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Author Topic: Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?  (Read 8554 times)

Offline neilep

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« on: 21/05/2008 09:56:10 »
Dear All,

Will ewe take a look at this down trodden miserable sod ?



He is NOT a happy bunny !!..he has Flu !


Why are colds, sore throats, colds etc so much more common in winter ?


Do ewe know ?

tell me then !


Thank Atchyou !!


Neil
Seasonal Cold Enquirer
xxxxx



 

Offline iko

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #1 on: 21/05/2008 10:01:40 »
Easy question Neilepus amicissimus,

the answer MIGHT be right here:

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=529704

Enjoy

ikod
 

Offline rosalind dna

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #2 on: 21/05/2008 10:39:50 »
Hi Neil could a reason that some people get more colds in the winter is because going outside is not so inviting and our immune systems
get lower. Possibly from the dry air from central heating.
 

Offline neilep

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #3 on: 21/05/2008 16:01:37 »
Easy question Neilepus amicissimus,

the answer MIGHT be right here:

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=529704

Enjoy

ikod

AWESOME !!!..Vitamin D Rules !!...If only I knew a good source of Vitamin D !! ;) ;)
 

Offline neilep

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #4 on: 21/05/2008 16:02:54 »
Hi Neil could a reason that some people get more colds in the winter is because going outside is not so inviting and our immune systems
get lower. Possibly from the dry air from central heating.


Hi Rosalind......Yes...yes this sounds perfect....it's cold...immune system gets weaker...heating plays havoc with our senses !!..
thank you.
 

Offline rosalind dna

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #5 on: 21/05/2008 17:21:21 »
Hi Neil could a reason that some people get more colds in the winter is because going outside is not so inviting and our immune systems
get lower. Possibly from the dry air from central heating.


Hi Rosalind......Yes...yes this sounds perfect....it's cold...immune system gets weaker...heating plays havoc with our senses !!..
thank you.

Neil that is fine. But then eating a healthy diet veg, fruit etc
is supposed to help, of course it doesn't with everyone always.
Life. (scratches her head in deep thought again) LOL
 

Offline iko

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #6 on: 21/05/2008 17:40:07 »
Easy question Neilepus amicissimus,

the answer MIGHT be right here:

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=529704

Enjoy

ikod

AWESOME !!!..Vitamin D Rules !!...If only I knew a good source of Vitamin D !! ;) ;)

Hi Neilepus rapidofastissimus thread-makerus!

Cod liver oil is no good for 'boosting' your vitamin D: plenty of vitamin A and omega-3 fatty acids plus 'some' vitamin D.
It probably works in the long run as far as vitamin D3 is concerned (approx. 400 I.U./day).
So dear old 'cod' is still used daily in northern Europe, during months with the 'R': from September to April.
Short 'flashes' (30min.) of sushine between 10a.m. to 2p.m. at a proper latitude (no clouds please) really boost your  skin production of vitamin D3 (>20,000 I.U.)

Sorry you cannot read the complete paper previously cited by ikus.
You would be impressed by a 1918 study about flu reported in the article.
Shortly, in 1918, trying to find out how influenza viruses managed to infect people and to verify relative incubation times (2-3 days), proper experiments were set up using human volunteers.  Forget the details...but secretions from infected patients were carefully collected, mixed up and flushed through the nostrils of brave volunteers.
Surprisingly enough, nothing happened afterwards, so the experiment was considered a 'fiasco'.

Only now, 90 years later, a crystal-clear explanation is ready for this.
Anti-infective properties of vitamin D were proved only 4-5 years ago, when the cathelicidin pathway was described.
Those volunteers were healthy men from the Navy.
Probably well-tanned all year round, perfectly healthy, they had been selected for not having had a flu in the previous months, to avoid an 'immunization' bias.
Maybe a good level of vitamin D helped them to block the influenza viruses quickly.
For the same reason, somewhere in 2006, most (maybe all) vitamin D supplemented patients in Dr J.Cannell department, Atascadero CA, went through a big influenza epidemic perfectly healthy.
John Cannell was the 'prepared mind', times were changing, so the vitamindcouncil.com crusade started.
One hypothesis out of many is that flu viruses do circulate all year round in humans, but give troubles in some people only in the cold season, i.e. when vitamin D levels are low.
So much for the anti-flu vaccination campaigns.



