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Offline jerrygg38

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Time of Universe from Big Bang
« on: 09/06/2009 14:42:41 »
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SECTION 8-1: THE TIME OF THE UNIVERSE SINCE BIG BANG

     The gravitational force between two hydrogen atoms is due to the expansion of the hydrogen atom as it slowly loses energy. The cause is the quantized radiated loss of dot-waves into space. Thus the hydrogen atoms lose energy as the universe expands. A secondary cause of the gravitational force is the expansion of the dot-waves per unit time. This is a common mode effect and causes everything in the universe to expand simultaneously.

    The gravitational constant then contains two components. As the Universe evolves one component may be larger than the other. The expansion component would be very large at big bang. The radiation component would be very large also but lately many scientists believe that the early universe had a much more rapid inflation period. This would necessitate that the expansion component of the gravitational field to be much larger at big bang.

   The expansion component could be considered negative gravity. The insides of the dot-waves are like compressed springs. At the big bang all the energy of the proton is compressed into the Plank radius. As long as external energy was flowing into the shrinking protons/neutrons, no big bang could take place. The minute the external flow was used up, the super protons/neutrons exploded.

   This explosion caused a rapid increase in the size of the universe and a continued outward expansion. Basically the universe expands at the speed of light along the plane. It expands at a slower speed from the radius of the universe to the common center.

   The universe is a surface sphere a distance Ru from the common center. The electro-magnetic fields go outward to a distance 2Ru from the common center. However the actual motion of the universe from big bang to the present is a logarithmic spiral.

   At the big bang, the distances were very small and the time dimension was large as compared with the Plank time. Today the universe is very large and the Plank time is very small. Therefore long ago we had a four dimensional universe in which all dimensions were basically equal. Today the time dimension is so small that we believe we live in a single universe. In reality we live in a triplicity but the differences between the three universes are so small in time that it cannot be measured.
   The important thing to understand is that the initial logarithmic spiral was a four dimensional spiral. Today we have basically three dimensions. Therefore today the universe looks like a perfect simple sphere. We can now calculate the time of the universe from big bang and then correct the time for four dimensions, which are now three dimensions.

   The general force equation is:

    F = M d(V)/d(t)  + C d(M)/d(t)                  (8-1)

   The force of gravity is due to the loss of mass per unit time. The first part of equation 8-1 is zero because the mass loss occurs at light speed C. Therefore the force is:

   F = C d(M)/d(t)                        (8-2)

    In general as energy is lost from the hydrogen atom, the Bohr orbit expands.
The loss of energy is due to the loss of dot-waves in radiation. This shows up as expansion of the Bohr orbit. We can then write the equation for the Bohr orbit expansion and equate it to the gravitational force. To write this equation, we need to introduce the Bohr Orbit expansion velocity (VB*)

 F=2 (Uo (QC/137.036) x (4pi Q VB* ) / R^2         (8-3)

      In equation 8-3 we have two repulsive currents within each hydrogen atom. The first current is the electrical current in the first Bohr orbit ground state. This is:

             I = QC/137.036 R                     (8-4)

    In Equation 8-4 we have the current loop of the charge Q moving around the Bohr orbit at a distance of 5.291772E-11 meters. This produces a magnetic current vector. The current is not in one plane. The current circulates through all planes. Thus the resulting magnetic field is a spherical magnetic field.

    The second current is a planar spherical current         (8-5)

          I = 4 pi Q VB* / R                     (8-6)

     These two currents are repulsive currents. They cause the Bohr orbit to expand and at the same time they cause pressure upon space. These forces are the electrical equivalent of the dot-waves radiating from the hydrogen atoms. Space is filled with electro-dot-waves and grav-dot-waves. Space reacts by pushing back on the two hydrogen atoms. So we have a balance of forces between the repulsive electrical current flow and corresponding outward flow of dot-waves and the dot-waves of space pushing the atoms together. The second equation is our regular Newtonian equation. Thus:

    F = G MH MH / R^2                      (8-7)

   Here we have two hydrogen atoms, which are pushed together by the space dots. The gravitational fields add up. Each atom of the sun will produce a small piece of the sun's field. Each atom of the Earth will produce a small piece of the Earth’s field. The gravitational attraction works because it is between the total expansion energy field of the mass of object one interacting with space dots. The space dots push back upon each atom. The net result is that there is a net force directed toward the center of gravity of the mass. The same is true for the second mass.

   The space dots then produce a vector pattern in which more force is directed toward the center of gravity of the two masses. Thus gravity is a very simple force.

    We now want an Engineering method to determine the time since big bang. As the dot-waves expand, the ruler expands and the time clock slows. This is a common mode expansion and we cannot feel that we are expanding. At the big bang, this expansion was very strong. Today it is much less.

