The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists Forum

Author Topic: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!  (Read 346375 times)

Offline neilep

  • Withdrawnmist
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *******
  • Posts: 20602
  • Thanked: 8 times
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #225 on: 26/12/2012 05:44:01 »
Carbon




Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.
There are several allotropes of carbon of which the best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon.The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, diamond is highly transparent, while graphite is opaque and black. Diamond is the hardest naturally-occurring material known, while graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek word "to write"). Diamond has a very low electrical conductivity, while graphite is a very good conductor. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotube and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials.
All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen. The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and other transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil and methane clathrates. Carbon forms more compounds than any other element, with almost ten million pure organic compounds described to date, which in turn are a tiny fraction of such compounds that are theoretically possible under standard conditions.
Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. It is present in all known life forms, and in the human body carbon is the second most abundant element by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen. This abundance, together with the unique diversity of organic compounds and their unusual polymer-forming ability at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth, make this element the chemical basis of all known life.



SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA
 

Offline CamKrist

  • First timers
  • *
  • Posts: 1
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #226 on: 17/01/2013 15:34:31 »
Similar subject was being discussed at yahoo answers last week. I can post the link if needed.
 

Offline roysmit1

  • First timers
  • *
  • Posts: 1
    • View Profile
    • www.paramountbathrooms.co.uk
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #227 on: 05/04/2013 07:26:38 »
Thanks for this valuable information...
 

Offline Karen W.

  • Moderator
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *****
  • Posts: 31653
  • Thanked: 5 times
  • "come fly with me"
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #228 on: 06/08/2014 19:14:08 »


               D
                                                         
                               DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

   
                                                 
                                  A sample of food-grade diatomaceous earth

Diatomaceous earth/ˌdaɪ.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/, also known as D.E.,diatomite, orkieselgur/kieselguhr,
is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to
off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometers to more than 1 millimeter,
but typically 10 to 200 micrometers. Depending on the granularity, this powder can have an abrasive
feel, similar to pumice powder, and has a low density as a result of its high porosity. The typical chemical
composition of oven-dried Diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica, with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed
mostly to clay minerals) and 0.5 to 2% iron oxide.[1]

Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. It is
used as a filtration aid, mild abrasive in products including toothpaste, mechanical insecticide,
absorbent for liquids, matting agent for coatings, reinforcing filler in plastics and rubber, anti-block
in plastic films, porous support for chemical catalysts,cat litter, activator in blood clotting studies,
a stabilizing component of dynamite, and a thermal insulator.


                   http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diatomaceous_earth

                               

   
« Last Edit: 06/08/2014 19:22:46 by Karen W. »
 

Offline Sheppie

  • First timers
  • *
  • Posts: 8
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #229 on: 14/08/2014 13:47:37 »
Actinides

" For many years, the list of chemical elements known to scientists ended with number 92, uranium. Scientists were uncertain as to whether elements heavier than uranium would ever be found. Then, in 1940, a remarkable discovery was made while University of California physicists Edwin McMillan (1907–1991) and Philip Abelson (1913– ) were studying nuclear fission. (Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atomic nucleus, a process that releases large amounts of energy. Atomic bombs and nuclear power plants operate on nuclear fission.) During their research, the duo found evidence for the existence of a new element with atomic number 94, two greater than that of uranium.

This new element was the first transuranium (heaver than uranium) element ever discovered. McMillan and Abelson named it neptunium, after the planet Neptune, just as uranium had been named after the planet Uranus. Later in the same year, McMillan and two other colleagues found a second transuranium element, which they named plutonium, after the planet Pluto.

At that point, the race was on to develop more synthetic transuranium elements, but the research process was not easy. The approach was to fire subatomic particles or small atoms, like those of helium, at a very large nucleus by means of a particle accelerator. If the smaller particle could be made to merge with the larger nucleus, a new atom would be produced. Over time, techniques became more and more sophisticated, and ever-heavier elements were created: americium (number 95) and curium (number 96) in 1944; berkelium (number 97) in 1949; californium (number 98) in 1950; einsteinium (number 99) and fermium (number 100) in 1952; mendelevium (number 101) in 1955; nobelium (number 102) in 1958; and lawrencium (number 103) in 1961."

Read more: newbielink:http://www.scienceclarified.com/A-Al/Actinides.html#ixzz3AN2PwzU6 [nonactive]
 

Offline Karen W.

  • Moderator
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *****
  • Posts: 31653
  • Thanked: 5 times
  • "come fly with me"
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #230 on: 15/08/2014 19:39:18 »
Sheppie..the letter to you was
"E"...lol....Remember Alphabetical order....

"C"= Carbon

"D" = Diatomaceous Earth

Then you respond with the word starting with "E"...not "A"....
« Last Edit: 15/08/2014 19:48:43 by Karen W. »
 

Offline hussen

  • First timers
  • *
  • Posts: 2
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #231 on: 11/09/2014 07:48:17 »
thank u very much for this nice topic........it is a very benefitial data
 

Offline Karen W.

  • Moderator
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *****
  • Posts: 31653
  • Thanked: 5 times
  • "come fly with me"
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #232 on: 27/11/2014 09:23:59 »
This thread is: A-Z of anything or anyone associated with science. So if you wish to post in this thread it is done in alphabbetical order so the next science related word should start with an  "E"..ok?
 

