# The Naked Scientists Forum

### Author Topic: Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory  (Read 7765 times)

#### wanchung

• Jr. Member
• Posts: 46
##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« on: 25/09/2008 04:49:58 »
Title: Charge Relativity and Hu’s Unification Theory (HUT)

Wanchung Hu
PostDoc Fellow
Taipei, Taiwan ROC
Correspondence to: lukluk73_2006@yahoo.com.tw

Abstract
General relativity deals with mass and its cause on space-time curvature. The other fundamental force-electromagnetism and its effect on space-time geometry are being neglected. Here, we propose that electromagnetism causes space-time to become a spiral shape structure. Coulomb’s electricity causes open spiral with non-zero divergence, and magnetism causes close spiral with zero divergence. The author calls this new relation between electric charges and space-time “charge relativity”. The original general relativity should be called “mass relativity”. The equation of charge relativity is F=(Ue/c^2)Te; F is Faraday tensor and Te is electromagnetic electrise tensor. The charge relativity can explain why the spiral galaxies are spiral shaped. Because there is electromagnetism in spiral galaxies mediating attraction, dark matter is not needed any more to explain the discrepancy between Virial mass and mass from light-to-mass ratio. The spiral shaped space-time structure can also explain the repulsive characteristics as well as attractive characteristics between two charges. According to the new charge relativity, general relativity, and universal lightity, forces mediated by space-time can be summarized in one equation. I call this equation “Hu’s Unification Theory”. The equation is R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr; H is stess tensor caused by radiation pressure P=(KT^4)/c. This equation is like Einstein’s field equation and is to explain the universe space-time structure. The new theory is very exciting and it can bring us some important breakthrough in physics research.

Main Text
It is well known that Einstein’s general relativity says that mass causes space-time curvature to produce gravity. However, the relationship between electromagnetism and space-time is neglected. Here, we propose that electromagnetism is also mediated by space-time structure change. This new theory-charge relativity is going to replace current quantum electrodynamic theory (QED). QED says that electromagnetism is mediated by photo transfer and change. This description cannot explain the field (strength line of force) characteristics of electromagnetism. If electromagnetism is mediated by photo change, there will be no difference when test charge is near the central charge or the test charge is far away from central charge. According to Faraday’s force line theory, test charge will receive more field force when it is approaching the central charge. Second, I propose a new atom model saying that all electrons are orbiting in the same plane around the atomic nucleus. For example: Neon has full 8 electrons in its outer orbit, so two electrons must be in the opposite position in the orbit. It means that when one electron is in the right side of atomic nucleus, there must be the other electrons in the left side of atomic nucleus. QED says when attractive electromagnetism is mediated when two charges are releasing photos back to back. Thus, when proton and the first electron are releasing photos back to back for electromagnetism attraction, there must be the other electron receiving the photos released by protons and the second electron will be expelled out due to repulsive electromagnetism explained by QED. Third, QED is based on Shrodinger and Dirac’s quantum mechanics formula, and quantum mechanics is proved to be wrong according to my new atom model. Based on the above three reasons, I will need to propose a new theory to replace QED.

One important reason for Einstein’s proposing general relativity is Newton’s gravity formula (F=GMm/r^2) implies that gravity is a force with action in distance and gravity can be mediated faster than lightspeed. This disobeys the basis principle of special relativity. However, Coulomb’s electrostatic force formula (F=KQq/r^2) also implies that electromagnetism is also a force with action in distance and electromagnetism can be mediated faster than lightspeed. Thus, we need to propose a new theory to let electromagnetism obeys the fundamental principle of special relativity. I propose here that electromagnetism is also mediated by space-time structure change. We know mass can cause a dent (curvature) of space-time due to Einstein’s general relativity. I propose that charge can cause spiral formation of space-time structure. Because dent (curvature) can cause inertia, spiral formation by charge is not causing a central dent or curvature. However, positive charge and negative charge should have different spiral orientation in a given space-time. It means charges know that orientation of space-time 4D structure and produce two kinds of spiral formation. If two negative charges or two positive charges are approaching, the space-time spiral structure in-between the two charges are differently oriented and there will be repulsion. If one positive charge and one negative charge are approaching, the space-time spiral structure in-between the two charges are same oriented and there will be attraction. Thus, it well explains that attractive and repulsive characteristics of electromagnetism. It is worth noting that electricity is mediated by rest charge and magnetism is mediated by spinning charge. Coulomb’s electricity causes open spiral with non-zero divergence, and magnetism causes close spiral with zero divergence. When a charge is spinning, the direction of spiral formation will be changed to align the charge’s spinning direction. Thus, it can explain why two charges with different spin direction will attract each other and two charges with same spin direction will repulse each other.

