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Author Topic: It's Water at the Centre of the Earth  (Read 22354 times)

Offline SFMA

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« Reply #25 on: 05/06/2008 23:37:46 »
And I'm afraid I have no real idea what
"Water can solidified to a rock state but still it maximum density does not occur." means. Water ...the maximum density does not occur when solidified even at rock level.
Incidentally, there seems to be general agreement that there is hot iron down in the earth's core.
Since hot iron reacts chemically with water I'm pretty sure that there's no water.
Still, that's only reallity talking an reallity doesn't seem to have much to do with this thread.
Consider this recent discovery they found water from the molten magma.

New news from Kilauea: "Never been seen before"
by: Bill Harby
posted: Wed Mar 26, 2008 at 05:24 PM
We always knew Hawaii volcanoes were unprecedented.

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologists have been analyzing the steam and gas plume that’s been gushing from Halemaumau crater at the summit of Kilauea since March 11th. 

They've found something they didn’t expect: the H2O in their test tubes is not from ground water. It's been released from the molten subterranean magma itself.

They’re calling it “juvenile water,” and it’s never been seen before anywhere on the planet, says Jim Kauahikaua, chief scientist.
 

lyner

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« Reply #26 on: 06/06/2008 10:49:29 »
Quote
It's been released from the molten subterranean magma itself.
The Mantle starts only a few km down - it doesn't mean that it's the same all the way down to the core; conditions change quite a bit as you get deeper.
I wonder how they find out what the source is. I guess it must be dissolved salts.
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #27 on: 06/06/2008 18:21:40 »
Nuclear fusion: Force two atoms together, hydrogen and indeed oxygen closer together to create fusion The immense pressure under the earth would suffice to force them close enough. It may ultimately be found that hydrogen and oxygen cannot exist very close together. The Hot ice shows that even at relatively low pressure the familiar water state is not observed.
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #28 on: 06/06/2008 18:33:16 »
Hmmm anyone considered that water may have leached into the magma and formed steam, condensed and then been ejected through the exit point? One can make anything more complicated than reality. Ground water vaporised and reformed does not prove that water is being manufactured in the mantle!

I have stood on top of an active volcano in Lanzarote and filmed a guy / geezer pouring water down holes drilled into the heated rocks below and low and behold like magic water comes belting out as steam. I'll put the video on Youtube for you. Its cool to see.

there ya go :)

Consider this recent discovery they found water from the molten magma.

New news from Kilauea: "Never been seen before"
by: Bill Harby
posted: Wed Mar 26, 2008 at 05:24 PM
We always knew Hawaii volcanoes were unprecedented.

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologists have been analyzing the steam and gas plume that’s been gushing from Halemaumau crater at the summit of Kilauea since March 11th. 

They've found something they didn’t expect: the H2O in their test tubes is not from ground water. It's been released from the molten subterranean magma itself.

They’re calling it “juvenile water,” and it’s never been seen before anywhere on the planet, says Jim Kauahikaua, chief scientist.

« Last Edit: 06/06/2008 19:11:46 by Andrew K Fletcher »
 

lyner

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« Reply #29 on: 06/06/2008 23:06:02 »
Nuclear fusion: Force two atoms together, hydrogen and indeed oxygen closer together to create fusion The immense pressure under the earth would suffice to force them close enough. It may ultimately be found that hydrogen and oxygen cannot exist very close together. The Hot ice shows that even at relatively low pressure the familiar water state is not observed.
So what about all the other possible combinations of elements? There is a suggestion that there may be a lot of hydrides down there - to explain a possible discrepancy in the amount of Hydrogen expected on the surface.
But do you actually know the conditions needed for fusion to occur?
It needs more than 'it would be a nice idea'.
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #30 on: 07/06/2008 08:06:26 »
2 smaller atoms pushed together to form a larger atom?
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #31 on: 07/06/2008 08:25:11 »
a suggestion of hydrides appears to be a "nice idea" too. But fials to explain how water could possibly from from the molton mantle.Obviously metal hydrides will be there because of the density of the metals compared to the density of rocks. However, the reason there is no spare hydrogen at the surface is simply because the atoms are forced together due to the effects of the planets mass being great enough to push hydrogen and oxygen together to form H20, which is in abundance. So any “spare hydrogen is married with spare oxygen the very instant they arrive,. But I suspect that some oxygen and hydrogen may also be formed here on Earth too from smaller particles like those I measured in the flight to Mallorca. Water in space after all would undoubtedly rapidly decompose because it cannot exist as water without the Earth’s gravity! And this is why there is believed to be so much hydrogen in space. The article below deserves a good read.

