2
Second Energy Level: 8
Third Energy Level: 18
Fourth Energy Level: 32
Fifth Energy Level: 18
Sixth Energy Level: 2 


Isotopes
Isotope Half Life
Hg-194 520.0 years
Hg-196 Stable
Hg-197 2.7 days
Hg-197m 23.8 hours
Hg-198 Stable
Hg-199 Stable
Hg-200 Stable
Hg-201 Stable
Hg-202 Stable
Hg-203 46.6 days
Hg-204 Stable
Hg-206 8.2 minutes


Facts

Date of Discovery: Known to the ancients
Discoverer: Unknown
Name Origin: After the planet Mercury
Symbol Origin: From the Latin word hydrargyrum (liquid silver)
Uses: thermometers, barometers, fluorescent lamps, batteries
Obtained From: cinnabar ore
This is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature. If people are exposed to it for long periods it effects their balance. School children used to be allowed to play with the "beads" on a tray until some started falling over. I just love it, my favourite element. If you want to know how to remember its symbol it is Hg as mercury comes from H.G. Wells.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #62 on: 08/01/2009 02:12:14 »
Cobalt, silvery-white, magnetic, metallic element used chiefly for making alloys. Cobalt was discovered in 1735 by the Swedish chemist George Brandt. It has a relatively low strength and little ductility at normal temperatures, but is ductile at high temperatures. Of several known cobalt isotopes, the radioactive cobalt-60 is the most important. It has a half-life of 5.7 years and produces intense gamma radiation. Cobalt-60 is used extensively in industry and in radioisotope therapy. Cobalt is about the 30th most abundant element in crustal rocks. Cobalt occurs as the arsenide CoAs2, known as smaltite or speiss cobalt; as cobalt sulpharsenide (CoAsS), known as cobalt glance or cobaltite; and as a hydrated arsenate of cobalt (Co(AsO4)2 • 8H2O), known as cobalt bloom or erythrite. The chief commercial sources of cobalt are the cobaltite ores of Ontario in Canada, and the central African nations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia, which, along with Canada, are the world's leading producers of the metal. Thermally resistant alloys, called super alloys, containing cobalt are used in industry and aircraft gas turbine engines. An alloy with steel known as cobalt steel is used for making permanent magnets. With tungsten carbide, cobalt forms Carboloy, a hard material used for cutting and machining steel; alloyed with chromium, cobalt produces Stellite, used for the same.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #63 on: 08/01/2009 02:14:53 »
Nickel, silvery-white, magnetic metallic element used chiefly in making alloys. Nickel is a hard, malleable, ductile metal, capable of taking a high polish. It exists in five stable isotopic forms. Metallic nickel is not very active chemically. It is soluble in dilute nitric acid and becomes passive in concentrated nitric acid; it does not react with alkalis. Nickel occurs as a metal in meteors. Nickel is used as a protective and ornamental coating for metals, particularly iron and steel, that are susceptible to corrosion. The nickel plate is deposited by electrolysis in a nickel solution. Finely divided nickel absorbs 17 times its own volume of hydrogen and is used as a catalyst in many processes, including the hydrogenation of oils. Nickel is used chiefly in the form of alloys. It imparts great strength and corrosion resistance to steel. Nickel steel, containing about 2 to 4% nickel, is used in car parts such as axles, crankshafts, gears, valves, and rods; in machine parts; and in armour plate. Some of the most important nickel-containing alloys are German silver, Invar, Monel metal, Nichrome, and Permalloy. The nickel coins used for currency are an alloy of 25% nickel and 75% copper. Nickel is also a main component of nickel-cadmium batteries. Most of the world supply of nickel is mined in Canada.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #64 on: 08/01/2009 02:36:39 »
Copper, brownish-red metallic element that is one of the most widely used of metals. Because of its many desirable properties, such as its conductivity of electricity and heat, its resistance to corrosion, its malleability and ductility, and its beauty, copper has long been used in a wide variety of applications. The principal uses are electrical, because of copper's extremely high conductivity, which is second only to that of silver. Because copper is very ductile, it can be drawn into wires of any diameter from about 0.025 mm upwards. It can be used in outdoor power lines and cables, as well as in house wiring, lamp cords, and electrical machinery such as generators, motors, controllers, signaling devices, electromagnets, and communications equipment. Copper has been used for coins throughout recorded history and has also been fashioned into cooking utensils, vats, and ornamental objects. Copper can easily be electroplated, alone or as a base for other metals. Copper was at one time used extensively for sheathing the bottom of wooden ships to prevent fouling. Pure copper is soft but can be hardened somewhat by being worked. Alloys of copper, which are far harder and stronger than the pure metal, have higher resistance and so cannot be used for electrical purposes. They do, however, have corrosion resistance almost as good as that of pure copper and are very easily worked in machine shops. The two most important alloys are brass, a zinc alloy, and bronze, a tin alloy. Both are used in enormous quantities. Copper is also alloyed with gold, silver, and nickel. Copper forms two series of chemical compounds: cuprous, in which the copper has a valence of 1, and cupric, in which the copper has a valence of 2. Cuprous compounds are easily oxidized to cupric, in many cases by mere exposure to air; cupric compounds are stable. Certain copper solutions have the power of dissolving cellulose, and large quantities of copper are for this reason used in the manufacture of rayon.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #65 on: 08/01/2009 23:12:31 »
