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Author Topic: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!  (Read 346117 times)

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Q is for Qattara Depression

Main Entry:Qattara Depression
Pronunciation:k*-*t*r-*
Usage:geographical name

 region  NW Egypt, a low area 40 miles (64 kilometers) from coast; lowest point 440 feet (134 meters) below sea level
 

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R is for Radium

Main Entry:radium
Pronunciation:*r*-d*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Latin radius ray
Date:1899

 : an intensely radioactive brilliant white metallic element that resembles barium chemically, occurs in combination in minute quantities in minerals (as pitchblende or carnotite), emits alpha particles and gamma rays to form radon, and is used chiefly in luminous materials and in the treatment of cancer   see ELEMENT table
 

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S is for Saar

Main Entry:Saar
Pronunciation:*s*r, *z*r
Usage:geographical name

1 or French    Sarre \*s*r\  river about 150 miles (241 kilometers) Europe flowing from Vosges Mountains in France  N to the Moselle in  W Germany
2 or    Saarland \*s*r-*land, *z*r-\  region  W Europe in basin of Saar River between France & Germany; once part of Lorraine, became part of Germany in 19th century; administered by League of Nations 1919*35; became a state of Germany 1935; came under control of France after World War II; to W. Germany by a plebiscite Jan. 1, 1957, as a state (  Saarland) capital Saarbr*cken area 991 square miles (2567 square kilometers), population 1,073,000
 

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T is for Triiodothyronine

Main Entry:triiodothyronine
Pronunciation:*tr*-**-*-d*-*th*-r*-*n*n
Function:noun
Etymology:tri- + iod- + thyronine (an amino acid of which thyroxine is a derivative)
Date:1952

 : an iodine-containing hormone C15H12I3NO4 that is an amino acid derived from thyroxine
 

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U is for Uranium

Main Entry:uranium
Pronunciation:y*-*r*-n*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Uranus
Date:circa 1797

 : a silvery heavy radioactive polyvalent metallic element that is found especially in pitchblende and uraninite and exists naturally as a mixture of three isotopes of mass number 234, 235, and 238 in the proportions of 0.006 percent, 0.71 percent, and 99.28 percent respectively   see ELEMENT table
 

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V is Volcano

Main Entry:volcano
Pronunciation:v*l-*k*-(*)n*, v*l-
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural -noes or -nos
Etymology:Italian or Spanish; Italian vulcano, from Spanish volc*n, ultimately from Latin Volcanus Vulcan
Date:1613

1 : a vent in the crust of the earth or another planet from which usually molten or hot rock and steam issue;  also   : a hill or mountain composed wholly or in part of the ejected material
2 : something of explosively violent potential
 

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W is for Watermelon

Main Entry:watermelon
Pronunciation:-*me-l*n
Function:noun
Date:1615

1 : a large oblong or roundish fruit with a hard green or white rind often striped or variegated, a sweet watery pink, yellowish, or red pulp, and usually many seeds
2 : a widely grown African vine (Citrullus lanatus syn. C. vulgaris) of the gourd family that bears watermelons
 

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X is for Xanthan Gum

Main Entry:xanthan gum
Pronunciation:*zan-th*n-
Function:noun
Etymology:xanth- (from New Latin Xanthomonas, genus name) + 3-an
Date:1964

 : a polysaccharide that is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates by a gram-negative bacterium (Xanthomonas campestris of the family Pseudomonadaceae) and is a thickening and suspending agent used especially in pharmaceuticals and prepared foods   called also xanthan
 

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Y is for Yablonovy Mountains

Main Entry:Yablonovy Mountains
Variant:or Yablonovyy Mountains  \*y*-bl*-n*-*v*\
Usage:geographical name

 mountain range  S Russia in Asia
 

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Z is for Z particle

Main Entry:Z particle
Function:noun
Date:1979

 : a neutral elementary particle about 90 times heavier than a proton that along with the W particle is a transmitter of the weak force   called also Z0 or Z0 particle
 

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Amber
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Amber is the name for fossil resin or tree sap that is appreciated for its colour. It is used for the manufacture of ornamental objects and jewellery. Although not mineralized, it is sometimes considered a gemstone. Most of the world's amber is in the range of 30–90 million years old. Semi-fossilized resin or sub-fossil amber is called copal.