Cold Clouds and Water in Space


Adapted from a European Space Agency press release

Astronomers have known for decades that there is a lot of water in space. Hydrogen is the most common element in the Universe, and oxygen is made in stars and dispersed by events such as supernova explosions. The two elements mix in star-forming clouds and form large amounts of water (H2O). But because astronomers couldn"t measure gaseous water in cold clouds in space, they couldn"t be sure of the exact amount of water in those regions.

"We"ve known for a long time that there is a lot of water ice out there," says Louis Allamandola, astrochemist for the NASA Ames Research Center and member of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI). "We also knew some water existed in the form of a gas, but we weren"t sure how much." http://www.astrobio.net/news/article142.html

This is an interesting article which is not at odds with my own theory but casts doubt on water originating at the core.

« Last Edit: 07/06/2008 08:37:32 by Andrew K Fletcher »
 

lyner

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« Reply #32 on: 07/06/2008 12:06:47 »
Quote
So any “spare hydrogen is married with spare oxygen the very instant they arrive
At the time of the formation of the Earth, there was no free Oxygen in the atmosphere. It was a reducing atmosphere, initially.

Just because there is some water in the upper parts of the Mantle that is no indication of any significant amount thousands of km lower down.
But, even if there are some traces, why should there be any more of that compound than any other compound? Why is it particularly significant? Is its presence necessary to explain some phenomenon we have observed? Is it the only explanation for any observations.

The hydride theory at least had some numerical basis behind it and 'made it' into Wickers and elsewhere. As 'nice ideas' go, it has a bit more behind it than your water idea. It has some Science behind it, for a start.
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #33 on: 07/06/2008 16:20:16 »
Take a rocket engine and launch it from the Earth's surface. Here we see a massive plume of water vapour at ground level, enough to obscure the launch pad from onlookers. Our rocket heads up into space and all of a sudden there is no more vapour trail? In fact even the jettisoned solid fuel propulsion rockets ditched before going into orbit do not send out the plumes of vapour in the videos I have watched, in fact there was what appeared to be very hot large particles coming from them rather than a plume of water vapour.
From Nasa website view: Booster Camera, Video filmed from the booster rockets as they disengage.
http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/Video_Archives_Collection_archive_6.html

So what has happened to this water vapour? Obviously it has atomised and the atoms from it have dissipated. In doing so we know there was oxygen and hydrogen present in space because the rocket engines put it there. Yet it becomes invisible. Vapourised directly from ice crystals of vapourised before it froze?

It is thought that the oxygen component of water comes from stars, and as I have stated before this does not change my theory one bit. Because I am saying that planets evolve into stars and then shed their mass into space as they decay and no one can deny the presence of atomic particles from solar flares. Neither can they deny the abundance of Cosmic solar radiation in the upper atmosphere. So we can see that atoms and sub atomic particles are migrating from our own star down to Earth! And no one can deny that meteors arrive here on earth and this is not rocket science that requires a calculation in order to confirm it. A scintillating radiation detector and the naked eye can verify this part of the theory. And one only has to look at the moons surface to see the evidence for astral bombardments and stellar dust settling where no atmosphere can disguise it.

