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Author Topic: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!  (Read 346651 times)

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P is for Poop (Excrement)

Main Entry:excrement
Pronunciation:*ek-skr*-m*nt
Function:noun
Etymology:Latin excrementum, from excernere
Date:1533

 : waste matter discharged from the body;  especially   : waste (as feces) discharged from the alimentary canal
  –excremental \*ek-skr*-*men-t*l\  adjective 
  –excrementitious \-*men-*ti-sh*s, -m*n-\  adjective 
 

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Quicksilver (Mercury)

Mercury, also called quicksilver, is a chemical element with the symbol Hg (Latinized Greek: hydrargyrum, meaning watery or liquid silver) and atomic number 80. A heavy, silvery d-block metal, mercury is one of six elements that are liquid at or near room temperature and pressure.[1] The others are the metals caesium, francium, gallium, and rubidium, and the non-metal bromine. Of these, only mercury and bromine are liquids at standard conditions for temperature and pressure.

Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, and other scientific apparatus, though concerns about the element's toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favour of alcohol-filled, digital, or thermistor-based instruments. It remains in use in a number of other ways in scientific and scientific research applications, and in dental amalgam. Mercury is mostly obtained by reduction from the mineral cinnabar.

Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world and it is harmless in an insoluble form, such as mercuric sulfide, but it is poisonous in soluble forms such as mercuric chloride or methylmercury.












 

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R is for Rabbits

Main Entry:1rabbit
Pronunciation:*ra-b*t
Function:noun
Inflected Form:plural rabbit or rabbits
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Middle English rabet, probably from Middle French dialect (Walloon) robett, from Middle Dutch robe
Date:14th century

1 : any of a family (Leporidae) of long-eared short-tailed lagomorph mammals with long hind legs:  a : any of various lagomorphs that are born naked, blind, and helpless, that are sometimes gregarious, and that include especially the cottontails of the New World and a small Old World mammal (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that is the source of various domestic breeds  b : HARE
 

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S is for Snow


Main Entry:1snow
Pronunciation:*sn*
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:Middle English, from Old English sn*w; akin to Old High German sn*o snow, Latin niv-, nix, Greek nipha (accusative)
Date:before 12th century

1 a : precipitation in the form of small white ice crystals formed directly from the water vapor of the air at a temperature of less than 32*F (0*C)  b (1) : a descent or shower of snow crystals (2) : a mass of fallen snow crystals
 

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Thyroid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck inferior to (below) the thyroid cartilage (a.k.a. the Adam's apple in men) and at approximately the same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.

The thyroid participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Iodine is an essential component of both T3 and T4. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.

The thyroid is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary. The gland gets its name from the Greek word for "shield", after its shape, a double-lobed structure. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) are the most common problems of the thyroid gland.



 

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U

Main Entry:uranography
Pronunciation:*y*r-*-*n*-gr*-f*
Function:noun
Etymology:Greek ouranographia description of the heavens, from ouranos sky + -graphia -graphy
Date:1675

 : the construction of celestial representations (as maps)
 

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Virology


Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of biological viruses and virus-like agents: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit cells for virus reproduction, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy.


Source:Wikipedia






V
irologist: Someone who studies virology





A Smiling Virologist

 

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William Heberden (1710 – May 17, 1801), English physician, was born in London.

At the end of 1724 he was sent to St John's College, Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship, around 1730, became master of arts in 1732, and took the degree of MD in 1739. He remained at Cambridge nearly ten years longer practising medicine, and gave an annual course of lectures on materia medica. In 1746 he became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in London; and two years later he settled in London, where he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1749, and enjoyed an extensive medical practice for more than thirty years.

At the age of seventy-two he partially retired, spending his summers at a house he had taken at Windsor, but he continued to practice in London during the winter for some years longer. In 1778 he was made an honorary member of the Paris Royal Society of Medicine.

Heberden, who was a good classical scholar, published several papers in the Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, and among his noteworthy contributions to the Medical Transactions (issued, largely at his suggestion, by the College of Physicians) were papers on chickenpox (1767) and angina pectoris (1768). His Commentarii de morborum historia et curatione, the result of careful notes made in his pocket-book at the bedside of his patients, were published in 1802; in the following year an English translation appeared, believed to be from the pen of his son, William Heberden (1767-1845), also a distinguished scholar and physician, who attended King George III in his last illness.

