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Author Topic: Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?  (Read 117691 times)

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #75 on: 10/01/2009 09:03:48 »
May I ask where you purchased these elements? From a company perhaps?
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #76 on: 10/01/2009 13:23:09 »
May I ask where you purchased these elements? From a company perhaps?
From a shop who sells chemicals and instruments for firms ( especially firms who work precious metals). If they don't have a chemical, it's possible to order it; however they don't sell forbidden chemicals. Some of the compounds I have, I prepared myself (copper acetate, lead nitrate, iodine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ecc.)
« Last Edit: 10/01/2009 13:25:38 by lightarrow »
 

Offline yor_on

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #77 on: 10/01/2009 14:12:57 »
Got to admit that I was teasing a little here.
As you say the list may never end if so.

But if we are discussing compounds?
Well, how about those new combinations they use in super conductive experiments.
http://www.nanotechnologydevelopment.com/energy/researchers-create-high-temperature-super-conducting-nanowires.html

Did you know that diamonds are superconductive too?
http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news08/pm594e.html
Eh, those traces of boron do make it into a compound I hope?

Btw:
Read that "Gallium is a byproduct of the smelting of other metals, notably aluminum and zinc, and it is rarer than gold. "
You had thirty gram of it?
A layman 'Billionaire' :)
« Last Edit: 10/01/2009 14:30:07 by yor_on »
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #78 on: 10/01/2009 15:55:03 »
Read that "Gallium is a byproduct of the smelting of other metals, notably aluminum and zinc, and it is rarer than gold. "
You had thirty gram of it?
A layman 'Billionaire' :)
I paid it ~ 60€ if I remember correctly.
 

Offline yor_on

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #79 on: 10/01/2009 16:11:38 »
A very good value it seems to me.
So many melted hearts from such a small investment :)
I will try the same.

Cross my heart and .. :)
Those videos are very nice Lightarrow.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #80 on: 11/01/2009 02:13:32 »
Did you know that diamonds are superconductive too?
http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/news08/pm594e.html
Eh, those traces of boron do make it into a compound I hope?
Very interesting, thanks yor_on

Those videos are very nice Lightarrow.
Are they meant to be on this topic? ??? I don't see no videos ???
« Last Edit: 11/01/2009 02:18:06 by Chemistry4me »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #81 on: 11/01/2009 02:15:30 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element.
...
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Ummm... sorry to bring this up  [:I] but did you mean women or man (his/her)?
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #82 on: 11/01/2009 02:19:48 »
Krypton (Greek, kryptos, “hidden”), colourless, odourless gaseous element that makes up a tiny fraction of the Earth's atmosphere. In group 18 of the periodic table. Krypton was first isolated in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris William Travers by fractional distillation of a mixture of the noble gases. Krypton is present in the atmosphere to the extent of 1 part in 20 million by volume or 1 part in 7 million by weight. Several compounds of krypton were discovered in 1962 and 1963. Krypton is used alone or with argon and neon in incandescent bulbs. It emits a characteristic bright, orange-red colour in an electric-discharge tube; such tubes filled with krypton are used in lighting airfields because the red light is visible for long distances and penetrates fog and haze to a greater extent than ordinary light. In 1960 the International Bureau of Weights and Measures adopted as the length of the standard metre 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of light emitted by the isotope krypton-86.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #83 on: 11/01/2009 02:21:12 »
Rubidium (Latin, rubidus, “red”), chemically reactive metallic element. In group 1 of the periodic table. Metallic rubidium is silvery-white and very soft. Rubidium is the third most active of the alkali metals, following francium, the most active, and caesium, the second most active. It tarnishes immediately upon exposure to air and ignites spontaneously to form rubidium oxide. It reacts violently with water. In general chemical behaviour, rubidium resembles sodium and potassium. It is a widely distributed element, ranking 16th in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth. It is not found in large deposits but occurs in small amounts in certain mineral waters and in many minerals usually associated with other alkali metals. It is also found in small quantities in tea, coffee, tobacco, and other plants, and trace quantities of the element may be required by living organisms. Rubidium is used in making certain catalysts and in photoelectric cells. The rate of radioactive decay of the isotope rubidium-87 can be used in geologic age determination.
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #84 on: 11/01/2009 11:14:48 »
Gallium, metallic element that remains in the liquid state over a wider range of temperatures than any other element.
...
I have ~ 30 g of it! Very amazing!
(Sometimes I make this joke: When liquid, I give it the shape of a little heart, then I freeze it at room T to make it solid; then, without saying what material it is, I ask a woman to take that shiny, hard, metal heart in his hand and I tell her that if she loves me, his heart will melt for me. After some minutes she opens his hand and...surprise!   [8D])
Ummm... sorry to bring this up  [:I] but did you mean women or man (his/her)?
Ah, yes, it was a bit of confusion...
I've corrected it.
 