The relation between charge and space-time is called “charge relativity”. The formula is F=(Ue/c^2)*Te
(F is Faraday tensor, Ue is electromagnetic permeability in free space, c is lighspeed, Te is electrise tensor)

F=J/(e*c)=Ue*c*J
(J is four-current(cp , J) with p is charge density, e(epsilon) is electric constant)
It means that “numbers of force lines that end in an charge element is equal to Ue*c times the amount of charge in that element.”

Since we know that electrise formula is E=Qc^2. We can multiple c*J with c^2, so we can get Te=c^2*(c*J). I call this new tensor: electromagnetic electrise tensor. So,
F=(Ue/c^2)*Te
If J is four current (cp,0,0,0), c^2*(c*J) becomes (cp^4,0,0,0). It is compatible with the general relativity proof.

General relativity’s formula is:
R=(8πG/c^4)*Tg
(Tg is stess-energy tensor, G=gravity constant=(1/2)S*c^2, S=spinity constant)
Thus,
R=(4πS/c^2)*Tg
Let S=Ug/4π(Ug is gravitospinity permeability in free space), the formula becomes:
R=(Ug/c^2)*Tg
When Tg=diag(T00,0,0,0), Tg=diag(cp^4,0,0,0). Thus, we can see similarity between general relativity and charge relativity.

We need to look at charge relativity in detail, Fraraday tensor means it is the number of force lines from an element charge. Thus, it suggests that Faraday’s force lines actually cause the spiral formation of space-time structure. The spiral space-time structure itself is actual Faraday’s force line and Fradaday tensor. Thus, I propose the charge relativity formula here to explain the relationship between charge and space-time.

In astronomy, dark matter theory was proposed because there is huge discrepancy between Virial mass calculated by dynamic law and mass estimated by light-to-mass ratio. The total amount of mass in spiral galaxies cannot explain why the peripheral galaxies can rotate around the central galactic core in such high speed. If we consider the electromagnetism attraction between galactic core and peripheral stars, we can explain why spiral galaxies can gather together to rotate. Thus, dark matter is not needed any more. In the Milky Way galactic core, there is huge amount of antimatter cloud (positron cloud), so there should be strong electromagnetic attraction between peripheral galaxies with large amount of electrons and central galactic core with large amount of positrons. Charge relativity can also explain why spiral galaxies are spiral shaped. Current density wave theory is wrong. Because of charge relativity, the electromagnetism causes spiral galaxies to have open spiral shapes.

In my last article, I proposed that radiation pressure(universal lightity) is the best candidate of dark energy which causes universe expansion. Because gravity, electromagnetism, and lightity are all mediated by space-time, the three fundamental forces can be united in one equation. I call this Hu’s Uinfication Theory (HUT). It is a preliminary small building and I hope to hear everybody’s comments. Because the radiation pressure formula is
P=(K/c)T^4 (K=Stefan-Boltzman constant, T=absolute temperature)
The stress tensor should be:
H=F/A=(K/c)*a*T^4/A (a=surface area of central galactic core, A=peripheral area)
Thus,

Similar to Einstein’s universe field equation, I propose:
R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr

R mediates space-time curvature, F mediates space-time spiral shape, and H mediates space-time expansion. R and F cause matter to gather together. It is a new universe field equation. I sincerely hope to get your invaluable opinions or comments.

#### graham.d

• Neilep Level Member
• Posts: 2208
##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #1 on: 25/09/2008 11:28:03 »
I wish I had more time to study your ideas here. I also have trouble integrating gravity as a force being explained as a distortion of space-time with em theory which has no equivalent explanation. It feels to me like we are missing something and that all forces should be explanable by both particle exchange and by some form of space-time distortion.

I don't understand your comments regarding action at a distance and how em forces are inconsistant with Special Relativity. In what way are they inconsistant? It was one of the successes of SR that they were consistant with Maxwell's equations. Are you thinking of Feynman's advanced and retarded wave concept for action at a distance as part of QED?

#### wanchung

• Jr. Member
• Posts: 46
##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #2 on: 31/10/2008 01:21:51 »
Hello, This is a test for my new password

#### lyner

• Guest
##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #3 on: 31/10/2008 07:46:56 »
It's obviously worked twice. Well done.