Zinc, bluish-white metallic element that has many industrial applications. Pure zinc is a crystalline metal, insoluble in hot and cold water and soluble in alcohol, acids, and alkalies. It is extremely brittle at ordinary temperatures, but becomes malleable between 120°C and 150°C  and may be rolled into sheets between heated rollers. The first step in the metallurgy process is to transform the ores into oxides by subjecting them to high temperatures. The oxides are then reduced by carbon in an electric furnace, the zinc boiling and distilling in the retort in which the reduction takes place. The zinc obtained by distillation contains small amounts of iron, arsenic, cadmium, and lead and is known in metallurgy as spelter. Electrolytic zinc is pure and has superior qualities, such as high resistance to corrosion. The metal is used principally as a protective coating, or galvanizer, for iron and steel; as an ingredient of various alloys, especially brass; as plates for dry electric cells; and for die castings. Zinc oxide, known as zinc white or Chinese white, is used as a paint pigment. It is also used as a filler in rubber tyres and is employed in medicine as an antiseptic ointment. Zinc chloride is used as a wood preservative and as a soldering fluid. Zinc sulphide is useful in applications involving electroluminescence, photoconductivity, and semiconductivity and has other electronic uses.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #66 on: 08/01/2009 23:14:39 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element. Gallium is in group 13 of the periodic table; its was discovered spectroscopically by the French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875; a year later he isolated the element in its metallic state. Gallium is blue-grey in colour as a solid and silvery as a liquid. It is one of the few metals that is liquid at or near room temperature. Like water it can be supercooled and it expands upon freezing. The element is about 34th in order of abundance in the crust of the Earth. Gallium melts at 30° C, boils at about 2400° C, and has a relative density of 5.9; Gallium occurs in small quantities in some varieties of zinc blende, bauxite, pyrite, magnetite, and kaolin. Gallium resembles aluminium in forming trivalent salts and oxides; it also forms a few monovalent and divalent compounds. The low melting point and high boiling point of the metal are used to advantage in high-temperature thermometers. Certain gallium compounds are excellent semiconductors and have been extensively used in rectifiers, transistors, photoconductors, and laser and maser diodes.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #67 on: 08/01/2009 23:16:53 »
Germanium, hard, brittle, greyish-white, crystalline semimetallic element. It is in group 14  of the periodic table. Germanium is in the same chemical family as carbon, silicon, tin, and lead, and resembles these elements in forming organic derivatives such as tetraethyl germanium and tetraphenyl germanium. Germanium forms hydrides—germanomethane, or germane (GeH4); germanoethane (Ge2H6); and germanopropane (Ge3H8)—analogous to those formed by carbon in the alkane series . The most important compounds of germanium are the oxide GeO2 (germanic acid) and the halides. Germanium is separated from other metals by distillation of the tetrachloride. Germanium ranks around 54th in order of abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Germanium occurs in small quantities in the ores of silver, copper, and zinc, and in the mineral germanite, which contains 8% germanium. Germanium and its compounds are used in a variety of ways. Suitably prepared germanium crystals have the property of rectifying, or passing electrical currents in one direction only, and so were used extensively during and after World War II as detectors for ultra-high-frequency radio and radar signals. Germanium crystals also have other specialized electronic uses. Germanium was the first metal used in the transistor. Germanium oxide is used in the manufacture of optical glass and as a drug in the treatment of pernicious anaemia.
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #68 on: 09/01/2009 15:30:37 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element.
...
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in her hand and I tell her that if she loves me, her heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens her hand and...surprise!   [8D])
« Last Edit: 11/01/2009 11:15:37 by lightarrow »
 

