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Author Topic: A-Z Of Anything Or Anyone Associated With SCIENCE !!  (Read 346266 times)

Offline JimBob

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Since "Q" & "R" have just been quite deftly used up, It is "S" next.

Smegma
- a thick, cheeselike, sebaceous secretion that .....



(its a family site)
 

Offline rosalind dna

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Tinnitus is a disease that affects people by constant ringing in their ears. Of different
kinds of hearing and natures as well as this link says

Tinnitus (pronounced /tɪˈnaɪtəs/ or /ˈtɪnɪtəs/,[1] from the Latin word for "ringing"[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s).

Tinnitus can be perceived in one or both ears or in the head. It is usually described as a ringing noise, but in some patients it takes the form of a high pitched whining, buzzing, hissing, humming, or whistling sound, or as ticking, clicking, roaring, "crickets" or "tree frogs" or "locusts", tunes, songs, or beeping.[3] It has also been described as a "whooshing" sound, as of wind or waves.[4]


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinnitus
 

Offline Carolyn

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Uvula

The uvula (pronounced /ˈjuːvjələ/) is a small, mucosa-covered set of muscles, musculus uvulae, hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. The word is derived from the diminutive of uva, the Latin word for "grape", due to the uvula's grape-like shape.


Function in voice
The uvula plays an important role in the articulation of the sound of the human voice to form the sounds of speech.[1] It functions in tandem with the back of the throat, the palate, and air coming up from the lungs to create a number of guttural and other sounds. Consonants pronounced with the uvula are not found in English; however, languages such as Arabic, French, German, Hebrew, Ubykh, and Hmong use uvular consonants to varying degrees. Certain African languages use the uvula to produce click consonants as well. In English (as well as many other languages), it closes to prevent air escaping through the nose when making some sounds.




Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uvula

 

Offline rosalind dna

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Varicose veinsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Indian Railways worker affected by varicose veins in Karnataka, India.Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards (retrograde). Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart. When veins become enlarged, the leaflets of the valves no longer meet properly, and the valves don't work. One cause of valve failure is Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), which can cause permanent damage to the valves. The blood collects in the veins and they enlarge even more. Varicose veins are common in the superficial veins of the legs, which are subject to high pressure when standing. Besides cosmetic problems, varicose veins are often painful, especially when standing or walking. They often itch, and scratching them can cause ulcers. Serious complications are rare. Non-surgical treatments include sclerotherapy, elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The traditional surgical treatment has been vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer surgical treatments are less invasive (see radiofrequency ablation) and are slowly replacing traditional surgical treatments. Since most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, and the superficial veins only return about 10%, they can be removed or ablated without serious harm.[1][2] Varicose veins are distinguished from reticular veins (blue veins) and telangiectasias (spider veins) which also involve valvular insufficiency,[3] by the size and location of the veins.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varicose_veins
 

Offline Karen W.

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Wagon-wheel effect
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wagon-wheel_effect

The wagon-wheel effect (alternatively, or stagecoach-wheel effect, stroboscopic effect) is an optical illusion in which a spoked wheel appears to rotate differently from its true rotation. The wheel can appear to rotate more slowly than the true rotation, it can appear stationary, or it can appear to rotate in the opposite direction from the true rotation. This last form of the effect is sometimes called the reverse rotation effect.

The wagon-wheel effect is most often seen in film or television depictions of stagecoaches or wagons in Western movies, although recordings of any regularly spoked wheel will show it, such as helicopter rotors and aircraft propellers. It can also commonly be seen when a rotating wheel is illuminated by flickering light. These forms of the effect are known as stroboscopic effects and they arise from temporal aliasing: the original smooth rotation of the wheel is visible only intermittently. A version of the wagon-wheel effect can also be seen under continuous illumination.
See more at:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wagon-wheel_effect
 

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X is for X-Ray (Even though its probably been done before

An X-ray (or Röntgen ray) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz to 30 EHz. X-rays are primarily used for diagnostic radiography and crystallography. X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation and as such can be dangerous. In many languages it is called Röntgen radiation after one of the first investigators of the X-rays, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen.

And from Science Class they were founded by him in 1899 (I beileve)
 

Offline neilep

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Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or vomito negro, or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease. It is an important cause of hemorrhagic illness in many African and South American countries despite existence of an effective vaccine. The yellow refers to the jaundice symptoms that affect some patients.