The presence of insects in amber was noticed by the Romans and led them to the (correct) theory that at some point, amber had to be in a liquid state to cover the bodies of insects. Hence they gave it the expressive name of suceinum or gum-stone, a name that is still in use today to describe succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana (see below under Baltic Amber). The Greek name for amber was ηλεκτρον (Electron) and was connected to the Sun God, one of whose titles was Elector or the Awakener.[1]

The modern term electron was coined in 1891 by the Irish physicist George Stoney, using the Greek word for amber (and which was then translated as electrum) because of its electrostatic properties and whilst analyzing elementary charge for the first time. The ending -on, common for all subatomic particles, was used in analogy to the word ion.[2][3]

Heating amber will soften it and eventually it will burn, which is why in Germanic languages the word for amber is a literal translation of burn-Stone (In German it is Bernstein, in Dutch it is barnsteen etc.). Heated below 200°C, amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber", and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac". As mentioned above, amber was well known for its electrostatic properties since antiquity (though not identified as such until the concept of electronic charge became clear).

Chemistry of amber
Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, communic acid, cummunol and biformene.[4] These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes which means that the organic skeleton has three alkene groups available for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization will take place as well as isomerization reactions, crosslinking and cyclization. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H16O.

Amber should be distinguished from copal. Molecular polymerisation caused by pressure and heat transforms the resin firstly into copal and then over time through the evaporation of turpenes it is transformed into amber.

Baltic amber is distinguished from the various other ambers from around the world, by the presence within it of succinic acid hence why Baltic amber is otherwise known as succinite.
Amber in geology
 
A bee and a Leaf inside the amber.Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in a marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Kaliningrad Oblast, where it is now systematically mined.[5] It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood, according to some authorities, does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora.

Amber from the Middle Cretaceous is known from Ellsworth County, Kansas. This approximately 100 million year old amber has inclusions of bacteria and amoebae. They are morphologically very close to Leptothrix, and the modern genera Pontigulasia and Nebela. Morphological stasis is considered to be confirmed.[6]

Amber inclusions
 
An ant trapped in amber.
Insect trapped in amber. The amber piece is 10 mm (0.4 inches) long. In the enlarged picture, the insect's antennae are easily seen.The resin contains, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, numerous remains of insects, spiders, annelids, frogs,[7] crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while the exudation was fluid. In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, leaving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin. Even hair and feathers have occasionally been represented among the enclosures. Fragments of wood frequently occur, with the tissues well-preserved by impregnation with the resin; while leaves, flowers and fruits are occasionally found in marvelous perfection. Sometimes the amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees. It is thought that, in addition to exuding onto the surface of the tree, amber resin also originally flowed into hollow cavities or cracks within trees, thereby leading to the development of large lumps of amber of irregular form.[8] The abnormal development of resin has been called succinosis. Impurities are quite often present, especially when the resin dropped on to the ground, so that the material may be useless except for varnish-making, whence the impure amber is called firniss. Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish colour to amber. The so-called black amber is only a kind of jet. Bony amber owes its cloudy opacity to minute bubbles in the interior of the resin. A type of amber known as blue amber exists in the Dominican Republic.

Amber locations

Baltic amber
Amber has a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals.

True amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3% to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or bony varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid. True Baltic amber is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, for many of the other fossil resins which are often termed amber contain either none of it, or only a very small proportion; hence the name succinite proposed by Professor James Dwight Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber. Succinite has a hardness between 2 and 3, which is rather greater than that of many other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from 1.05 to 1.10. An effective tool for amber analysis is IR spectroscopy. It enables the distinction between Baltic and non-Baltic amber varieties because of a specific carbonyl absorption and it can also detect the relative age of an amber sample.

 
Wood resin, the ancient source of amberAlthough amber is found along the shores of a large part of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, the great amber-producing country is the promontory of Sambia, now part of Russia. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is located in the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the Baltic Sea.[9] Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected at ebb-tide. Sometimes the searchers wade into the sea, furnished with nets at the end of long poles, which they drag in the sea-weed containing entangled masses of amber; or they dredge from boats in shallow water and rake up amber from between the boulders. Divers have been employed to collect amber from the deeper waters. Systematic dredging on a large scale was at one time carried on in the Curonian Lagoon by Messrs Stantien and Becker, the great amber merchants of Königsberg. At the present time extensive mining operations are conducted in quest of amber. The pit amber was formerly dug in open works, but is now also worked by underground galleries. The nodules from the blue earth have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. The sea-worn amber has lost its crust, but has often acquired a dull rough surface by rolling in sand.