#### wanchung

• Jr. Member
• Posts: 46
##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #4 on: 07/11/2008 04:17:24 »
Title: Charge Relativity and Hu’s Unification Theory (HUT)

Wanchung Hu
PostDoc Fellow
Taipei, Taiwan ROC
Correspondence to: lukluk73_2006@yahoo.com.tw

Abstract
General relativity deals with mass and its cause on space-time curvature. The other fundamental force-electromagnetism and its effect on space-time geometry are being neglected. Here, we propose that electromagnetism causes space-time to become a spiral shape structure. Coulomb’s electricity causes open spiral with non-zero divergence, and magnetism causes close spiral with zero divergence. The author calls this new relation between electric charges and space-time “charge relativity”. The original general relativity should be called “mass relativity”. The equation of charge relativity is F=(Ue/c^2)Te; F is Faraday tensor and Te is electromagnetic electrise tensor. Faraday tensor is actually the torsion tensor of space-time structure. Charge relativity can explain sun’s magnetic field shape-parker spiral. The charge relativity can explain why the spiral galaxies are spiral shaped. Because there is electromagnetism in spiral galaxies mediating attraction, dark matter is not needed any more to explain the discrepancy between Virial mass and mass from light-to-mass ratio. The spiral shaped space-time structure can also explain the repulsive characteristics as well as attractive characteristics between two charges. According to the new charge relativity, general relativity, and universal lightity, forces mediated by space-time can be summarized in one equation. I call this equation “Hu’s Unification Theory”. The equation is R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr; H is stess tensor caused by radiation pressure P=(KT^4)/c. This equation is like Einstein’s field equation and is to explain the universe space-time structure. The new theory is very exciting and it can bring us some important breakthrough in physics research.

Main Text
It is well known that Einstein’s general relativity says that mass causes space-time curvature to produce gravity. However, the relationship between electromagnetism and space-time is neglected. Here, we propose that electromagnetism is also mediated by space-time structure change. This new theory-charge relativity is going to replace current quantum electrodynamic theory (QED). QED says that electromagnetism is mediated by photo transfer and change. This description cannot explain the field (strength line of force) characteristics of electromagnetism. If electromagnetism is mediated by photo change, there will be no difference when test charge is near the central charge or the test charge is far away from central charge. According to Faraday’s force line theory, test charge will receive more field force when it is approaching the central charge. Second, I propose a new atom model saying that all electrons are orbiting in the same plane around the atomic nucleus. For example: Neon has full 8 electrons in its outer orbit, so two electrons must be in the opposite position in the orbit. It means that when one electron is in the right side of atomic nucleus, there must be the other electrons in the left side of atomic nucleus. QED says when attractive electromagnetism is mediated when two charges are releasing photos back to back. Thus, when proton and the first electron are releasing photos back to back for electromagnetism attraction, there must be the other electron receiving the photos released by protons and the second electron will be expelled out due to repulsive electromagnetism explained by QED. Third, QED is based on Shrodinger and Dirac’s quantum mechanics formula, and quantum mechanics is proved to be wrong according to my new atom model. Based on the above three reasons, I will need to propose a new theory to replace QED.

One important reason for Einstein’s proposing general relativity is Newton’s gravity formula (F=GMm/r^2) implies that gravity is a force with action in distance and gravity can be mediated faster than lightspeed. This disobeys the basis principle of special relativity. However, Coulomb’s electrostatic force formula (F=KQq/r^2) also implies that electromagnetism is also a force with action in distance and electromagnetism can be mediated faster than lightspeed. Thus, we need to propose a new theory to let electromagnetism obeys the fundamental principle of special relativity. I propose here that electromagnetism is also mediated by space-time structure change. We know mass can cause a dent (curvature) of space-time due to Einstein’s general relativity. I propose that charge can cause spiral formation of space-time structure. Because dent (curvature) can cause inertia, spiral formation by charge is not causing a central dent or curvature. However, positive charge and negative charge should have different spiral orientation in a given space-time. It means charges know that orientation of space-time 4D structure and produce two kinds of spiral formation. If two negative charges or two positive charges are approaching, the space-time spiral structure in-between the two charges are differently oriented and there will be repulsion. If one positive charge and one negative charge are approaching, the space-time spiral structure in-between the two charges are same oriented and there will be attraction. Thus, it well explains that attractive and repulsive characteristics of electromagnetism. It is worth noting that electricity is mediated by rest charge and magnetism is mediated by spinning charge. Coulomb’s electricity causes open spiral with non-zero divergence, and magnetism causes close spiral with zero divergence. Due to the non-zero divergence, spiral structure caused by rest charge should be open spiral. It means that vortex lines originate from the central object and they curve and extend to reach the peripheral boundary. The spiral structure is a three dimensional structure. It means that charge can recognize space-time orientation and causes spiral shape structure in three horizontal planes. If the space-time is defined by x,y,z axis, then the spiral structure can be found in xy plane, yz plane, and xz plane. Spiral structure itself is a plane with vortex shape. When a charge is spinning(magnetism), the direction of spiral formation will be changed to align the charge’s spinning direction. Thus, it can explain why two charges with different spin direction will attract each other and two charges with same spin direction will repulse each other.