   It may very well be that once the proton stabilized, the inflationary forces became negligible. For the moment we have to make an Engineering approximation to the expansion equations.

    Let us assume that the universe follows an exponential waveshape. In addition let us assume that it approximates a four dimensional logarithmic spiral. Therefore the time of the universe from the common center is smaller than the total time. First we can calculate the total time.

 An exponential function would give the same results as a linear approximation since everything would vary the same. For the present analysis we can use a straight-line engineering method. Soon after the big bang, the size of the Bohr Orbit was basically zero as compared to its present size. Therefore we can use zero as the initial size of the Bohr Orbit for our analysis.

        We know the size of the Bohr orbit at present is 5.291772E-11 meters. We also know that the size of the Bohr radius at big bang was basically zero by our ruler. We can then solve for the expansion velocity. From equations 2-3 and 2-7; using MH = 1.673533E-27, G = 6.67428E-11, Uo = 1.256637E-6, C= 2.997925E8, Q = 1.602176E-19, and RB = 5.291772E-11, we get:

   Vb* = 137.036 G MH MH / 8 pi Q^2 C Uo            (8-8)

   Vb* = 1.053941E-28    meters/second            (8-9)

Dividing the Bohr radius by the Bohr expansion velocity gives us the time of the universe (TU) since big bang as:

     Tu* = 5.020938E17 seconds                  (8-10)
     
Using 365.25 days per years we find that:
 
      Tu* = 15.91039 Billion years                  (8-11)

   The straight-line analysis of the hydrogen atom produces a ballpark number of 15.91039 billion years for the time since big bang. The best solution for the expansion of the universe since big bang is a four dimensional logarithmic spiral. Therefore the time and or distance to the common center is less that 15.9 billion years by a conversion factor.

   By studying the math of the logarithmic spiral, one solution for the conversion is:

    Ratio = (3/4)^0.5   = 0.8660254                  (8-12)

   Equation 2-12 is an Engineering approximation to a simple logarithmic, which has been expended to four dimensions. A better answer would require study by various mathematicians. For this simple analysis the above number seems good for a ballpark answer. For an n alternative we can use the simple expression e/π as the conversion factor. Thus:

    e/π = 0.8652560                        (8-13)

   The second expression gives us the natural log and pi as the conversion factor. Since the natural log does not appear in the various equations directly, it appears possible that it should appear in this equation. This is especially true since we are dealing with a transient solution. Therefore:

    Tu = 0.8652560TU* = 13.76656 Billion years            (8-14)

   Tu =  4.344397E17 Seconds                  (8-15)

   Equations 2-14&15 specifies that the time to the center of the universe by a straight line is 13.77 billion years or 4.344E17 seconds. The distance to the center of the universe by a straight line is:

    Ru = Tu C                            (8-16)

    Ru = 1.302418E26 meters                  (8-17)

   Equation 8-17 specifies that the radius of the electro-magnetic field to the center of the universe is equal to the time of the universe times the speed of light (C). For a constant velocity straight-line solution, the electro-magnetic field has expanded at light speed C following a logarithmic path. However the universe has only expanded at a speed from the common center lower than the speed of light C. The speed is:

      Vu = 0.8652560C                     (8-18)

   In equation 8-18 we find that the universe is expanding at the speed of light C in the logarithmic planar dimensions. It is only expanding at 0.865C from the common center. Therefore the universe is not expanding at light speed C as far as we are concerned.


 

Offline gurpal

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Time of Universe from Big Bang
« Reply #1 on: 11/06/2009 21:33:45 »
could you please put this in simpler terms and make it shorter getting to the piont quickly as i am only 13 and not at the same knowledge and not have a lot of time or knowledge as yet

this would help me with my knowledge of science if you could please do this ,thank you.
if want to talk please contact me at          gurpal.h@ntlworld.com
 

Offline jerrygg38

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Time of Universe from Big Bang
« Reply #2 on: 11/06/2009 21:48:52 »
could you please put this in simpler terms and make it shorter getting to the piont quickly as i am only 13 and not at the same knowledge and not have a lot of time or knowledge as yet

this would help me with my knowledge of science if you could please do this ,thank you.
if want to talk please contact me at          gurpal.h@ntlworld.com

I was 13 for most of 1952. I was mostly interested in bike riding and playing punchball in the Streets of Brooklyn.
  When you are young you have to learn the standard stuff that everyone learns. These new theory discussion groups contain some good ideas and some wrong ideas. the only thing it may do for you is to give you some idea if you are interested in studying physics. then you have to look at the standard stuff. Good luck in your endeavors.
 

Offline Vern

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« Reply #3 on: 11/06/2009 23:48:35 »
Jerrygg38; good advice; kids and teachers should stick to the standard stuff. That is one reason we should point out where our own ideas depart from the standard.
 