Yellow fever has been a source of several devastating epidemics. French soldiers were attacked by yellow fever during the 1802 Haitian Revolution; more than half of the army perished from the disease. Outbreaks followed by thousands of deaths occurred periodically in other Western Hemisphere locations until research, which included human volunteers (some of whom died), led to an understanding of the method of transmission to humans (primarily by mosquitos) and development of a vaccine and other preventative efforts in the early 20th century.

Despite the costly and sacrificial breakthrough research by Cuban physician Carlos Finlay, American physician Walter Reed, and many others over 100 years ago, unvaccinated populations in many developing nations in Africa and Central and South America continue to be at risk. As of 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that yellow fever causes 200,000 illnesses and 30,000 deaths every year in unvaccinated populations.



An electron micrograph of Yellow Fever Virus virions.
 Virions are spheroidal, uniform in shape and are 40-60nm
in diameter. The name "Yellow Fever" is due to the ensuing
 jaundice that affects some patients. The vector is the
 Aedes aegypti or Haemagogus spp. mosquito.
 

Offline DoctorBeaver

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grrrr... for Y I was going to put the "Ying Tong Song"  [:(!]
 

Offline Carolyn

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Zircon

Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is ZrSiO4. Hafnium is almost always present in quantities ranging from 1 to 4%. The crystal structure of zircon is tetragonal crystal class. The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond; these specimens are also known as "Matura diamond". It is not to be confused with cubic zirconia, a synthetic substance with a completely different chemical composition.

The name either derives from the Arabic word zarqun, meaning vermilion, or from the Persian zargun, meaning golden-colored. These words are corrupted into "jargoon", a term applied to light-colored zircons. Yellow zircon is called hyacinth, from a word of East Indian origin; in the Middle Ages all yellow stones of East Indian origin were called hyacinth, but today this term is restricted to the yellow zircons.

Zircon is regarded as the traditional birthstone for December.


Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zircon
 

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A if for -a-

Main Entry: -a-
Function: combining form
Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary

 : replacing carbon especially in a ring *aza-*
 

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B is for B1

Main Entry:thiamine
Pronunciation:*th*-*-m*n, -*m*n
Variant:also thiamin  \-m*n\
Function:noun
Etymology:thiamine alteration of thiamin, from thi- + -amin (as in vitamin)
Date:1937

 : a vitamin (C12H17N4OS)Cl of the B complex that is essential to normal metabolism and nerve function and is widespread in plants and animals   called also vitamin B1
 

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C is for Calcium

Main Entry:calcium
Pronunciation:*kal-s*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from Latin calc-, calx lime
Date:1808

 : a silver-white bivalent metallic element of the alkaline-earth group occurring only in combination   see ELEMENT table
 

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D is for D1

Main Entry:calciferol
Pronunciation:kal-*si-f*-*r*l, -*r*l
Function:noun
Etymology:calciferous + ergosterol
Date:1931

 : an alcohol C28H43OH usually prepared by irradiation of ergosterol and used as a dietary supplement in nutrition and medicinally in the control of rickets and related disorders   called also vitamin D2
 

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E is for E Vitamin

Main Entry:vitamin E
Function:noun
Date:1925

 : any of several fat-soluble vitamins that are chemically tocopherols, are essential in the nutrition of various vertebrates in which their absence is associated with infertility, degenerative changes in muscle, or vascular abnormalities, are found especially in leaves and in seed germ oils, and are used chiefly in animal feeds and as antioxidants
 

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F is for the F1 Layer

Main Entry:F1 layer
Pronunciation:*ef-*w*n-
Function:noun
Date:1933

 : the lower of the two layers into which the F region of the ionosphere splits in the daytime that occurs at varying heights from about 80 to 120 miles (130 to 200 kilometers) above the earth's surface
 

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G is for G1 Phase

Main Entry:G1 phase
Pronunciation:*j*-*w*n-
Function:noun
Etymology:growth
Date:1966

 : the period in the cell cycle from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication   compare G2 PHASE, M PHASE, S PHASE
 

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H is for H (get it? hahah)

Main Entry:4*H
Pronunciation:*f*r-**ch, *f*r-
Function:adjective
Etymology:from the fourfold aim of improving the head, heart, hands, and health
Date:1926