Now ask yourself if there is so much evidence for this on the moon and given that the earth is much larger than the moon and has a higher attraction to particles than the moon, how much more of this particulate mass has arrived here on earth?

Confused as to why you think I believe there is water down at the core? I find this idea totally alien to logic.
« Last Edit: 07/06/2008 17:41:36 by Andrew K Fletcher »
 

Offline Bored chemist

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« Reply #34 on: 07/06/2008 17:37:11 »
"So what has happened to this water vapour? Obviously it has atomised and the atoms from it have dissipated."
Nonsense.
The stuf coming out of the back of a rocket is hot so any water there is a vapour. The vapour (and remember that like most gases, it's invisible) just flys away into space.
Here on earth the atmosphere cools that vapour and makes it condense into tiny droplets which we can see.

There would need to be some huge energy source to break the bonds between the atoms that make up the water molecules- and there isn't one so they don't dissociate.- of course, under bombardment fron the sun's radiation they will disociate in time.

As for the nclear fusion idea there is a clear problem.
The sun is a lot hotter than the centre of the earth.
It's also a lot bigger so the pressure in the middle is much higher.
Even the sun only does nuclear fusion very slowly- it has been at it for billions of years and has billions more to go.
At the much lower temperatures and pressures in the earth's core the rate of fusion would be too small to observe- never mind explosive.

Any oxygen in the deep core would react with iron.


 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #35 on: 07/06/2008 17:53:47 »
Space is pretty cold BC. Just flys away into space is precisely what one would expect. However given the attractive force of the earth's gravitational field it is more likely to be pulled back to earth rather than go walk about in space.

Electrolysis and chemical speration of the two components on earth does not require a huge energy source. Furthermore trees, plants and even algal and phyto plancton do not have a huge energy source yet oxygen appears to be released. Even a little freshwater weed in an aquarium can bubble away oxygen.

The rate of fusion at the Earths core is hardly too small to observe. I have no doubt that water at the core would react with most of the molton components and no doubt that the weight of the earths mass would contain the explosions as we have seen atomic detonation below the earths surface and that appears to be contained ok. (fortunately for us)

I doubt that oxygen could exist at the core either.

"So what has happened to this water vapour? Obviously it has atomised and the atoms from it have dissipated."
Nonsense.
The stuf coming out of the back of a rocket is hot so any water there is a vapour. The vapour (and remember that like most gases, it's invisible) just flys away into space.
Here on earth the atmosphere cools that vapour and makes it condense into tiny droplets which we can see.

There would need to be some huge energy source to break the bonds between the atoms that make up the water molecules- and there isn't one so they don't dissociate.- of course, under bombardment fron the sun's radiation they will disociate in time.

As for the nclear fusion idea there is a clear problem.
The sun is a lot hotter than the centre of the earth.
It's also a lot bigger so the pressure in the middle is much higher.
Even the sun only does nuclear fusion very slowly- it has been at it for billions of years and has billions more to go.
At the much lower temperatures and pressures in the earth's core the rate of fusion would be too small to observe- never mind explosive.

Any oxygen in the deep core would react with iron.



 

lyner

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« Reply #36 on: 08/06/2008 00:03:47 »
BC:
Quote
There would need to be some huge energy source to break the bonds between the atoms that make up the water molecules- and there isn't one so they don't dissociate.- of course, under bombardment fron the sun's radiation they will disociate in time.
Not a lot, particularly if you use Chlorophyl.  I think you are referring to the need for a high temperature to get dissociation without some electrolytic / chemical action.

Also, the water droplets business: in space, the ambient pressure is much lower than the vapour pressure of the exhaust water so it stays a vapour. They just never form.

I don't know what AS means by 'atomisation', presumable 'dissociation'? Atomisation is what you get with after shave dispensers.