He married twice. First to Elizabeth Martin in 1752, with whom he had one son Thomas, later Canon of Exeter, but she died in 1754. He remarried to Mary Wollaston, daughter of Francis Wollaston (1694-1774), and had a further eight children, of whom only two survived their father, one being the William Heberden the Younger (1767-1845), who followed his father into medicine, and the other Mary (1763-1832) who married the Rev George Leonard Jenyns.
 

Offline rosalind dna

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray

X-Rays to show up the injury of someone concerned. Like broken or sprains muscles/bones.

Also Rosalind Franklin's Crystallograpy work was done by using X-RAys to find her famous 2 Slides A and B, photo 51.

Other notable uses of X-rays include

X-ray crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice (most notably used by Rosalind Franklin to discover the double helix structure of DNA).
(From wiki).
« Last Edit: 01/05/2008 12:59:37 by neilep »
 

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Naples Yellow
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Naples yellow, also called antimony yellow, can range from a somewhat muted, or earthy, reddish yellow pigment to a bright light yellow, and is the chemical compound lead(II) antimonate. Its chemical composition is Pb(SbO3)2/Pb3(Sb3O4)2. It is also known as jaune d'antimoine. It is one of the oldest synthetic pigments, dating from around 1620. The related mineral pigment, bindheimite, dates from the 16th century BC, however this natural version was rarely, if ever, used as a pigment. Naples yellow was used extensively by the Old Masters and well into the 20th century. The genuine pigment is toxic, and its use today is becoming increasingly rare. Most paints labeled "Naples yellow" are instead made with a mix of modern, less toxic pigments. The colors of these paints vary considerably from one manufacturer to another





How Naples Yellow Is Made
 

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Zenith

In broad terms, the zenith is the direction pointing directly above a particular location (perpendicular, orthogonal). Since the concept of being above is itself somewhat vague, scientists define the zenith in more rigorous terms. Specifically, in astronomy, geophysics and related sciences (e.g., meteorology), the zenith at a given point is the local vertical direction pointing away from direction of the force of gravity at that location.

For reference, the vertical direction at the given location and pointing in the same sense as the gravitational force is called the nadir.

Zenith is also used for the highest point reached by a celestial body during its apparent orbit around a given point of observation.  Often used in this sense about the Sun, it only corresponds to the first concept of zenith for one latitude at a time, and never at all for latitudes outside the tropics.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenith
 

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Ångström
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

An ångström or angstrom (symbol Å) (pronounced /ˈɔːŋstrəm/; Swedish: IPA: [ˈɔ̀ŋstrœm]) is a non-SI unit of length that is internationally recognized, equal to 0.1 nanometre or 1×10−10 metres. It is sometimes used in expressing the sizes of atoms, lengths of chemical bonds and visible-light spectra, and dimensions of parts of integrated circuits. It is commonly applied in structural biology. It is named after Anders Jonas Ångström.

Unicode includes the "angstrom sign" at U+212B (Å). However, the "angstrom sign" is normalized into U+00C5 (Å), and is thereby seen as a (pre-existing) encoding mistake, and it is better to use U+00C5 (Å) directly.[1]
 History

The ångström is named after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Ångström (1814–1874), one of the founders of spectroscopy who is known also for studies of astrophysics, heat transfer, terrestrial magnetism, and the aurora borealis.

In 1868, Ångström created a spectrum chart of solar radiation that expresses the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum in multiples of one ten-millionth of a millimetre, or 1×10−10 metres. This unit of length became known as the 'Ångström unit', and later simply as the ångström, Å.

The visual sensitivity of a human being is from about 4,000 ångströms (violet) to 7,000 ångströms (dark red) so the use of the ångström as a unit provided a fair amount of discrimination without resort to fractional units. Because of its closeness to the scale of atomic and molecular structures it also became popular in chemistry and crystallography.

Although intended to correspond to 1×10−10 metres, for precise spectral analysis the ångström needed to be defined more accurately than the metre which until 1960 was still defined based on the length of a bar of metal held in Paris. In 1907 the International Astronomical Union defined the international ångström by making the wavelength of the red line of cadmium in air equal to 6438.4696 international ångströms, and this definition was endorsed by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in 1927. From 1927 to 1960, the ångström remained a secondary unit of length for use in spectroscopy, defined separately from the metre, but in 1960, the metre itself was redefined in spectroscopic terms, thus aligning the ångström as a submultiple of the metre.

Since the ångström is now defined as exactly 1×10−10 metres, there are therefore 10,000 ångströms in a micrometre (commonly called a 'micron', abbreviated μm, of which there are 1 million to a metre), and 10 in a nanometre (1 nm = 1×10−9 metres).