Offline yor_on

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #85 on: 11/01/2009 12:27:47 »
Chemistry4me:)

Yeah I know.
didn't have anything to do with this:(

Lightarrows videos were in another thread.
Just needed to say that they are quite good.
Also that I actually could understand how Walter Lewin created that math.
Which I found to be quite a 'kick':)

feature=related
Wonder why there are so few teachers with that freedom of thought.

anyway, won't do it again, I hope:





 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #86 on: 11/01/2009 22:42:48 »
Strontium, chemically reactive, malleable, ductile metallic element. In group 2 of the periodic table. Strontium has a silvery colour when freshly cut. It oxidizes readily upon exposure to air, and reacts with water to produce strontium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Like the other alkaline earth metals, it is prepared by transforming the carbonate or sulphate into the chloride, which, upon electrolysis, yields the metal. Strontium is never found in the elemental state, occurring chiefly as strontianite, SrCO3, and celestite, SrSO4. Strontium ranks about 15th among the elements in natural abundance in the Earth's crust and is widely distributed in small quantities. The greatest amounts are mined in Mexico, England, and Scotland. Because it emits a brilliant red colour when burned in air, strontium is used in the manufacture of fireworks and flares. Strontia (strontium oxide), SrO, is used in recovering sugar from sugar-beet molasses. A radioactive isotope of the element, strontium-85, is used in the detection of bone cancer. Strontium-90 is a dangerous radioactive isotope found in the radioactive fallout that results from the detonation of some nuclear weapons.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #87 on: 11/01/2009 22:44:06 »
Yttrium, silver-white metallic element with an atomic number of 39. Yttrium was isolated by the Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander in 1843. Yttrium metal can be prepared by the reduction of yttrium triflouride (YF3) with calcium. It oxidizes readily in air to the oxide Y2O3 and dissolves in hot water to form the hydroxide Y(OH)3. Yttrium ranks about 29th in abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. Yttrium is found as an oxide in most of the rare earth minerals. It is used extensively in phosphors employed in colour television tubes. Yttrium melts at about 1520° C, boils at about 3340° C, and has a relative density of 4.47. Yttrium is sometimes included among the rare earth elements.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #88 on: 11/01/2009 22:46:20 »
Zirconium, metallic element with an atomic number of 40. In its pure state zirconium exists in two forms: the crystalline form, a soft, white, ductile metal; and the amorphous form, a bluish-black powder. Both forms are insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and completely soluble in hydrofluoric acid. The metal burns in air at 500° C . Zirconium ranks 18th in abundance among the elements in the crust of the Earth. Zirconium is used in the manufacture of steel, porcelain, certain non-ferrous alloys, and refractories. It is also used in vacuum tubes to remove traces of gases because it combines readily with oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen at high temperatures. Zirconium is used in heat exchangers, pump housings, valves, and other equipment subject to corrosion by acids. Special alloys of the metal called zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4, which contain 1.5 per cent tin, are used in nuclear reactors as a cladding material for uranium-fuel elements and as a structural material. Zirconium is especially suitable in water-moderated reactors because of its low neutron-absorption cross section, excellent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperatures, strength, ductility, and ease of fabrication. Australia is the largest producer of zirconium in the world, accounting for more than 70 per cent of world production.
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #89 on: 12/01/2009 17:36:03 »
Niobium
Niobium was discovered by Charles Hatchett (GB) in 1801. The origin of the name comes from the Greek word Niobe meaning daughter of Tantalus in Greek mythology (tantalum is closely related to niobium in the periodic table).
Niobium is a rare, soft, malleable, ductile, gray-white metal. It has a body-centered cubic crystalline structure and in its physical and chemical properties it resembles tantalum. It must be placed in a protective atmosphere when processed at even moderate temperatures because it tends to react with oxygen, carbon, the halogens, nitrogen, and sulfur. The metal is inert to acids, even to aqua regia at room temperatures, but is attacked by hot, concentrated acids, and expecially by alkalis and oxidizing agents.