AS: your idea about the formation of planets and their evolution into stars is very novel. What is the quantatative basis for the idea. Where does all this material come from for them to grow? You would need many orders of magnitude more than has been observed if the Stars had formed this way in any reasonable estimated age of the Universe.
Why do none of these whacky theories never involve actual NUMBERS? Do you think Newton arrived at his laws by just sitting down and thinking?
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #37 on: 08/06/2008 09:42:29 »
Newton arrived at his laws by thinking differently! As does every scientist that moves in a new direction and makes an important contribution to science.

I do not believe that the droplets stay a vapour. If they do then we would see a lot more evidence for vapour and water molecules would be found in space. They are not so something must happen to them in the vacuum of space. On earth water boils at lower temperatures in relation to altitude. Water molecules leave the liquid state in a vacuum at room temperature at zero pressure and water visibly reaches boiling point.
In space I predict that the water must therefore break it's bonds and become at first oxygen and hydrogen and then break down further into sub atomic particles and that it is their relationship with the mass of a planet that dictates their perceived behaviour not the atoms themselves.

We know there is a lot of debris in space from Gigantic Planets and stars down to Comets and meteors and the visible dust on the moons surface. Through a powerful telescope we can see that there is ample material out there for decomposition and re-composition to infinity. We do not need a mathematical model of infinity because infinity is a constant and therefore the universe which holds infinity is also a constant.

The sub atomic right down to infinity like the universe has no end or beginning just limitations on how we observe their behaviour. When a particle is torn from its host and liberated here on earth it becomes unstable. The Earth eventually re-stabilises it.
In space the same particle reaches it’s own stable point and only becomes excited when it is influenced by a mass, be it another particle or even a planet. The aurora borealis provides us with a visible display of how particles react with each other under the Earth's influence.

pressure below 612 Pa, H2O is no longer stable as a liquid and can exist only as ice or steam.

amp;feature=related
Triple point of water. Showing water turning into ice.

amp;feature=related
This video is very interesting and shows how molecules in this case gas molecules are attracted to the larger bubble.

Calling my theory wacky because there are no numbers is typical of Academia. Why complicate a beautiful simple model? Why put one of those equations on a blackboard that makes the person with the chalk look like he or she knows what they are talking about:? Is there really any need. This job can be left for those that are incapable of devising their own theory and will spend their lives sucking up to each other and ostracising those who dare to question what is taken for granted as being true in science. A belief is not science. Established science is not without its challengers or indeed its challenges.
« Last Edit: 08/06/2008 09:47:46 by Andrew K Fletcher »
 

Offline Bored chemist

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« Reply #38 on: 08/06/2008 11:05:44 »
"Electrolysis and chemical speration of the two components on earth does not require a huge energy source."
Yes it does- the energy required to split water is exactly the same as the energy released by burning H2 to get water. That reaction is so energetic they use it to drive space rockets.
If you can think of a way of splitting water that doesn't take lots of energy then you have done 2 interesting things, first you have solved the energy crisis and second you have broken the law of conservation of energy.
Perhaps you can understand why I rather doubt that you have.
You say "Furthermore trees, plants and even algal and phyto plancton do not have a huge energy source yet oxygen appears to be released."
I guess we must be talking about different definitions here. I think that the sun, a vast, white-hot  fusion reactor, is a large source of energy. Presuably you dont.
May I ask what you do think would count as a big energy source? There's certainly nothing on a human scale that does this.

Speaking of things humans cant do, you say "The rate of fusion at the Earths core is hardly too small to observe." OK show me the obervations or stop making ridiculous statements.

It seems Sophiecentaur has made the same mistake- ignoring the energy from the sun. It doesn't matter how you split the water (and it's a moot point if plants split water or CO2)you still need the same amount of energy.