P.S.
The reason why Chris is not commenting on these issues is simple: he is a virology expert and knows much better than others the other side of the coin.
Everybody is waiting for final scientific proofs about vitamin D and flu, but most of all about vitamin D benefits in other dreadful diseases.
Wonderful hypotheses need extended and accurate studies to become Science.  It takes so much time.
I'm sure Chris will never have to decide from trembling hypotheses whether to give 'cod' to one of his kids or NOT.
It happened to me, after years of serious searches and rigorous evidence-based training.
That's life.



Hypothesis--ultraviolet-B irradiance and vitamin D reduce the risk of viral infections and thus their sequelae, including autoimmune diseases and some cancers.


Grant WB.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, San Francisco, CA, USA. wgrant@infionline.net

Many viral infections reach clinical significance in winter, when it is cold, relative humidity is lowest and vitamin D production from solar ultraviolet-B irradiation is at its nadir. Several autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and asthma, are linked to viral infections. Vitamin D, through induction of cathelicidin, which effectively combats both bacterial and viral infections, may reduce the risk of several autoimmune diseases and cancers by reducing the development of viral infections. Some types of cancer are also linked to viral infections. The cancers with seemingly important risk from viral infections important in winter, based on correlations with increasing latitude in the United States, an index of wintertime solar ultraviolet-B dose and vitamin D, are bladder, prostate, testicular and thyroid cancer, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and, perhaps, gastric cancer. The evidence examined includes the role of viruses in the etiology of these diseases, the geographic and seasonal variation of these diseases, and the time of life when vitamin D is effective in reducing the risk of disease. In general, the evidence supports the hypothesis. However, further work is required to evaluate this hypothesis.

Photochem Photobiol. 2008 Mar-Apr;84(2):356-65. Epub 2008 Jan 7.


« Last Edit: 27/05/2008 15:26:41 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #7 on: 21/05/2008 18:49:43 »

This is a virology issue, specific for Prof. Chris.

I may give my contribution here by citing
an old discussion about influenza epidemics
and Dr. Edgar Hope-Simpson's 'seasonal stimulus'...
But this really is another story!
 
ikod   [^]


Talking of 'revisiting' and looking backwards,
allow me a cut&paste from Complementary Medicine
(Cod Liver Oil topic) and final comment from the
discussion in "Epidemic influenza and vitamin D"
J.J. Cannell et al. 2006.

Quote
Revisiting Vitamin D in humans.
just a few clever minds got this point
first, several years ago...



A hypothesis concerning deficiency of sunlight,
cold temperature, and influenza epidemics associated with
the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in northern Finland.


Timonen TT.

University of Oulu, Department of Internal Medicine, Kajaanintie 50, FIN-90220 Oulu, Finland.

Research to detect new factors contributing to the etiology of acute leukemia (AL) is urgently needed. Located between latitudes 65 degrees and 70 degrees north, the population in northern Finland is exposed to extreme seasonal alterations of ultraviolet-B light and temperature. There is also a seasonal variation of both the 25(OH)- and 1,25(OH)2-D3 vitamin serum concentrations. In the present work, the frequencies of different types and age-groups at diagnosis of AL were compared during the dark and light months of the year, to uncover seasonality. Between January 1972 and December 1986, 300 consecutive patients aged >/=16 years and diagnosed as having AL were enrolled. The observed mean monthly global solar radiation, temperature measurements, and influenza epidemics were compared with the monthly occurrence of AL. Both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (p=0.006) and total AL (p=0.015) were diagnosed excessively in the dark and cold compared with light and warm period of the year. There was a tendency for de novo leukemia to increase also in the dark and cold, but for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients the excess was not significant. Age >/=65 was strongly associated with the dark and cold season (p=0.003). Significantly more ALL (p=0.005) and de novo leukemias (p=0.029) were observed during influenza epidemics than during nonepidemic periods. However, a seasonality, i. e., the fluctuation of numbers of AL cases, was not determined, either monthly or during different photo- and temperature periods or influenza epidemics; this might be due to the small numbers of patients studied. Nevertheless, it is hypothesized that sunlight deprivation in the arctic winter can lead to a deficiency of the 1, 25(OH)2D3 vitamin, which might stimulate leukemic cell proliferation and block cell differentiation through dysregulation of growth factors in the bone marrow stromal cells, causing one mutation and an overt ALL in progenitor cells damaged during the current or the previous winter by influenza virus, the other mutation.

Ann Hematol. 1999 Sep;78(9):408-14
.




Epidemic influenza and vitamin D.

Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, Holick MF, Grant WB, Madronich S, Garland CF, Giovannucci E.
Atascadero State Hospital, 10333 El Camino Real, Atascadero, CA 93422, USA. jcannell@dmhash.state.ca.us

In 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson proposed that a 'seasonal stimulus' intimately associated with solar radiation explained the remarkable seasonality of epidemic influenza. Solar radiation triggers robust seasonal vitamin D production in the skin; vitamin D deficiency is common in the winter, and activated vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, a steroid hormone, has profound effects on human immunity. 1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the 'oxidative burst' potential of macrophages. Perhaps most importantly, it dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection. Volunteers inoculated with live attenuated influenza virus are more likely to develop fever and serological evidence of an immune response in the winter. Vitamin D deficiency predisposes children to respiratory infections. Ultraviolet radiation (either from artificial sources or from sunlight) reduces the incidence of viral respiratory infections, as does cod liver oil (which contains vitamin D). An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. We conclude that vitamin D, or lack of it, may be Hope-Simpson's 'seasonal stimulus'.

Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40. Epub 2006 Sep 7.




...from the final conclusion in the full-text:

  Today, in a rush from multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions that rapidly subtype influenza viruses to complex mathematical formulas that explain infectivity, many of us have forgotten Hope-Simpson's simple 'seasonal stimulus' theory for the lethal crop of influenza that sprouts around the winter solstice.   The faith and humility that characterized his life and his writings insulated him from despairing that his 'seasonal stimulus' would not be sought.  Among his last published words was the suggestion that 'it might be rewarding if persons, who are in a position to do so, will look more closely at the operative mechanisms that are causing such seasonal behaviour' [3,p.241].



A Gloucestershire GP carefully recorded the incidence of influenza in his practice over a period of nearly 30 years. Dr Hope-Simpson obtained a picture of the timing and intensity of these cases from 1946 to 1974.
Is it possible to compare Kilbourne’s chronological model of the spread of influenza with this data?
Such a comparison indicates that there should be evidence of the following factors influencing the final picture:
- A distinct seasonal pattern, with the highest incidence in winter.
- A series of decreases in the size of epidemic waves as the population becomes immune to one particular strain of the virus.
- The appearance of a new strain with changed antigens, meaning that the body’s defence mechanism does not recognise it. The whole process of infection should then begin again.
- The presence of more than one strain of influenza in the population at any one time.
- Newly introduced strains from other parts of the world, which can be especially virulent.

for more reading click here:  http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/geography/05.TU.01/?section=6





« Last Edit: 21/05/2008 21:26:17 by iko »
 

Offline JnA

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #8 on: 22/05/2008 07:24:44 »
I read that it may be because people tend to huddle more indoors and germs have an easier time of transferring.
 

Offline Carol-A

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #9 on: 22/05/2008 07:34:05 »
In winter we tend to keep the windows closed, travel in buses and trains with the windows closed etc. There is no breeze to freshen the air etc, so the cold or flu virus has a much greater chance of being transmitted in winter. The more people who have it, the more virus there is etc.
Many people take vitamin D suppliments in the winter, which gives them higher levels of vitamin D than in the summer, and they still get more colds
 

Offline rosalind dna

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #10 on: 22/05/2008 11:05:53 »
I keep at least 2 windows open during the winter, the kitchen and
sometimes the bathroom but I only take Vitamin C if I feel that
I'm getting a cold or during it. Beats it somehow because I love
my fruit/vegetables.
 

Offline iko

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #11 on: 27/05/2008 15:33:33 »
In winter we tend to keep the windows closed, travel in buses and trains with the windows closed etc. There is no breeze to freshen the air etc, so the cold or flu virus has a much greater chance of being transmitted in winter. The more people who have it, the more virus there is etc.
Many people take vitamin D suppliments in the winter, which gives them higher levels of vitamin D than in the summer, and they still get more colds

Well, thinking of public transportation, I do not see huge differences in close 'contacts' and possible viral exchange between summer and winter...on the other hand, I certainly see a strong difference in the amount of sunlight during these two seasons.
Scientists told us long time ago that more sunlight makes more vitamin D.
They initially thought that UVrays killed bacteria; now an indirect mechanism has been discovered.
Vitamin D stimulates our white cells to produce antibiotic peptides, and those kill germs efficiently.
« Last Edit: 28/05/2008 20:51:46 by iko »
 

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Why Are Flu And Colds Prevalent In The Winter ?
« Reply #11 on: 27/05/2008 15:33:33 »

 

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