 : of or relating to a program set up by the U.S. Department of Agriculture orig. in rural areas to help young people become productive citizens by instructing them in useful skills (as in agriculture, animal husbandry, and carpentry), community service, and personal development
  –4*H'er also    4*Her \-**-ch*r\  noun 


 

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I is for Iodine

Main Entry:iodine
Pronunciation:**-*-*d*n, -d*n, -*d*n
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:French iode, from Greek ioeid*s violet colored, from ion violet
Date:1814

1 : a nonmetallic halogen element obtained usually as heavy shining blackish gray crystals and used especially in medicine, photography, and analysis   see ELEMENT table
2 : a tincture of iodine used especially as a topical antiseptic
 

Offline neilep

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Jade


Jade is an ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. Nephrite jade consists of the calcium- and magnesium-rich amphibole mineral actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos). The rock called jadeitite consists almost entirely of jadeite, a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. The trade name Jadite is sometimes applied to translucent/opaque green glass.

The English word 'jade' is derived from the Spanish term "cholo (first recorded in 1565) or 'loin stone', from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. 'Nephrite' is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada.[1]

Nephrite and jadeite were used by people from the prehistoric for similar purposes. Both are about the same hardness as quartz, and they are exceptionally tough. They are beautifully coloured and can be delicately shaped. Thus it was not until the 19th century that a French mineralogist determined that "jade" was in fact two different materials.

Among the earliest known jade artifacts excavated from prehistoric sites are simple ornaments with bead, button, and tubular shapes[2]. Additionally, jade was used for axe heads, knives, and other weapons. As metal-working technologies became available, the beauty of jade made it valuable for ornaments and decorative objects. Jade has a Mohs hardness of between 6.5 and 7.0,[3] so it can be worked with quartz or garnet sand, and polished with bamboo or even ground jade.






 

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K is for K (Potassium)

Main Entry:potassium
Pronunciation:p*-*ta-s*-*m
Function:noun
Usage:often attributive
Etymology:New Latin, from potassa potash, from English potash
Date:circa 1807

 : a silver-white soft light low-melting univalent metallic element of the alkali metal group that occurs abundantly in nature especially combined in minerals   see ELEMENT table
 

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L is for Lime

Main Entry:5lime
Function:noun
Etymology:French, from Spanish lima, from Arabic l*ma, l*m
Date:1583

1 : the small globose yellowish green fruit of a lime with a usually acid juicy pulp used as a flavoring agent and as a source of vitamin C
2 : a spiny tropical citrus tree (Citrus aurantifolia) with elliptical oblong narrowly winged leaves
 

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John C. Mather


John Cromwell Mather (b. August 7, 1946, Roanoke, Virginia) is an American astrophysicist, cosmologist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his work on COBE with George Smoot. COBE was the first experiment to measure "... the black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation."

This work helped cement the big-bang theory of the universe using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE). According to the Nobel Prize committee, "the COBE-project can also be regarded as the starting point for cosmology as a precision science."[1]

Mather is a senior astrophysicist at the U.S. space agency's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland and adjunct professor of physics at the University of Maryland, College Park. In 2007, Mather was listed among Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in The World.


 

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N is for Neuston

Main Entry:neuston
Pronunciation:*n*-*st*n, *ny*-
Function:noun
Etymology:German, from Greek, neuter of neustos swimming, from nein to swim more at  NATANT
Date:1928

 : minute organisms that float in the surface film of water
 

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O is for Osteoplasty

Main Entry:osteoplasty
Pronunciation:**s-t*-*-*plas-t*
Function:noun
Date:circa 1860

 : plastic surgery on bone;  especially   : replacement of lost bone tissue or reconstruction of defective bony parts
  –osteoplastic \**s-t*-*-*plas-tik\  adjective
 

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P is for Pabluum

Main Entry:pabulum
Pronunciation:*pa-by*-l*m
Function:noun
Etymology:Latin, food, fodder; akin to Latin pascere to feed more at  FOOD
Date:1733

1 : FOOD;  especially   : a suspension or solution of nutrients in a state suitable for absorption
2 : intellectual sustenance
3 : something (as writing or speech) that is insipid, simplistic, or bland
 

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