"I do not believe that the droplets stay a vapour."
What droplets? The stuff comes out as a gas and stays asa a gas.
As I already said, the radiation from the sun will destroy a lot of the water molecules so your bit about "If they do then we would see a lot more evidence for vapour and water molecules would be found in space. They are not so something must happen to them in the vacuum of space." is redundant."
As for "Water molecules leave the liquid state in a vacuum at room temperature at zero pressure and water visibly reaches boiling point."
What liquid state? The stuff coming out of a rocket is well above the critical temperature of water so it's certainly not liquid. It then expands into the vacuum of space- making it less dense is not going to make it condense. It's in a vacuum- the only option available for cooling it is radiation whichh is relatively slow. It expands much faster than it cools so it never gets to form a liquid or solid.

"We do not need a mathematical model of infinity because infinity is a constant and therefore the universe which holds infinity is also a constant."
It gets dark at night so we know that either there's something really odd about are bit of the universe or we know that it is finite in either time or extent (or both)
The universe almost certainly isn't infinite.
"it is their relationship with the mass of a planet that dictates their perceived behaviour not the atoms themselves."
How do the atoms(which are in free fall) know about the mass of the planet?
They cannot; so there's no way that your staement can be true.
"pressure below 612 Pa, H2O is no longer stable as a liquid and can exist only as ice or steam."
Good point- the pressure in space is well below that so droplets are a figment of your imagination.
The gas isn't visible. In order for a rocket exhaust in space to be visible it would need to be ice. Since it just can out of the back of a rocket it's very hot so it won't be ice.
Where's the problem here? Why do you think there's anything odd about the fact that you can't see a rocket's exhaust fumes in space?

"Calling my theory wacky because there are no numbers is typical of Academia."
I'm calling it wacky because it doesn't agree with reallity. There is no evidence for fusion in the eath's core- there is evidence against it- fusion produces the odd isotope of helium 3He which is very rare on earth so we know there's no fusion.
If, as you sugest, the universe were infinite it wouldn't go dark at nigt. It does so you are wrong.
You seem to think that the output of a rocket is small ice particles even though it's a few  thousand degrees too hot.
It's not the lack of numbers and equations that's a problem here. It's the lack of agreement with reallity.
"Why complicate a beautiful simple model? "
Because it doesn't work.
"Why put one of those equations on a blackboard that makes the person with the chalk look like he or she knows what they are talking about:? Is there really any need."
Because you can use the equations to make predictions and those are the real test of science- do the predictions hold true? and yes, there's a need for this, it's called progress.

"A belief is not science. "
Some beliefs might be, but your belief, for example, in fusion deep in the earth is definitely not science- it is contradicted by the evidence. Yet you stick to it.
Sticking to daft ideas is a lot more of a problem for science than sticking to establishged ideas that have resisted gernerations of scientists' atempts to prove them wrong.
You have to start somewhere Newton's laws; the conservation of energy; Einstein's work and so on are a good place to begin. Othewrwise you are back in the dark ages.
Incidentally the SRBs on the shuttle which give it the extra kick it needs to get started produce a lot of alumina which is a white solid. This may complicate thigs

« Last Edit: 08/06/2008 11:14:24 by Bored chemist »
 

lyner

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« Reply #39 on: 08/06/2008 18:11:30 »
AKF
Why is it that people who know little real Science always ignore the numbers?
It is the actual numbers - the measurements - which provide th evidence to help you decide between good theories and bad theories.
Without finding out the actual numbers involved, there would be no need  for Special Relativity.  Hundreds of years ago it was sufficient to say "things fall downwards; it is in their nature. Newton and those after him did better than that by actually measuring things.
If you have no measurements or if the existing ones don't agree with your whacky ideas it's no good complaining about Academia. You are clearly tying to invent a system which is totally at odds with things as they are seen by the whole body of Science.
Fine, but just don't call your idea Science - start writing fantasy stories and people may be prepared to read them but don't expect people to build aeroplanes, computers and all the rest of technology on the basis of your ideas.
Do you not realise that Academia has a pretty good track record, judging by results.
What track record do you and your theory have?