The relation between charge and space-time is called “charge relativity”. The formula is F=(Ue/c^2)*Te
(F is Faraday tensor, Ue is electromagnetic permeability in free space, c is lighspeed, Te is electrise tensor)

If we assume Au=(-cA, Φ), δu=(V, (1/c)δ/δt), then E=VΦ-δA/δt and B=VxA.
F=J/(e*c)=Ue*c*J
(J is four-current(cp , J) with p is charge density, e(epsilon) is electric constant)
It means that “numbers of force lines that end in an charge element is equal to Ue*c times the amount of charge in that element.”

Since we know that electrise formula is E=Qc^2. We can multiple c*J with c^2, so we can let Te=c^2*(c*J). I call this new tensor: electromagnetic electrise tensor. So,
F=(Ue/c^2)*Te
If J is four current (cp,0,0,0), c^2*(c*J) becomes (cp^4,0,0,0). It is compatible with the general relativity proof.

General relativity’s formula is:
R=(8πG/c^4)*Tg
(Tg is stess-energy tensor, G=gravity constant=(1/2)S*c^2, S=spinity constant)
Since gravity and spinity are closely related, I think Tg should represent gravitospinity tensor.
Thus,
R=(4πS/c^2)*Tg
Let S=Ug/4π(Ug is gravitospinity permeability in free space), the formula becomes:
R=(Ug/c^2)*Tg
When Tg=diag(T00,0,0,0), Tg=diag(cp^4,0,0,0). Thus, we can see similarity between general relativity and charge relativity.

It is important to introduce a theory: generalized field theory (GFT) by Dr. MI Wanas here[1,2]. This theory unified gravity and electromagnetism in geometry. It says that curvature tensor is gravity and torsion tensor is electromagnetism. First of all, we define the symmetric part of Euv:

Euv=1/2(Euv+Evu)
After deduction, we can get Ruv-1/2gR=Tuv which is gravity.

Second, we define the skew part of Euv:

Euv=1/2(Euv-Evu)=0
After deduction, we can get tensor F which fulfills:

Fuv=Cuv-Cvu ;by definition, tensor F is a torsion tensor.
And,
Fuv,x+Fxu,v+Fvx,u=Fuv;x+Fxu;v+Fvx;u=0; by definition, tensor F fulfills Faraday tensor

Why is torsion tensor equal to electromagnetic tensor(Faraday tensor)? We can also derive it from the definition of torsion tensor and Faraday tensor. By definition, torsion tensor is:

Tuv=Cuv-Cvu-Ruv

If the basis is holonomic, then the Lie bracket vanishes. It means that Ruv=0. Because Coulomb electromagnetic force is conservative force, the force is path independent and is only associated with the beginning state and end state of a charge. Thus, Coulomb electromagnetic force is holonomic. Then, the torsion tensor becomes:

Tuv=Cuv-Cvu

By differentiation, form covariant terms of second rank:

Cuv=δCu/δXv-{uv,t}Ct

Cuv is extension(covariant derivative) of the tensor Cu

The second term in the above equation is symmetrical in the indices u and v. Thus,

Tuv=Cuv-Cvu=δCu/δXv-δCv/δXu

By the definition of Faraday tensor, electromagnetic tensor F is equal to:

Fuv=δCu/δXv-δCv/δXu

Thus, Fuv=Tuv. Faraday tensor is torsion tensor.

From the above equations, we can get electromagnetic field tensor (F). It is also because vector Cu represents the generalized electromagnetic potential. If we say electromagnetism causes space-time structure spiral formation, then it is very reasonable to use torsion tensor to describe electromagnetic tensor since vortex lines are aligned with torsion tensor. We can find similarity because both Faraday tensor and torsion tensor are anti-symmetric tensors. Although one may argue that torsion tensor can have 24 components, I think there is only one torsion tensor which matches the one Faraday tensor since charge can recognize the space-time structure orientation and give only one 3D spiral structure in xy, yz, and xz planes.

We need to look at charge relativity in detail, Fraraday tensor means it is the number of force lines from an element charge. Thus, it suggests that Faraday’s force lines actually cause the spiral formation of space-time structure. The spiral space-time structure itself is actual Faraday’s force line and Fradaday tensor. Thus, I propose the charge relativity formula here to explain the relationship between charge and space-time. Recently, there is a new theory called Einstein-Cartan-Evans theory to unite gravity and electromagnetism. It also assumed that electromagnetic tensor is torsion tensor. However, it thought that electromagnetism is caused by spin. In my opinion, spin doesn’t cause electromagnetism. Mass spin causes spinity which in turns causes space-time rotation. In addition, spinity caused by spin is closely related to gravity since they have the same permeability constant. Electromagnetism should cause space-time spiral structure formation!