Today, the use of the ångström as a unit is less popular than it used to be and the nanometre (nm) is often used instead (with the ångström being officially discouraged by both the International Committee for Weights and Measures and the American National Standard for Metric Practice).
 

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Bicapsular = Having two capsules or a capsule with two cells.
 

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Compass
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A compass, (or mariner compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. It consists of a magnetized pointer free to align itself accurately with Earth's magnetic field, which is of great assistance in navigation. The face of the compass generally highlights the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. A compass can be used (to calculate heading) in conjunction with a marine chronometer (to calculate longitude) and a sextant (to calculate latitude) to provide a somewhat accurate navigation capability. This device greatly improved maritime trade by making travel safer and more efficient.



A Compass relaxing earlier today !

 

Offline rosalind dna

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Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. In older usage, it is the scientific study of crystals.

Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography (see below), the study of crystals was based on the geometry of the crystals. This involves measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to theoretical reference axes (crystallographic axes), and establishing the symmetry of the crystal in question. The former is carried out using a goniometer. The position in 3D space of each crystal face is plotted on a stereographic net, e.g. Wulff net or Lambert net. In fact, the pole to each face is plotted on the net. Each point is labelled with its Miller index. The final plot allows the symmetry of the crystal to be established.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallography



This special lady, Rosalind Frankin used Crystallography in the
discovery of the Single DNA Helix structure and it's form of X-Ray's too. I couldn't resist doing this. I hope you don't mind too much.
 

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Diode
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal device (except that thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow, and most are used for their unidirectional current property. The varicap diode is used as an electrically adjustable capacitor.

The directionality of current flow most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block it in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex non-linear electrical characteristic, which depends on the particular type of diode technology. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner.




 

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EXOSPHERE = THE OUTER PORTION OF THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE

CHECK OUT THIS LINK....SCROLL TO BOTTOM AND WATCH THE ANIMATION....

http://www.astro.umd.edu/~rkillen/
 

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F2 Layer

Main Entry:F2 layer
Pronunciation:*ef-*t*-
Function:noun
Date:1933

 : the upper of the two layers into which the F region of the ionosphere splits in the daytime at varying heights from about 120 miles (200 kilometers) to more than 300 miles (500 kilometers) above the earth
 

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G2 Phase

Main Entry:G2 phase
Pronunciation:*j*-*t*-
Function:noun
Etymology:growth
Date:1968

 : the period in the cell cycle from the completion of DNA replication to the beginning of cell division   compare G1 PHASE, M PHASE, S PHASE
 

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The Hubble Space Telescope (HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble") is a space telescope that was carried into Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle in April 1990. It is named for American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although Hubble was not the first space telescope, it is one of the largest and most versatile, and well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy. The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency, and is part of NASA's Great Observatories series, with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.[3]

Space telescopes were proposed as early as the 1940s. The Hubble was funded in the 1970s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, and the Challenger disaster. When finally launched in 1990, scientists found that the main mirror had been ground incorrectly, severely compromising the telescope's capabilities. However, after a servicing mission in 1993, the telescope was restored to its intended quality. Hubble's position outside the Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely sharp images with almost no background light. Hubble's Ultra Deep Field image, for instance, is the most detailed visible-light image of the universe's most distant objects ever made. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as accurately determining the rate of expansion of the universe.

The Hubble is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. To date, there have been four servicing missions. Servicing Mission 1 took place in December 1993 when Hubble's imaging flaw was corrected. Servicing missions 2, 3, and 4 repaired various sub-systems and replaced many of the observing instruments with more modern and capable versions. However, following the 2003 Columbia Space Shuttle disaster, the fifth servicing mission was canceled on safety grounds. After spirited public discussion, NASA reconsidered this decision, and administrator Mike Griffin gave the green light for one final Hubble servicing mission. This is now planned for August 2008.

The planned repairs to the Hubble will allow the telescope to function until at least 2013, when its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is due to be launched. The JWST will be far superior to Hubble for many astronomical research programs, but will only observe in infrared, so it would complement (not replace) Hubble's ability to observe in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum.




 

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Iodine is a chemical element that has the symbol I and atomic number 53. Naturally-occurring iodine is a single isotope with 74 neutrons.