Applications
Niobium is used for the production of high-temperature-resistant alloys and special stainless steels. Small amounts of niobium impart greater strenght to other metals, especially those that are exposed to low temperatures. Niobium carbide is used in cutting tools. It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets, missiles, cutting tools, pipelines, super magnets and welding rods.

Niobium-tin and niobium-titanium alloys are used as wires for superconducting magnets capable of producing exceedingly strong magnetic fields. Niobium is also used IN its pure form to make superconducting accelerating structures for particle accelerators. Niobium alloys are used in surgical implants because they do not react with human tissue.

Atomic number: 41
Group numbers: 5
Period: 5
Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Formal oxidation number: +3 +5
Electronegativities: 1.6
Atomic radius / pm: 142.9
Relative atomic mass: 92.90638 ± 0.00002
Crystal structure:body-centered cubic
 
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Density / gdm-3: 8570 (293 K)
 7830 (m.p.)
Molar volume / cm3mol-1:10.84 (293 K)
 11.87 (m.p.)
Electrical resistivity / μΩcm: 12.5 (20 °C)

THERMAL PROPERTIES
Thermal conductivity / W m-1K-1:53.7
Melting point / °C: 2477
Boiling point / °C: 4744
Heat of fusion / kJ mol-1: 27.2
Heat of vaporization / kJ mol-1: 680.19
Heat of atomization / kJ mol-1: 722.819

IONIZATION ENERGIES
1st ionization energy / kJ mol-1: 652.13
2nd ionization energy / kJ mol-1: 1381.68
3rd ionization energy / kJ mol-1: 2416.01

ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS
in the atmosphere / ppm: -
in the Earth's crust / ppm: 11
in the oceans / ppm: 0.00001

ISOTOPES
Isotope     Relative atomic mass     Mass percent (%)
93Nb         92.906378(2)                100

REDUCTION POTENTIALS
Balanced half-reaction                                               Eo / V
NbV + 2e- <=> NbIII                                                 -0.373    (6 mol dm-3 H2SO4)
Nb3+ + 3e- <=> Nb(s)                                              -1.1
Nb2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e- <=> 2Nb(s) + 5H2O               -0.65
NbO3+ + 2H+ + 2e- <=> Nb3+ + H2O                          -0.343
NbO(SO4)2- + 2H+ + 2e- <=> Nb3+ + H2O + 2SO42-      - 0.1
NbO(SO4)2- + 2H+ + 5e- <=> Nb(s) + H2O + 2SO42-      -0.63
« Last Edit: 12/01/2009 18:06:22 by lightarrow »
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #90 on: 12/01/2009 22:30:54 »
You want to take up the responsibility now of doing the rest of the elements Mr. lightarrow?
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #91 on: 12/01/2009 22:34:53 »
Molybdenum, metallic element with chemical properties similar to those of chromium. Molybdenum is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Molybdenum is dissolved by dilute nitric acid and aqua regia, and is attacked by fused alkalis; it is not attacked by air at ordinary temperatures, but burns at temperatures above 600° C to form molybdenum oxide. Molybdenum does not occur free in nature, but in the form of its ores, the most important of which are molybdenite and wulfenite. It ranks 56th in order of abundance of the elements in the crust of the Earth and is an important trace element in soils, where it contributes to the growth of plants. The metal is used chiefly in alloying steel. The alloy withstands high temperatures and pressures and is very strong, making it useful for structural work, aircraft parts, and forged car parts. Molybdenum wire is used in electron tubes, and the metal also serves as electrodes in glass furnaces. Molybdenum sulphide is used as a lubricant in environments requiring high temperatures. About two-thirds of the world supply of the metal is obtained as a byproduct of copper mining, with the United States the single largest producer, followed by Canada.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #92 on: 12/01/2009 22:36:46 »
Technetium, radioactive metallic element, the first element to be created artificially. Technetium is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. In 1937 Emilio Segrè and Carlo Perrier created technetium by bombarding molybdenum targets with deuterons (particles consisting of a proton and a neutron). Because technetium is not part of the decay series of any naturally radioactive element, scientists had thought that technetium does not occur in nature. In 1988, however, minute quantities of it were detected in ore from a deep molybdenum mine in Colorado. Isotopes ranging in mass number from 90 to 111 are known; the most common isotope has a mass number of 99. Technetium forms oxides, sulphides, and technetiates, such as ammonium technetiate (NH4TcO4). Compounds and alloys containing technetium oxide can prevent the corrosion of iron by water. Technetium-99 is used for imaging in medicine. Technetium melts at about 2200° C, boils at about 4570° C , and has a relative density of 11.5.
 