BC; I am sure we can't really be at odds about the energy involved in dissociating O and H in water. Per molecule is isn't many Joules, is it? 5Volts will split them in an electrolytic cell - that means 5 electron volts per molecule - thats 8 e-19J per molecule  (I could be a factor of two or three adrift but no matter). There may be a lot of molecules but each one doesn't need a lot.
 

Offline Bored chemist

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« Reply #40 on: 08/06/2008 18:44:36 »
Dissociating all the water vapour that comes out of a rocket would take as much energy as the rocket fuel produced driving the rocket. That's a lot. 8*10^-19 J isn't a lot until you multiply it by 6*10^23 to get J per mole then but 55000 or so to get Joules per tonne then by however much water the shuttle produces. Using plants to do it would be cheap and easy but not thermodynamically efficient.
 

lyner

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« Reply #41 on: 08/06/2008 21:13:48 »
OK - no disagreement, then.
Sigh of relief.
 

Offline SFMA

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« Reply #42 on: 09/06/2008 11:15:23 »
Geophysicists generally accept that the ambient magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface is due to electric currents flowing in it's liquid iron core. And Paleomagnetic measurements suggest that the Earth has possessed a magnetic field for at least 3.5 billionn years. Water is a source of electric currents and to last for that long it's more likely produced by water. It last longer then any other substance. 
 

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« Reply #43 on: 09/06/2008 14:38:05 »
Quote
Water is a source of electric currents
What is that supposed to mean? It will conduct an electric current so a copper wire would also be a source of electric current (?).
Have you heard of the dynamo effect?
A moving conductor in a magnetic field produces an emf which will cause a current to flow.
 

Offline Bored chemist

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« Reply #44 on: 09/06/2008 19:52:56 »
Never mind that, how about "It last longer then any other substance."?
But surely the real killer in that post is "Geophysicists generally accept "..."liquid iron core".

Last time I checked Fe wans't the same as H2O.
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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« Reply #45 on: 09/06/2008 21:18:55 »
The sun does not destroy anything! you cannot destroy water molecules. You can however change them into something else!

SophieC mentioned water droplets I said I don’t believe it. (not correct, BC mentioned water droplets)

The energy at the core is pretty obvious to most of the world! The fact hat isotopes do not come to the surface and when they do they have not been observed does not prove that they are not there!

You both repeatedly insult my intelligence. May I remind you that I have added some very important experiments to science by thinking of ways to demonstrate how solutes alter flow in fluids using gravity.  May I ask you both what you have contributed to science that is originally yours? If you have contributed I would love to read about it.

Now lets have a go at answering the lack of the isotope searched for presumably in molten magma from volcanoes?

Can we rely on this isotope being available in the less dense molten rock from volcanic activity? is this isotope helium 3He dense? Could the phenomenal pressure at the core result in fusing atoms together to produce materials found on earth? I repeat, if we do not know what lies at the bottom of the ocean How on earth can we be expected to know what is happening at the core, let alone what is happening in the universe.

Quote: Speaking of things humans cant do, you say "The rate of fusion at the Earths core is hardly too small to observe." OK show me the observations or stop making ridiculous statements.

The above is such a ridiculous statement it makes me cringe. Please explain how either of us could prove or disprove what is going on at the core?

Presumably I don’t think the sun is a massive source of energy? again a blatant attempt to belittle me! I could answer you at your level but choose to behave myself and respect this forum by not trying to treat you with the contempt you have just shown me. The suns rays playing on a leaf is not quite the massive energy source that your posts require.