Since the establishment of the Amber Road, amber (which is also commonly referred to as the "Lithuanian gold") has substantially contributed to Lithuanian economy and culture. Nowadays a great variety of amber jewelry and amberware is offered to foreign tourists in most souvenir shops as distinctive to Lithuania and its cultural heritage. The Amber Museum containing unique specimen of amber has been established in Palanga, near the sea coast. Amber can also be found in Latvia, and it has an important role in Latvian culture, too.


Other locations
A lesser known source of amber is in the Ukraine, within a marshy forested area on the Volyhn-Polesie border. Due to the shallow depth that this amber is found at it can be extracted with the simplest of tools, and has hence led to an economy of 'amber poaching' under cover of the forest. This Ukrainian amber is much appreciated for its wide range of colours, and was used in the restoration of 'amber room' in the Empress Catherines palace in St Petersberg (see below).

Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea. Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, such as Great Yarmouth, as well as Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire. On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of the Netherlands and Denmark. On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the German and Polish coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in southern Finland. Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe through the Amber Road. Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia (today Marseille) on the Mediterranean, and Adria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Ancient Greek world.

Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the green-sand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value. Middle Cretaceous amber has also been found in Ellsworth county, Kansas. It has little value for jewelry makers, but is very valuable to biologists. Unfortunately the source of this amber is currently under a man made lake. A fluorescent amber occurs in the southern state of Chiapas in Mexico, and is used extensively to create eye-catching jewelery. Blue amber is recorded in the Dominican Republic. These Central American ambers are formed from the resins of legume trees (Hymenea) and not conifers.

Indonesia is also a rich source of amber with large fragments being unearthed in both Java and Bali.

Amber treatments
 
Amber (ca. 12 cm Ø)The famous Vienna amber factories which use pale amber to manufacture pipes and other smoking tools, apply a specific procedure when working amber: it is turned on the lathe and polished with whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil, the final lustre being given by friction with flannel. During the working a significant electrostatic charge is developed.

When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber". The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewelery and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light. Amber has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass. True amber is sometimes coloured artificially.

Often amber (particularly with insect inclusions) is counterfeited using a plastic resin similar in appearance. A simple test (performed on the back of the object) consists of touching the object with a heated pin and determining if the resultant odor is of wood resin. If not, the object is counterfeit, although a positive test may not be conclusive owing to a thin coat of real resin. Often counterfeits will have a too perfect pose and position of the trapped insect.


Amber art and ornament
Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times. It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with Neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age. A remarkably fine cup turned in amber from a bronze-age barrow at Hove is now in the Brighton Museum. Beads of amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet. It is still believed to possess a certain medicinal virtue.

 
Unpolished amber stones, in varying huesAmber is extensively used for beads and other ornaments, and for cigar-holders and the mouth-pieces of pipes. It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth. The variety most valued in the East is the pale straw-coloured, slightly cloudy amber. Some of the best qualities are sent to Vienna for the manufacture of smoking appliances.

The Amber Room was a collection of chamber wall panels commissioned in 1701 for the king of Prussia, then given to Tsar Peter the Great. The room was hidden in place from invading Nazi forces in 1941, who upon finding it in the Catherine Palace, disassembled it and moved it to Königsberg. What happened to the room beyond this point is unclear, but it may have been destroyed when the Russians burned the German fortification where it was stored. It is presumed lost. It was re-created in 2003.[10]

 
The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.Amber has also been used to create the "frog" part of a Violin bow. It was commissioned by Gennady Filimonov and made by the late American Master Bowmaker Keith Peck [11]


 

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Buchner Eduard  (May 20, 1860 – August 13, 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, the winner of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.

He was born in Munich, the son of a physician and Doctor Extraordinary of Forensic Medicine. In 1884, he began studies in chemistry with Adolf von Baeyer and in botany with Professor C. von Naegeli, at the Botanic Institute in Munich. After a period working with Otto Fischer in Erlangen, he was awarded a doctorate from the University of Munich in 1888.

Buchner married Lotte Stahl in 1900.

Buchner was awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his biochemical investigations and his discovery of non-cellular fermentation.

During World War I, Buchner served as a Major in a front-line field hospital at Focşani, Romania. He was wounded on August 3 1917 and died of these wounds nine days later in Munich, aged 57.

It is commonly thought that the Büchner flask and Büchner funnel are named for him, but they are actually named for the industrial chemist Ernst Büchner.