Offline yor_on

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #69 on: 09/01/2009 21:57:21 »
Strange but nice:)
Like a personal library.

If I ever want to check up some chemical element.
But how about compounds?
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #70 on: 09/01/2009 22:44:48 »
But how about compounds?
This topic might never end if we go into compounds! Anything you have in mind?
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #71 on: 09/01/2009 22:46:36 »
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Very nice lightarrow  ;) Very clever  ;) Any other strange elements you got at home? :)
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #72 on: 09/01/2009 22:49:08 »
Selenium (Greek, selēnē, “Moon”), Selenium is in group 16 of the periodic table. Chemically, selenium closely resembles sulphur and is related to tellurium. Like sulphur, it exists in several allotropic (distinctly different) forms: a brick-red powder; a brownish-black, glassy, amorphous mass called vitreous selenium; red monoclinic crystals of relative density 4.5; and grey, lustrous crystals called grey selenium. Grey selenium conducts electricity; it is a better conductor of electricity in light than in darkness, the conductivity varying directly with the intensity of light. It is therefore used in many photoelectric devices . In the form of red selenium or as sodium selenide the element is used to impart a scarlet red colour to clear glass, glazes, and enamels. It is also used to a great extent as a decolorizer of glass because it neutralizes the greenish tint produced by iron (ferrous) compounds. Small amounts of selenium are added to vulcanized rubber to increase its resistance to abrasion. Sodium selenate is an insecticide used to combat insects that attack cultivated plants, particularly chrysanthemums and carnations; the insecticide is scattered around the roots and is carried by the sap throughout the plant. Selenium sulphide is used in the treatment of dandruff, acne, eczema, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and other skin diseases. Selenium is also an essential micronutrient for animals and humans and it is found naturally in some soils. However, in larger amounts this element is toxic to animals, humans, and nearly all plants.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #73 on: 09/01/2009 22:50:53 »
Bromine, poisonous element that at room temperature is a dark, reddish-brown liquid. In group 17 of the periodic table. Bromine is so similar in its chemical properties to chlorine, with which it is almost invariably associated, that it was not recognized as a separate element until 1826. At room temperature, bromine is an extremely volatile liquid, giving off a poisonous, suffocating, reddish vapour composed of diatomic molecules. If the liquid comes in contact with the skin, it causes sores that heal very slowly. Bromine is slightly soluble in water, 100 parts water dissolving about 4 parts bromine when cold or 3 parts when hot; at temperatures below 7° C  it forms, with water, a solid, reddish hydrate, Br2•10H2O. In the presence of alkalis, bromine reacts chemically with water to yield a mixture of hydrobromic acid (HBr), and hypobromous acid (HOBr). Bromine is very soluble in a wide variety of organic solvents, such as alcohol, ether, trichloromethane (chloroform), and carbon disulphide. It reacts chemically with many compounds and metallic elements and is slightly less active than chlorine. Bromine does not occur in nature as a free element, but is found in bromide compounds. It was formerly a by-product of the production of common salt or of potassium from brines rich in bromides. Bromine has been used in the preparation of certain dyes and of dibromoethane, a constituent of antiknock fluid for leaded petrol. Bromides are also used in photographic compounds and in natural gas and oil production.
 

Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #74 on: 10/01/2009 08:47:16 »
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Very nice lightarrow  ;) Very clever  ;) Any other strange elements you got at home? :)
Don't know if they could be considered strange, however I have bismuthe, mercury, tungsten, antimonium, iodine and many other compounds.
 

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
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