Experiments show that "speed" isn't well defined on this scale. If your model calculates it then it's wrong.

I REVIEWED MY THEORY AND REWROTE IT SO i DROPPED THE SPEED ISSUE BECAUSE THE CALCULATION THAT I SIMPLIFIED DOES NOT SHOW EVERYTHING THAT I WANT TO SHOW. IT IS A DIFFICULT CALCULATION USING MY HAND CALCULATOR SINCE WE ARE DEALING WITH TINY NUMBERS. INSTEAD I AM CONTENT WITH CALCULATING THE EINSTEINIAN ENERGY IN THE BOHR ORBIT AT C/136.036

hERE ARE THE CALCULATIONS

CHAPTER 3: THE DOT-WAVE STRUCTURE OF THE NEUTRON

SECTION 3-0 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter let us apply the dot-wave theory to the neutron to understand how it works. Present day theory specifies a mass-less neutrino as the product of the free space breakup of the neutron into the proton and electron. Thus the energy of the neutrino is necessary to produce the neutron. In free space the neutron comes apart quite rapidly.

As specified in the dot-wave theory when plus dot-waves are combined with minus dot-waves, the result is mass. Thus the addition of the electron to the proton causes most of the mass increase measured in the neutron. This necessitates a neutrino of less mass/energy then previous calculated.

For this analysis of the neutron we will start with the Bohr model. Throughout the years the Bohr model has been an accurate mathematical model of the workings of the hydrogen atom. Although quantum mechanics has produced a different mathematical models which has been confirmed by various measurements, both the Bohr model and the Quantum Mechanics models are describing functions.

The universe operates by the interactions of plus and minus dot-waves and bipolar dot-waves. The mathematical models are the result of statistical probabilities. The masses of the protons, electrons, and neutrons are probabilities. The result is that the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom is as good as any other model. The Bohr model will get much more complex once we add the dot-waves to the proton and electron. Thus a whole set of equations can be added to the Bohr model based upon the Dot-Wave theory.

In Doppler Space Time I have added many equations to the Bohr model, which account for many other properties. Unfortunately Doppler Space Time used the incorrect transformation for mass to charge. Thus all the equations will have to be studied and rewritten. This will take me many more years of work and study. The real physics of the atom can be explained in terms of the dot-waves as compared with the mathematical models presented by Quantum mechanics.

For this chapter, the Bohr model, which includes Einstein’s orbital mass increase with velocity, presents an excellent analysis of the workings of the Hydrogen atom and the conversion of the atom into the neutron.

SECTION 3-1 THE BOHR MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM REVISITED

As we look at the original Bohr model of the hydrogen atom we find that the Einsteinian mass increase of the electron in the lowest Bohr orbit has been ignored. This mass increase is important because it prevents the electron from flowing into the proton without the additional energy of the neutrino.

What happens is that the Einsteinian mass increase adds mass to the centrifugal forces. This helps to counterbalance the coulomb forces. In addition, the mass increase comes from plus dots within the proton flowing into the electron.

In the process both the electron gains mass. In the process both the proton and the electron lose charge. This causes the electrical attraction force to decrease in the process.

The net result is that when the electron is at a distance of RBOHR = 5.29177E-11 from the proton, it has a velocity of approximately C/137.036. As the electron tries to get closer to the proton, its velocity increases. At the same time, the electron’s mass increases and its centrifugal force increases. Simultaneously with this the charge drops and the coulomb attractive forces decrease. These changes counterbalance the increased coulomb attraction caused by the decrease of distance R. This is turn is compensated by the increase of the centrifugal force due to the decrease in distance R.

The net result is that we have a balance of forces, which prevents the electron from flowing into the proton. This is easier to understand when we look at velocities, which get close to the speed of light. The Einsteinian mass increase is very large and this results in a great decrease in the charges of the proton and electron.

Another problem with the understanding of the Bohr orbit is the theory that radiation from accelerating charges would cause the electron to lose energy and fall into the proton. The theory is based upon the world of radar and radio signals. Electrons subject to external forces accelerate. In so doing radiation occurs. The electron within the Bohr orbit is not subject to external forces. Thus it is improper to compare an electron in a Bohr orbit with a free electron in a wire or in space. The proton protects the electron in the Bohr orbit. Any radiation from the electron would be to the proton and any radiation from the proton would be to the electron. Thus the hydrogen atom is a self-contained system which does not obey the same laws as free electrons in a wire or traveling in space.