 

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C is Cladogram

Main Entry:cladogram
Pronunciation:*kla-d*-*gram
Function:noun
Date:1966

 : a branching diagrammatic tree used in cladistic classification to illustrate phylogenetic relationships
 

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Däniken ,Erich von



Erich Anton Paul von Däniken (b. Zofingen, Aargau, Switzerland, April 14, 1935) is a controversial Swiss author best known for his books which examine possible evidence for extraterrestrial influences on early human culture. Von Däniken is one of the key figures responsible for popularizing the paleocontact and ancient astronaut hypotheses.

Von Däniken is a co-founder of the Archaeology, Astronautics and SETI Research Association (AAS RA). He developed a theme park called Mystery Park in Interlaken, Switzerland, which opened on May 23, 2003 and closed on November 19, 2006.

His 26 books have been translated into more than 20 languages, selling more than 60 million copies worldwide, and his documentary TV shows have been viewed in Germany and the United States. His influence can also be seen in science fiction, the New Age culture and some modern religions [1].

Source: Wikipedia
 

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E is Efate

Main Entry:Efate
Pronunciation:*-*f*-*t*
Variant:or French Vat*  \v*-*t*\
Usage:geographical name

 island  SW Pacific in central Vanuatu; chief town Port-Vila (capital of Vanuatu) area 353 square miles (914 square kilometers), population 30,422
 

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F is Fungi

Main Entry:fungus
Pronunciation:*f**-g*s
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural fungi  \*f*n-*j*, *f**-*g*\ ; also funguses  \*f**-g*-s*z\
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Latin
Date:1527

 : any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms usually classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts

 

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G is Geanticline

Main Entry:geanticline
Pronunciation:j*-*an-ti-*kl*n
Function:noun
Date:1889

 : a great upward flexure of the earth's crust   compare GEOSYNCLINE
 

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H is Helicopter

Main Entry:1helicopter
Pronunciation:*he-l*-*k*p-t*r, *h*-
Function:noun
Etymology:French h*licopt*re, from Greek heliko- + pteron wing more at  FEATHER
Date:1887

 : an aircraft whose lift is derived from the aerodynamic forces acting on one or more powered rotors turning about substantially vertical axes
 

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I is for Ice Ax

Main Entry:ice ax
Function:noun
Date:1820

 : a combination pick and adze with a spiked handle that is used in mountain climbing
 

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J is for Jaguar

Main Entry:jaguar
Pronunciation:*ja-*gw*r, -gy*-*w*r, -gw*r, esp British *ja-gy*-w*r
Function:noun
Etymology:Spanish yaguar & Portuguese jaguar, from Guarani yaguara & Tupi jaguara
Date:1604

 : a large cat (Panthera onca syn. Felis onca) chiefly of Central and So. America that is larger and stockier than the leopard and is brownish yellow or buff with black spots
 

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K is for Kangaroo

Main Entry:kangaroo
Pronunciation:*ka*-g*-*r*
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural -roos
Etymology:Guugu Yimidhirr (Australian aboriginal language of northern Queensland) ga*urru
Date:1770

 : any of various herbivorous leaping marsupial mammals (family Macropodidae) of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands with a small head, large ears, long powerful hind legs, a long thick tail used as a support and in balancing, and rather small forelegs not used in progression
 

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L is for (Sea) Lion

Main Entry:sea lion
Function:noun
Date:1697

 : any of several Pacific eared seals (as genera Eumetopius and Zalophus) that are usually larger than the related fur seals and lack a thick underfur
 

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M is for Monkey

Main Entry:1monkey
Pronunciation:*m**-k*
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural monkeys
Etymology:probably of Low German origin; akin to Moneke, name of an ape, probably of Romance origin; akin to Old Spanish mona monkey
Date:circa 1530

1 : a nonhuman primate mammal with the exception usually of the lemurs and tarsiers;  especially   : any of the smaller longer-tailed primates as contrasted with the apes
2 a : a person resembling a monkey  b : a ludicrous figure : DUPE
 

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N is for NOAA

Main Entry:NOAA
Function:abbreviation

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
 

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O is for Organelle

Main Entry:organelle
Pronunciation:**r-g*-*nel
Function:noun
Etymology:New Latin organella, from Latin organum
Date:1920

 : a specialized cellular part (as a mitochondrion, lysosome, or ribosome) that is analogous to an organ
 

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