We were talking about how pressures that come no where near the pressures at the core can change the way water behaves by turning it into hot ice. If the pressure can do this maybe it can produce some of the many different materials found on earth also by fusing them together? For example, we can fuse different metals together in a furnace at ground level and create an alloy

The sun evaporates water, it condenses and returns back to the earth as rain, it is not destroyed! We separate oxygen and hydrogen using hydrolysis and find that when we burn the two components together it returns water back to the Earth. Could it possibly be that the hydrogen and oxygen cannot remain separated once they have been burned? Is indeed the burning merely the reaction of the atoms recombining to make water? Does this not offer some proof that water is a result of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms being here on earth under the gravitational force due to the size of the earth’s mass? Or do we just ignore these results also? We forge a cast iron block and find that it oxidizes and decomposes. We have not destroyed the iron by allowing it to rust away we have just decomposed it and reassembled it as rust!

 
« Last Edit: 10/06/2008 08:47:17 by Andrew K Fletcher »
 

lyner

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« Reply #46 on: 09/06/2008 23:46:42 »
Quote
SophieC mentioned water droplets I said I don’t believe it.
Where?
I can't find it anywhere. Where would they be?
Out in Space? In the Core?

Quote
May I remind you that I have added some very important experiments to science by thinking of ways to demonstrate how solutes alter flow in fluids using gravity.
Interesting as they may have been, they are hardly showing anything new. You put work /energy into a system  - you get work /energy out. That explains it all. It's been going on in the Oceans for years. Your explanation involving 'water tension'  makes the whole episode a bit suspect. But that is all water under the bridge. . . .

Quote
If the pressure can do this maybe it can produce some of the many different materials found on earth also by fusing them together?
"Maybe". . . . And what is the mechanism to make this happen? As I understand it, you need much more extreme temperatures and pressures than you find within the Earth's core to make that happen. (For the Heavier Elements you need Supernova conditions, even)
Have you evidence or even a ball park calculation to indicate your theory would be possible? You always ignore the actual numbers involved and they are crucial.
« Last Edit: 09/06/2008 23:49:23 by sophiecentaur »
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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It's Water at the Centre of the Earth
« Reply #47 on: 10/06/2008 08:40:28 »
Sorry Sophecentaur. I assumed BC must have been referring to one of your post because I knew I had not mentioned this happening in space. Just doing a search it appears BC mentioned droplets my mention was that I did not believe them to be possible in space. My point was that the water coming from the rockets leaves no visible trace. Yet here on earth it does. So I am assuming that the water is decomposed. BC says you need a lot of energy to break the bonds of water on Earth. I am trying to say that may be so on Earth but may not be the case out in the reduced pressure of space. I have stated before and will state again water is water on earth because the gravitational force of earth enables oxygen and hydrogen to exist at the right distance apart. Bring them closer as per the experiments showing increased compression and water turns into Hot Ice. So bringing other atoms closer under millions of atmospheres more pressure should also generate heat. Ever put your finger over the end of a cycle pump and felt the heat generated as the air rushes through the gap. An air compressor for example will generate heat by compressing the air. Friction at the core and in the mantle would be something that would undoubtedly add to the heat required for fusing atoms together. So maybe and Ill be the first to admit it is a maybe. The pressures deep underground are such that materials found on the earth can be arranged without your supernova heat. And TBH we do not know how hot it really is down there do we?

Again you are assuming that your presumed higher temperatures apply at the immense pressure of an estimated several million atmospheres.

RE: how do particles know how to be attracted to a planet? Rather an odd question from BC but let us remember that there is an attracting and a repelling force in an atom. A mass of atoms like a comet or a planet would arrange its atoms much the same as a magnet arranges iron filings at the surface. The earth also arranges atoms as they arrive, some larger objects such as meteors and comets are arranged instantly on entry some arranged over time. Each arrival adding to the earths attracting force and each arrival adding to the collective crushing force at the core by transferring the repelling force and multiplying the attracting force giving us an explanation for gravity. Gravity is thought to be a weak force because it is not understood and it is well known and publicised that gravity is not understood. Once we begin to realise that gravity is not a weak force but a very powerful stabilising force that prevents the earth from falling apart or being blown to bits (for now at least) we can begin to understand how earthquakes and volcanoes which are many times more powerful and destructive than any of our nuclear weapons continue to cause devastation and show little signs of abating.