Offline lightarrow

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #93 on: 12/01/2009 23:02:58 »
You want to take up the responsibility now of doing the rest of the elements Mr. lightarrow?
Ah, no, I posted that because it was the shorter I found...   :)
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #94 on: 12/01/2009 23:04:26 »
Alright :), I thought you might have relieved me from my duties  ;) 
 

Offline lightarrow

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« Reply #95 on: 12/01/2009 23:18:13 »
Alright :), I thought you might have relieved me from my duties  ;) 
Don't worry! By the way, which is your source of information? I think it's not wiki because you wrote something I haven't found there.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #96 on: 12/01/2009 23:20:17 »
Encyclopedia. I have actually done all of the research a few years back and I have already typed everything up on my computer. So now, I just have to get the relevant information and post it here :)
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #97 on: 14/01/2009 00:14:38 »
Ruthenium, chemically unreactive, greyish-white metallic element. Ruthenium is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Ruthenium was discovered in 1844 by the Russian chemist Karl Karlovich Klaus. The name of the element is derived from the region of Ruthenia, now a part of Ukraine. The metal occurs in the metallic state in platinum ores. Ruthenium ranks 80th in natural abundance among elements in crustal rocks. The addition of ruthenium to platinum and palladium alloys makes the alloys very hard. Such alloys have a high resistance to wear and are used in the manufacture of jewellery, in porcelain-metal restorations in dentistry, as tips for fountain-pen nibs, and for non-magnetic instrument pivots. The alloy ruthenium-molybdenum is a superconductor at temperatures below -263° C. The pure metal is superior to platinum in resistance to attack by acids, including aqua regia.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
« Reply #98 on: 14/01/2009 00:16:58 »
Rhodium (Greek rhodon, “rose”), brilliant silvery-white metallic element used principally in alloys. Rhodium is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Rhodium was discovered in 1803 by the British chemist William Hyde Wollaston. Rhodium metal is very durable. It is insoluble in ordinary acids and is very difficult to fuse. It has a hardness of 4. The compounds of rhodium span oxidation states of one to six. Aqueous solutions of many of its salts are rose coloured, from which its name is derived. The metal occurs as an alloy in platinum ores, in osmiridium, and in gold-rhodium ores called rhodite. Of the elements in the crust of the Earth, it ranks 81st in order of abundance. Rhodium is used mostly as an alloy with platinum; the resulting alloy has the desirable properties of platinum and is also hard and durable. Rhodium-platinum alloys are used in thermocouples, for measuring high temperatures. Pure rhodium is used as a mirror surface in searchlights and as a plating finish for jewellery and silverware. Rhodium black is a finely divided metal that contains some oxide and hydride. It is used both as a catalyst and as a black pigment for porcelain ware.
 

Offline Chemistry4me

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« Reply #99 on: 14/01/2009 22:24:57 »
Palladium, relatively rare, silvery-white, soft metallic element. The element is one of the transition elements of the periodic table. Palladium was discovered in 1804 by the British chemist William Hyde Wollaston. Palladium has a hardness of 4.8. Like platinum, it is ductile, malleable, and resistant to corrosion; it fuses more easily than platinum and can be welded easily. Finely divided palladium is an excellent adsorbent for some gases; it adsorbs 1,000 to 3,000 times its volume of hydrogen or ethyne (acetylene) gas when heated to 100° C. Palladium is dissolved readily by aqua regia. It forms divalent and tetravalent compounds and resembles platinum chemically. Palladium ranks about 71st in natural abundance among the elements in crustal rock. The metal occurs in the pure state in platinum ores and in the combined state in Canadian nickel ore. The chief use of the metal is in the field of communications, where it is used to face electrical contacts in automatic switchgear. It is also used in dentistry; for non-magnetic springs in clocks and watches, for coating special mirrors; and in jewellery, alloyed with gold, in what is called white gold.
 

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Name a chemical and its origin or where it comes from?
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