In astronomy, dark matter theory was proposed because there is huge discrepancy between Virial mass calculated by dynamic law and mass estimated by light-to-mass ratio. The total amount of mass in spiral galaxies cannot explain why the peripheral galaxies can rotate around the central galactic core in such high speed. If we consider the electromagnetism attraction between galactic core and peripheral stars, we can explain why spiral galaxies can gather together to rotate. Thus, dark matter is not needed any more. In the Milky Way galactic core, there is huge amount of antimatter cloud (positron cloud), so there should be strong electromagnetic attraction between peripheral galaxies with large amount of electrons and central galactic core with large amount of positrons. Charge relativity can also explain why spiral galaxies are spiral shaped. In elliptical galaxies, there are not assumed dark matter existing. It is because there is no electromagnetism in elliptical galaxies. Thus, elliptical galaxies are not spiral shaped. Current density wave theory to explain galaxy’s spiral shape is wrong. Because of charge relativity, the electromagnetism causes spiral galaxies to have open spiral shapes.

In addition, this theory can explain why our sun’s magnetic field is spiral shaped. The sun’s magnetic field is called “Parker Spiral” and is a open spiral structure. This shape of magnetic field was thought to be influenced by solar wind release. However, I think the real reason is that our sun has charges that is different from usual planets without charges in solar system. Thus, sun’s electromagnetism causes space-time spiral structure. This new theory can also explain why spiral galactic magnetic fields are aligned to its spiral arms. It is because the galaxy’s electromagnetism causes space-time spiral shape structure to aggregate peripheral stars to rotate. Thus, the galaxy’s magnetic field is perfectly aligned to its spiral arms.

In my last article, I proposed that radiation pressure(universal lightity) is the best candidate of dark energy which causes universe expansion. Because gravity, electromagnetism, and lightity are all mediated by space-time, the three fundamental forces can be united in one equation. I call this Hu’s Uinfication Theory (HUT). It is a preliminary small building and I hope to hear everybody’s comments. Because the radiation pressure formula is
P=(K/c)T^4 (K=Stefan-Boltzman constant, T=absolute temperature)
The stress tensor should be:
H=F/A=(K/c)*a*T^4/A (a=surface area of central galactic core, A=peripheral area)
Thus,

Similar to Einstein’s universe field equation, I propose:
R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr

R mediates space-time curvature, F mediates space-time spiral shape, and H mediates space-time expansion. R and F cause matter to gather together. It is a new universe field equation. I sincerely hope to get your invaluable opinions or comments.

References
1.   MI Wanas and SA Ammar Space-time Structure and Electromagnetism arXiv:gr-qc/0505092v1; 18May 2005
2.   FI Mikhail and MI Wanas A Generalized Field Theory: I. Field Equations Proceedings of the Roral Society of London, Series A 356(1687),471; 26Sep1977
3.   A Einstein The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity Annalen der Physik 49,769; 1916

Date: 2008/11/7 12:00pM

#### Vern

• Neilep Level Member
• Posts: 2072
##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #5 on: 07/06/2009 16:09:03 »
Quote from: wanchung
In my last article, I proposed that radiation pressure(universal lightity) is the best candidate of dark energy which causes universe expansion. Because gravity, electromagnetism, and lightity are all mediated by space-time, the three fundamental forces can be united in one equation. I call this Hu’s Uinfication Theory (HUT). It is a preliminary small building and I hope to hear everybody’s comments. Because the radiation pressure formula is
P=(K/c)T^4 (K=Stefan-Boltzman constant, T=absolute temperature)
The stress tensor should be:
H=F/A=(K/c)*a*T^4/A (a=surface area of central galactic core, A=peripheral area)
Thus,

Similar to Einstein’s universe field equation, I propose:
R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr

Interesting; radiation pressure must exist universally, yet, we never see any consideration of it in the calculations regarding the cosmos. I wonder if it is really neglegable as we seem to assume.

#### jerrygg38

• Hero Member
• Posts: 781
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##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #6 on: 07/06/2009 21:23:41 »
Quote from: wanchung
In my last article, I proposed that radiation pressure(universal lightity) is the best candidate of dark energy which causes universe expansion. Because gravity, electromagnetism, and lightity are all mediated by space-time, the three fundamental forces can be united in one equation. I call this Hu’s Uinfication Theory (HUT). It is a preliminary small building and I hope to hear everybody’s comments. Because the radiation pressure formula is
P=(K/c)T^4 (K=Stefan-Boltzman constant, T=absolute temperature)
The stress tensor should be:
H=F/A=(K/c)*a*T^4/A (a=surface area of central galactic core, A=peripheral area)
Thus,

Similar to Einstein’s universe field equation, I propose:
R+F-H=(Ug/c^2)Tg+(Ue/c^2)Te-(K/c)Tr

Interesting; radiation pressure must exist universally, yet, we never see any consideration of it in the calculations regarding the cosmos. I wonder if it is really neglegable as we seem to assume.

