I have seen injector pipes shatter due to pre ignition of diesel, not once but several times in an old perkins engine. diesel in a petrol car will cause plumes of grey smoke and the engine runs like a bag of nails pinking and over heating. Petrol in a diesel engine again causes pre ignition and due to the high compression of a diesel engine this back pressure can cause damage to the diesel pump and the very high temperatures generated from burring petrol in a diesel engine will overheat the pistons, rings and valves and possibly warp the cylinder head given enough time.
I used to thaw out frozen diesel in truck when we had severe sub zero temperatures about 25 years ago. This was due mainly to water separating from the diesel and freezing. To prevent this we used to add a few gallons of petrol to the diesel, worked a treat and did not cause any damage due to the dilution of it in 40 gallons of diesel.
You can also run a diesel engine on old engine oil diluted with kerosene 3 to 1 part oil. I broke down in France once due to false reading on the fuel gauge. Didn't have any diesel but had a gallon of engine oil. Thought what the hell and tipped it in, ran a treat with minimal smoke but took it steady due to the viscosity of the oil. A cold engine would not have been able to run on neat engine oil but the hot engine did and got me to a fuel station.
A long time ago, I ran out of petrol in an old J4 pick up. Had oxy propane cutting gear on the back of the truck so put the burning torch into the inlet, turned on the propane and away it ran with no problem at all, even experimenting with adding a little oxygen to give it even more power, it accelerated and decelerated perfectly again getting me to a fuel station with no problems whatsoever.
Having a garage workshop for a few years we often purchased second hand engines from the breakers and frequently had them running by bolting on a starter motor and adding a wire to the coil and distributor on petrol engines. This proved easy with a propane bottle or in the case of a diesel engine with a small amount of diesel in a bottle. Rather noisy though without an exhaust. Fan of scrap yard challenge also :)