After all the earth is thought to have been a giant mass of particles being drawn together to create a huge amount of energy and then gradually cooling down. This also has problems explaining where all this energy came from to weld the atoms together to make our planet. My explanation does not rely on this but relies on a much slower planetary evolution. As the planets in this solar system grew, the debris in the solar system is drawn to the larger of the evolving planets and we have seen comets being drawn into Jupiter There are exceptions and the evidence for these can be found on the Earths surface and on the lunar surface and when these larger objects arrive they confirm the planets are growing. We argue that light has mass, yet we ignore the fact that light shines on the earth every day. We know that particles arrive from space and collide with particles on earth, yet we do not count this as growth? We send satellites into orbit which we know will come down to earth again some day, yet we presume that mass freely leaves the atmosphere to account for a shrinking earth rather than admitting we have an expanding earth?

Published in Nature: Secular variation of Earth's gravitational harmonic J2 coefficient from Lageos and nontidal accleration of Earth rotation
Our planet's waistline is mysteriously increasing.
After 18,000 years of slimming, our planet has suddenly turned tubby round the middle.
Researchers are baffled by the bulge.

Worth a read:
http://expanding-earth.org/
« Last Edit: 10/06/2008 09:42:05 by Andrew K Fletcher »
 

lyner

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It's Water at the Centre of the Earth
« Reply #48 on: 10/06/2008 11:01:56 »
Quote
So I am assuming that the water is decomposed.
It is water vapour! Thtat's not decomposed - it just means the water molecules are not attached to each other and they have a large space between them - invisible.
Your following paragraph describes effects which are easily described by the 'School' kinetic theory of gases. It doesn't involve either a chemical change (e.g. dissociation of molecules) or Nuclear effects; both of these involve much higher levels of energy (per particle).

Your question about 'where all this energy came from'. You got me going on the back of the proverbial fag packet again.
The amount of energy available from the (well established) gravitational potential energy of a mass equal to the Earth's spread out over a volume of, say, a thousand times the Earth's present volume, would be nearly 10e31J. Just Schoolboy science involved with that.
See http://www.thenakedscientists.com/forum/index.php?topic=15037.0

For some more detailed sums.

« Last Edit: 10/06/2008 15:02:41 by sophiecentaur »
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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It's Water at the Centre of the Earth
« Reply #49 on: 10/06/2008 19:49:17 »
You wrote a nice mathematical description of the earth forming from particles and all of the particles fusing together. I describe a more peaceful beginning to the earth where the pressure at the centre of the earth provides the force and heat to fuse together particles.

For the life of me I do not see how atoms and larger particles can suddenly decide to fuse together and create a planet that has enough energy to melt it all together. Sounds more like Mickey Mouse than reality! I am by no means alone in an expanding earth, in fact it was for many years the only explanation. Plate tectonics offered another explanation to the way continental drift occurs. But by no means disproved the growing earth problem.

I repeat 1 meteor arrives on earth then the growth of the earth has been shown to be true! You will never see a meteor leaving the planet and that is a fact we can rely on!

So if we begin to construct a theory based on what we know with 100% certainty we have a paradigm that is bullet proof. If we speculate on anything then we weaken our argument until it is proven and proof in universe analysis is hard to establish!

You ask for figures so let us ask how much material arrives on the planet per year including the mass from the sun and the mass from the plant, animal and insect growth generated by the sun, given that the light from the sun is said to have mass a portion of this must be added. Together with the celestial bombardments of particles, sub atomic particles, stellar dust, meteors and the odd comet over a million years.

Any idea where we can get this figure to begin with?

http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=99133 a starting point perhaps?
 

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It's Water at the Centre of the Earth
« Reply #49 on: 10/06/2008 19:49:17 »

 

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