In my dot-wave theory, the universe eventually breaks down into low energy dot-waves. Thus conentrated matter/energy becomes huge volumes of simple plus and minus dot-waves. Over time, the charge of the dot-waves becomes zero. Therefore the energy of the universe becomes zero. It is only potential energy.

One easy solution to the radiation is that it occurs in the sun light. A certain small amount of the stars radiation turns into dot-waves which make up the dark matter. This causes the red shift to grow redder in addition to the velocity component.
The gravitational pressure could also occur due to differential radiation from the stars emissions. Instead of separate gravitational waves we merely get differential radiation within our star light. This fills space time with the dot-waves.

#### Vern

• Neilep Level Member
• Posts: 2072
##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #7 on: 08/06/2009 21:48:46 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
In my dot-wave theory, the universe eventually breaks down into low energy dot-waves. Thus conentrated matter/energy becomes huge volumes of simple plus and minus dot-waves. Over time, the charge of the dot-waves becomes zero. Therefore the energy of the universe becomes zero. It is only potential energy.
Was there a reason that the universe must eventually break down; or did you just think it would be neat.

I am interested in this thread; I don't know if you noticed, but wanchung came up with the same dimensions for an electron that I did; it is even comprised of the same stuff.
« Last Edit: 08/06/2009 21:52:36 by Vern »

#### jerrygg38

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##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #8 on: 08/06/2009 23:03:12 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
In my dot-wave theory, the universe eventually breaks down into low energy dot-waves. Thus conentrated matter/energy becomes huge volumes of simple plus and minus dot-waves. Over time, the charge of the dot-waves becomes zero. Therefore the energy of the universe becomes zero. It is only potential energy.
Was there a reason that the universe must eventually break down; or did you just think it would be neat.

I am interested in this thread; I don't know if you noticed, but wanchung came up with the same dimensions for an electron that I did; it is even comprised of the same stuff.

In the end we must return to nothing from whence we came.

As far as the dimensions of the electron, could you point out where it is in your work or his. Right now all I have is a wavelength such as the Bohr radius. How long is you electron.
Wavelength = h / mv

This says the electron will be as long as its velocity permits.

#### Vern

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##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #9 on: 08/06/2009 23:11:42 »
Professor Willis Thompson wrote an article based upon my photonic theory of everything. The derivation for the diameter of the electron is at the bottom of the Willis Thompson paper. I didn't visualize the electron as having a length; it is more like a sphere comprised of the path of the trapped photon.

Quote from: Willis Thompson paper
d = h/(pi x mc)

Stated simply, the result of all this was that shell diameter was equal to Planck's constant divided by the product of pi, shell mass, and the speed of light.

#### jerrygg38

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##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #10 on: 08/06/2009 23:35:20 »
Professor Willis Thompson wrote an article based upon my photonic theory of everything. The derivation for the diameter of the electron is at the bottom of the Willis Thompson paper. I didn't visualize the electron as having a length; it is more like a sphere comprised of the path of the trapped photon.

Quote from: Willis Thompson paper
d = h/(pi x mc)

Stated simply, the result of all this was that shell diameter was equal to Planck's constant divided by the product of pi, shell mass, and the speed of light.

The formula did not work for my proton radius. I ended up using 1.23E-15 which I derived from Plank and Bohr. That is for a three quark model.
Right now since the electron is a one quark devise, you answer appears good. I will study it more but I have not done much work on the electron itself.

#### Vern

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##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #11 on: 09/06/2009 02:35:13 »
I don't understand the electron as having anything to do with a quark; in my hypothesis, quarks might be the sub shells within a proton and neutron. Although they don't resemble the QFC quarks, we should call them quarks in reverence to the past efforts. I just call them shells.

#### jerrygg38

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##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #12 on: 09/06/2009 14:30:17 »
I don't understand the electron as having anything to do with a quark; in my hypothesis, quarks might be the sub shells within a proton and neutron. Although they don't resemble the QFC quarks, we should call them quarks in reverence to the past efforts. I just call them shells.

Quarks is new to me.  I never used to believe in them. Recently I have studied some quark theories and they seem okay to me. However I define a quark as a conentration of dot-waves or your photonic energy which oscillates from planks radius to a plane surface. The plane also spins. The quark is a fundamental structure.
The electron would be a single quark. However when it is squeezed by external forces toward the proton, the electron breaks apart into three parts.
The proton has three high energy quarks. The neutron has the same 3 high energy quarks but is surrounded by the 3 split electron low energy quarks.
Thus the neutron is merely another form of the hydrogen atom.