Offline Radium

  • First timers
  • *
  • Posts: 6
  • Radioactive and element number 89.
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #233 on: 20/07/2015 20:34:53 »
B: Bismuth

Quote
Bismuth, which has been known since ancient times, was often confused with lead and tin. Bismuth was first shown to be a distinct element in 1753 by Claude Geoffroy the Younger. Bismuth does occur free in nature and in such minerals as bismuthinite (Bi2S3) and bismite (Bi2O3). The largest deposits of bismuth are found in Bolivia, although bismuth is usually obtained as a by-product of mining and refining lead, copper, tin, silver and gold.

Pure bismuth is a white, brittle metal with a slight pink color. Bismuth is usually mixed with other metals, such as lead, tin, iron or cadmium to form low-melting alloys. These alloys are used in such things as automatic fire sprinkler systems, fire detection systems and electrical fuses.

Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), a bismuth compound, is used as a yellow pigment in paints and cosmetics. Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) is used to make a pigment known as bismuth white. Bismuth carbonate (Bi2(CO3)3) is used to treat diarrhea and gastric ulcers.

Once thought to be the heaviest stable isotope to exist in nature, experiments conducted in 2002 showed that bismuth-209 is unstable and decays into thallium-205 through alpha decay. Bismuth-209 has a half-life of roughly 19,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.

Source: newbielink:http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele083.html [nonactive]
 

Offline neilep

  • Withdrawnmist
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *******
  • Posts: 20602
  • Thanked: 8 times
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #234 on: 06/05/2016 20:19:52 »
C


Cepheid Variables

...............are very large, luminous, yellow stars. They change in brightness very regularly with periods of 1 to 70 days between peaks. The stars are called Cepheids after the first star of this type to be discovered - Delta Cephei. This is a reasonably bright star in the constellation of Cepheus
 

Offline JimBob

  • Global Moderator
  • Neilep Level Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 6564
  • Thanked: 7 times
  • Moderator
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #235 on: 26/06/2016 03:43:09 »
D


Dike

NO! not the usual common association

IT IS: A tabular igneous intrusion that cuts across the surrounding rock.

((BE AFRAID  be VERY afraid.  I am gaining strength!))

after a lengthy incapacitation
« Last Edit: 26/06/2016 05:16:07 by JimBob »
 

Offline Karen W.

  • Moderator
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *****
  • Posts: 31653
  • Thanked: 5 times
  • "come fly with me"
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #236 on: 26/06/2016 11:01:06 »
E

EUPHORIA

A very heightened state of joy and happiness.

GOOGLE

"eu·pho·ri·a
yo͞oˈfôrēə/Submit
noun
a feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness.
"the euphoria of success will fuel your desire to continue training"
synonyms:   elation, happiness, joy, delight, glee;"






 

Offline neilep

  • Withdrawnmist
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *******
  • Posts: 20602
  • Thanked: 8 times
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #237 on: 20/09/2016 20:15:50 »
Michael Faraday


Michael Faraday (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.

Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.

As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as "anode", "cathode", "electrode" and "ion". Faraday ultimately became the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a lifetime position.

Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in clear and simple language; his mathematical abilities, however, did not extend as far as trigonometry and were limited to the simplest algebra. James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others and summarized it in a set of equations which is accepted as the basis of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of lines of force, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a very high order – one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods."[3] The SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour: the farad.

Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell. Physicist Ernest Rutherford stated, "When we consider the magnitude and extent of his discoveries and their influence on the progress of science and of industry, there is no honour too great to pay to the memory of Faraday, one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time."



credit: Wikipedia



« Last Edit: 20/09/2016 20:19:20 by neilep »
 

Offline Karen W.

  • Moderator
  • Naked Science Forum GOD!
  • *****
  • Posts: 31653
  • Thanked: 5 times
  • "come fly with me"
    • View Profile
Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #238 on: 23/09/2016 11:52:01 »
     Credit:       https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyroscope


                                     GYROSCOPE


A gyroscope in operation. Note the freedom of rotation in all three axes. The rotor will maintain its spin axis direction regardless of the orientation of the outer frame.
A gyroscope (from Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation by itself. When rotating, the orientation of this axis is unaffected by tilting or rotation of the mounting, according to the conservation of angular momentum. Because of this, gyroscopes are useful for measuring or maintaining orientation.[1][2]

Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist, such as the electronic, microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscopes found in consumer electronics devices, solid-state ring lasers, fibre optic gyroscopes, and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope.[citation needed]

Applications of gyroscopes include inertial navigation systems where magnetic compasses would not work (as in the Hubble telescope) or would not be precise enough (as in intercontinental ballistic missiles), or for the stabilization of flying vehicles like radio-controlled helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles, and recreational boats and commercial ships. Due to their precision, gyroscopes are also used in gyrotheodolites to maintain direction in tunnel mining.[3] Gyroscopes can be used to construct gyrocompasses, which complement or replace magnetic compasses (in ships, aircraft and spacecraft, vehicles in general), to assist in stability (Hubble Space Telescope, bicycles, motorcycles, and ships) or be used as part of an inertial guidance system.
« Last Edit: 23/09/2016 12:20:13 by Karen W. »
 

The Naked Scientists Forum

Re: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!
« Reply #238 on: 23/09/2016 11:52:01 »

 

SMF 2.0.10 | SMF © 2015, Simple Machines
SMFAds for Free Forums