Chemically, iodine is the least reactive of the halogens, and the most electropositive halogen after astatine. However, the element does not occur in the free state in nature. As with all other halogens (members of Group VII in the Periodic Table), when freed from its compounds iodine forms diatomic molecules (I2).

Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in medicine, photography and in dyes. Although it is rare in the solar system and Earth's crust, the iodides are very soluble in water, and the element is concentrated in seawater. This mechanism helps to explain how the element came to be required in trace amounts by all animals and some plants, being by far the heaviest element known to be necessary to living organisms.




Some Iodine having a day out yesterday !



 

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Jaundice

Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: "icteric"), is yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluids. Typically, the concentration of bilirubin in the plasma must exceed 1.5 mg/dL[1], three times the usual value of approximately 0.5mg/dL[1], for the coloration to be easily visible. Jaundice comes from the French word jaune, meaning yellow.

Contents
1 Normal Physiology
1.1 Pre-Hepatic events
1.2 Hepatic events
1.3 Post Hepatic events
2 Causes
2.1 Pre-hepatic
2.2 Hepatic
2.3 Post-hepatic
3 Laboratory Results
3.1 Laboratory Tests
4 Neonatal jaundice
5 Jaundiced eye
6 External links
7 See also
8 Footnotes
 

Normal Physiology
In order to understand how jaundice results, it is important to understand where the pathological processes that cause jaundice take their effect. It is also important to further recognize that jaundice itself is not a disease, but rather a symptom of an underlying pathological process that occurs at some point along the normal physiological pathway of the metabolism of bilirubin.

Pre-Hepatic events
When red blood cells have completed their life span of approximately 120 days, their membranes become fragile and prone to rupture. As the cell traverses through the reticuloendothelial system, their cell membranes rupture and the contents of the red blood cell is released into the blood. The component of the red blood cell that is involved in jaundice is hemoglobin. The hemoglobin released into the blood is phagocytosed by macrophages, and split into its heme and globin portions. The globin portion, being protein, is degraded into amino acids and plays no further role in jaundice. Two reactions then take place to the heme molecule. The first reaction is the oxidation of heme to form biliverdin.This reaction is catalyzed by microsomal enzyme heme oxygenase and it results in biliverdin (green color pigment), iron and carbon monoxide. Next step is reduction of biliverdin to yellow color tetrapyrol pigment bilirubin by cytosolic enzyme biliverdin reductase. This bilirubin is known as "unconjugated", "free" or "indirect" bilirubin. Approximately 4 mg per kg of bilirubin is produced each day.[2] The majority of this bilirubin comes from the breakdown of heme from expired red blood cells in the process just described. However approximately 20 per cent comes from other heme sources, including ineffective erythropoiesis, breakdown of other heme protrins such as muscle myoglobin and cytochrome enzymes.

Hepatic events
The unconjugated bilirubin then travels to the liver through the bloodstream. Because this bilirubin is not soluble, however, it is transported through the blood bound to serum albumin. Once it arrives at the liver, it is conjugated with glucuronic acid (to form bilirubin diglucuronide, or just "conjugated bilirubin") to become more water soluble. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme UDP-glucuronide transferase.

Post Hepatic events
This conjugated bilirubin is excreted from the liver into the biliary and cystic ducts as part of bile. Intestinal bacteria convert the bilirubin into urobilinogen. From here the urobilinogen can take two pathways. It can either be further converted into stercobilinogen, which is then oxidized to stercobilin and passed out in the faeces, or it can be reabsorbed by the intestinal cells, transported in the blood to the kidneys, and passed out in the urine as the oxidised product urobilin. Stercobilin and urobilin are the products responsible for the coloration of faeces and urine, respectively.

Causes
When a pathological process interferes with the normal functioning of the metabolism and excretion of bilirubin just described, jaundice may be the result. Jaundice is classified into three categories, depending on which part of the physiological mechanism the pathology affects. The three categories are:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaundice
 

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K-theory


In mathematics, K-theory is a tool used in several disciplines. In algebraic topology, it is an extraordinary cohomology theory known as topological K-theory. In algebra and algebraic geometry, it is referred to as algebraic K-theory. It also has some applications in operator algebras. It leads to the construction of families of K-functors, which contain useful but often hard-to-compute information.

In physics, K-theory and in particular twisted K-theory have appeared in Type II string theory where it has been conjectured that they classify D-branes, Ramond-Ramond field strengths and also certain spinors on generalized complex manifolds. For details, see also K-theory (physics).


Guess what....I don't understand a single thing in the above paragraphs !! ;D
 

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