#### Vern

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##### Charge Relativity AND Hu's Unification Theory
« Reply #13 on: 09/06/2009 15:02:41 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
The electron would be a single quark. However when it is squeezed by external forces toward the proton, the electron breaks apart into three parts.
The electron would need to gain considerable energy to become three quarks; but I guess you can get that from the external forces.

#### jerrygg38

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« Reply #14 on: 09/06/2009 23:17:17 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
The electron would be a single quark. However when it is squeezed by external forces toward the proton, the electron breaks apart into three parts.
The electron would need to gain considerable energy to become three quarks; but I guess you can get that from the external forces.

As the three parts come close to the proton, most of the 0.78230MEV comes from the electric field.

E = KQ/R = KQ/1.9077E-15 = 0.7548MEV

Neutrino Energy = 0.7823 - ).7548 = 0.02748MEV

Therefore for a neutron to reach the closest quantum state to the proton (there are 104 states), the electric field will provide most of the energy.

The electron that splits into three pieces in the neutron does not mean there are three independent pieces. They are intertwined.
Sometimes the electron will go into quantum shell number 1.
In this first state away from the hydrogen atom, the radius is
R= 2.09808E-11

therefore the electrical energy is
E = KQ/R = 68.,87 - 13.38 = 55.29 ev

It only takes 55 ev of electrical energy to help bring the electron into the first quantum state of the neutron. The neutrino must supply most of the energy.

As the neutron flows from the first state to the 104th state, it will absorb electrical energy and radiate photons. Then it will absorb photons and lose electrical energy.
therefore the neutron is constantly absorbing and radiating energy.

#### Vern

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« Reply #15 on: 10/06/2009 16:54:30 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
As the neutron flows from the first state to the 104th state, it will absorb electrical energy and radiate photons. Then it will absorb photons and lose electrical energy.
therefore the neutron is constantly absorbing and radiating energy.
I don't remember the 104 states of the neutron. Is this something you have determined?

#### jerrygg38

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« Reply #16 on: 10/06/2009 18:07:10 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
As the neutron flows from the first state to the 104th state, it will absorb electrical energy and radiate photons. Then it will absorb photons and lose electrical energy.
therefore the neutron is constantly absorbing and radiating energy.
I don't remember the 104 states of the neutron. Is this something you have determined?

Yes. I posted the Quantum states of the Neutron.

The Bohr theory says that a stable state for the electron occurs when the wavelength is n 2pi R.
When I look at the neutron it appears to me that the split electron can form stable states where n is a whole fraction.
Thus for n = 1/2, the waveshape must circle the radius twice to form a stable state. For n = 1/3 the waveshape must circle three times.

With my calculations for the neutron's dimensions, I can have 104 stable states. Therefor not only do we have photonic radiation into space from the hydrogen atom, we also have photonic radiation within the atomic structure. Thus neutrons are continuously radiating between 104 different states.

Can we measure this radiation? The neutrino radiation from the sun is only 33 percent of what is expected. However if the neutrons are always absorbing and radiating, the average radiation would be approximately 29 percent according to my calculations shown in my post.

Since you propose a proton with low energy outer shells, if that was true then the proton also would have many different states as the neutron. There the proton would continuously radiate.
I agree that this is a possibility althought I do not believe it. I think the proton only consists of three high energy quarks. However it is possible that thesse high energy quarks absorb lower energy levels and thus the proton can absorb and radiate energy continuously without destroying itself.
The neutron is never a problem because it is basically unstable in free space.

How could a proton or neutron move if it did not have different states and be able to absorb photonic energy?????
Therefore the states of the neutron are quite important. It is possible that the proton just ties to the neutron. The neutron absorbs the linear photonic energy and the proton merely hold true to its structure. However once we add more photonic energy to the proton we must move upward in energy levels. Therefore it is possible that the proton has lower energy levels as well.
Yet I started with that thinking 3 months ago and could not produce the magnetic moment equations. Therefore I decided that the three high energy quarks were the right answer.

#### Vern

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« Reply #17 on: 10/06/2009 19:49:49 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
Thus for n = 1/2, the waveshape must circle the radius twice to form a stable state. For n = 1/3 the waveshape must circle three times.
Quote
How could a proton or neutron move if it did not have different states and be able to absorb photonic energy?????
Wouldn't you get two half cycles for one circle of the radius? That would produce spin 1/2. It seems to me that movement can occur when the neutron gains energy by absorbing a quantum of energy. I have trouble visualizing exactly what are the states that the neutron is changing from and changing to.

#### jerrygg38

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« Reply #18 on: 10/06/2009 20:11:53 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
Thus for n = 1/2, the waveshape must circle the radius twice to form a stable state. For n = 1/3 the waveshape must circle three times.
Quote
How could a proton or neutron move if it did not have different states and be able to absorb photonic energy?????
Wouldn't you get two half cycles for one circle of the radius? That would produce spin 1/2. It seems to me that movement can occur when the neutron gains energy by absorbing a quantum of energy. I have trouble visualizing exactly what are the states that the neutron is changing from and changing to.