Let us write the equations for the forces involved in the Bohr orbit using the Einsteinian mass increase formula. We will look at the standard Bohr orbit solution and look at the force changes as we move from the stable radius. The force equation is:

F = KQ(B)Q(B)/R^2 = MB V^2 / R...........(3-1)

In Equation 3-1 the electrical force is equal to coulombs constant K times the Bohr orbit charge Q(B) of the electron times the Bohr orbit charge QB of the proton and divided by the Bohr radius R squared. The centrifugal force is equal to the mass of the electron in the Bohr orbit MB times the velocity squared divided by the distance.

The mass of the electron in the Bohr orbit is:

MB = Mo / [1-(V/C)^2]^0.5 ...............(3-2)

In Equation 3-2 we have the Einsteinian correction factor. When the velocity increases the Bohr mass also increases. If we move to near lightspeed, the mass increases greatly. Thus a stability point is reached prior to the electron flowing into the proton due to the centrifugal force and other forces.

When V= C/137.036, the mass increase Einsteinian factor is:

1/ [1-(V/C)^2]^0.5 = 1.000026627..............(3-3)

The Einsteinian mass of the electron in the Bohr orbit is:

MB = 0.910939E-30 x 1.000026627= 0.910963E-30Kg........(3-4)

The differential mass increase is:

Delta Mass = 2.42556E-35Kg ...................(3-5)

The delta energy in terms of electron volts is:

Delta energy = 13.606 electron volts ...............(3-6)

We see that the Einsteinian mass/energy increase of the electron in the Bohr orbit is identical with the ionization energy of the Hydrogen atom.

Working backwards, it is self-evident that if we knew the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom, the Bohr radius and Bohr velocity could have been calculated directly from the Einsteinian formula.

If the electron moves closer to the proton we see that the Einsteinian mass increase will get much larger as we get near the speed of light. Thus it is impossible for the electron to reach the proton without additional help from external photonic forces such as the neutrino.

To make matter worse, the increase of mass/energy within both the proton and the electron came at the expense of the charge QB. As was calculated in Chapter 1, Equation 1-7, the transformation of mass to coulombs is:

1 Kilogram = 3.08302E11 coulombs................(3-7)

We can now determine how many electron volts produce how many coulombs. Therefore changing 1 kilograms into electron volts, we get:

5.60959E35 Electron volts = 3.08302E11 Coulombs...........(3-8)

1 electron volt = 5.49598E-25 coulombs..............(3-9)

Finally we can find out how many coulombs are lost when 13.606 electron volts is converted into Einsteinian mass. Therefore:

13.606 Electron volts = 7.47783E-24 coulombs ..............(3-10)

This amount of charge will be split equally between the proton and the electron. Therefore the differential charge is:

Delta Charge = 3.73892E-24.....................(3-11)

The charge of the electron and proton at the Bohr orbit is:

QB = 1.60218E-19 – 3.73892E-24 = 1.60214E-19Coulombs.....(3-12)

The parts per million change in the charge is:

Delta charge = 23.34 PPM..............(3-13)

The parts per million change in the mass is:

Delta mass = 26.626 PPM....................(3-14)

The delta charge and mass are different because the conversion from mass to charge was taken from the neutron data. The neutron calculation included the neutrino. The above calculation and the neutron calculation are describing function calculations for non-linear equations. The standard electrical equations are based upon constant charges. The minute we vary the charge, the equations become non-linear. Thus they are better solved using a computer program to account for all the non-linear effects. However the purpose of the above calculation is to show how the hydrogen atom works from Engineering perspective.

We see that as the electron moves toward the proton, the mass of the electron increases while the distance decreases. The centrifugal force therefore increases. Thus the right side of equation 1-1 increases. On the left side of the equation, the charge decreases while the radius decreases. Since both terms are square terms, the left side of the equation appears to even out. The result is that it is self-evident that stability is reached at the first Bohr orbit and that the electron cannot go closer to the proton unless a neutrino comes along.

With these corrections, the Bohr model is superior to the Quantum physics model since it show clearly the conversion of mass to charge. We can now look at the Neutron for additional proof of the conversion of mass to charge.