It is a half cycle each time it spins around once. Twice around produces a full cycle. That is for the state 1/2. As far as the spin property this does not change because the three components have vectors 120 degrees apart. Therefore the spins cancel out.

The states are the closeness to the proton. The n=1 neutron state has a radius of R = 2.09E-11 while the 104th state has a radius of 1.9E-15 meters. Each states works simply by Bohrs equations and the rule that we need a whole fraction such as 1/1, 1/2, 1/53, 1/104. Also we use 1/3 the charge and 1/3 the mass in the equations.

We could do the same thing for the proton by adding a triple split layer. The triple insures a balance of angular momentum and it provides as much magnetic moment as needed.

What I have done is simply take Bohrs work and move it inward toward the proton since to me the neutron is merely a partially inverted hydrogen atom.

#### Vern

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« Reply #19 on: 11/06/2009 13:02:54 »
So, the different states of the neutron are different sizes? I must have missed the mathematical connection between the states. You probably have some connection between states and a progression from one state to another.

#### jerrygg38

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« Reply #20 on: 11/06/2009 15:41:43 »
So, the different states of the neutron are different sizes? I must have missed the mathematical connection between the states. You probably have some connection between states and a progression from one state to another.

Here are the equations:

SECTION 5-4: THE QUANTUM STATES OF THE NEUTRON

Just as the electron has quantum states using the number n, the neutron also has quantum states using the number 1/n. The Bohr theory specifies that a non-radiating state is one in which the wavelength is:

λ = n(2πR)                     (5- 66)

In equation 5-65 a stable wavelength is one in which the wavelength is 2 pi times the radius. In addition any whole number n also provides stability.

When we look at the oscillating neutron, we find that it does not have the same stability as the proton or the hydrogen atom. Yet it is partially stable. Therefore it obeys a form of equation 5-64. Thus:

λ = 2πR/ n*                     (5-67)

n* = 1/n                     (5-68)

In Equation 5-67 a wave traveling around a radius R has a degree of stability if it can circle R with an exact number of wavelengths. Thus if n*=2, the wave circles twice before meeting itself. If n*=3, the wave circles three times before meeting itself. Therefore any whole number n* will cause a wave to circle a radius a perfect amount of times.

The velocity equation is:

V = 2πKQQ/ n*h                   (5-69)

We can solve for n when V = 2.290286E8         (5-70)

n* = 1/104.69                  (5-71)

Since n must be a whole number, the highest possible number n is 1/104.

n = 1/104                     (5-72)

We can then solve for the velocity from Equation 5-68. Thus:

V = 104(2πKQQ)/h = 2.2751975E8 = 0.758924C         (5-73)

R = 100.06671/V2 = 1.933087E-15            (5-74)

KQ/R = 0.744904

Neutrino Energy = 0.78230 – 0.744904 = 0.0374MEV      (5-75)

Einsteinian = Ae = 1.535676               (5-76)

Einsteinian radius = 1.933087E-15/1.53676 = 1.2588E-15   (5-77)

We see that the Einsteinian radius is a little greater than the proton radius. This helps prevent the neutron quarks from interfering with the proton quarks.

From this analysis it appears that most of the energy for the production of the neutrino quarks comes from the proton/electron electric field. Only a small amount of neutrino energy (0.0374MEV) is required.

#### Vern

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« Reply #21 on: 11/06/2009 18:42:05 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
In equation 5-65 a stable wavelength is one in which the wavelength is 2 pi times the radius. In addition any whole number n also provides stability.
Did you notice that the equation describes a circle. One wave length completed in one circumference. I like that

It does not radiate because the lines of electromagnetic force need not pass through each other in that pattern. Those were the lines of reasoning that led me to suspect that the fields could self resonate in a closed loop.

#### jerrygg38

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« Reply #22 on: 11/06/2009 21:24:02 »
Quote from: jerrygg38
In equation 5-65 a stable wavelength is one in which the wavelength is 2 pi times the radius. In addition any whole number n also provides stability.
Did you notice that the equation describes a circle. One wave length completed in one circumference. I like that

It does not radiate because the lines of electromagnetic force need not pass through each other in that pattern. Those were the lines of reasoning that led me to suspect that the fields could self resonate in a closed loop.

Of course I am using circles. It may be so that more fancy solutions would include ellipses. Thus when a neutron moves, the circles would turn into ellipses. Thus one solution to linear momentum would be ellipses in which the forward mass is off-centered from the center of gravity.

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« Reply #22 on: 11/06/2009 21:24:02 »