Offline jerrygg38

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Time of Universe from Big Bang
« Reply #4 on: 12/06/2009 01:54:15 »
Jerrygg38; good advice; kids and teachers should stick to the standard stuff. That is one reason we should point out where our own ideas depart from the standard.

I did not depart from the standard stuff until I was 42 years old. It was a mid-life crisis, period of insanity, or encounter with an intelligent being from another lightspeed dimension. Take your pick. In any event I had to try to understand whatever it was I encountered.
   Pure insanity is a good possibility. The thing that fools you with these encounters is that the entity you are speaking to appears so convincing and intelligent that it is so hard to believe that it only is a figment of your own imagination.
   So I am stuck with a universe composed of plus and minus. What I have always found hard to understand is that the entity said gravity was positive and negative as well. To make matters worse the entity said the total universe was a perfect sphere.
   What is the truth? I cannot tell. One explanation is that my mind is sensitive to embedded intelligence in the universe and I am able to pick up some data. Perhaps Einstein picked up other data.
   Anyway I keep modifying my dot theory. There are so many variations of plus and minus. So for 28 years I have studied my hallucinations.
   And I always ask myself if the data was true.
   
 

Offline jerrygg38

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Time of Universe from Big Bang
« Reply #5 on: 12/06/2009 02:19:39 »
SECTION 8-2: THE SHAPE OF THE UNIVERSE AT BIG BANG

    Prior to the big bang, electro-magnetic energy converged onto a small volume at the common center of our universe. This produced a spectrum of spherical shells of energy. Each shell had a particular thickness and a particular light speed.

     Plus and minus dot-waves tend to converge upon spherical surfaces, which continually shrink in a four dimensional logarithmic spiral motion. As the energy field shrinks further, the spherical surface gets thicker and thicker. In time the universe looks like a very small ball with a high concentration of energy. This would be like a very hard black handball. The handball is filled with multi-lightspeed energy.

   As more and more energy was compressed upon the small handball, the energy density reached a maximum. In addition the input energy supply became used up. The external forces operating upon the hardball reached zero. Inside the ball, the repulsive gravitational forces counterbalanced the attractive electrical forces.

   At the present time, we have positive external gravitational forces. When all the gravitational energy is within an object, there are no external gravitational forces. At the time of the big bang gravity became negative. In addition, as more and more electrical energy flows into the black ball, electrical energy becomes photonic energy. A point is reached were the photonic energy is stronger than the attractive electrical energy. Then the ball explodes.

   The explosion of the black ball caused the ball to expand. At the very core, the light speed was zero. Therefore the center core did not expand at all. As we move outward away from the center of the ball, we reach our light speed C. At the big bang; our universe was a spherical energy shell of a certain thickness within the ball.

   The big bang explosion caused our spherical shell to expand at as a logarithmic spiral with surface light speed C away from the common center. This causes a radial outward speed of 0.865256C from the common center. As the spherical shell expanded, it because thinner. In time our universe reached the present state. We live on a spherical shell of 81.8333 billion light years in circumference. We have a relatively small dimension to our thickness.

   
 

Offline jerrygg38

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Time of Universe from Big Bang
« Reply #6 on: 12/06/2009 02:22:24 »
SECTION 8-5: THE MINIMUM SIZE OF THE UNIVERSE

  Let us find a ballpark Engineering method to calculate the minimum size of the universe at big bang. First need to find out the mass of the universe. Since we know the mass of a proton, we can find out how many protons there are in the universe. During the big bang all the protons are compressed to the Plank radius. At the present time the protons exist within the Plank radius and outward to the Proton radius. When we compress the protons to maximum compression we get extremely compressed protons.

   It appears unlikely that all the protons in the universe will fit inside one Plank radius. Therefore we end up with a very small ball or black hole containing all the compressed protons. However when we leave room for a series of coexisting lower light speed universes, our universe fits onto a spherical shell. We will calculate the minimum size without coexisting universes and then the minimum size with coexisting universes.

  We know that the universe exists as a spherical shell 13.73 billion light years from the common center. We can use an Engineering approximation to produce the mass of the universe. The force equations operating upon a mass Mx within the spherical shell is:

   G Mu Mx / Ru^2 = Mx V^2  / Ru                  (8-26)

   On the left side of equation 8-8 is the force between the mass of the universe and a mass Mx at a distance Ru. The center of mass of the universe Mu stands at the common center of the universe. The mass Mx exists upon the surface of the universe. The counterbalancing centrifugal force operating on the mass Mx is caused by Mx moving away from the center of the universe at 0.865256C.

    We can assume that the four dimensional logarithmic spiral produces a force on Mx that is similar to an orbital force. Thus we have a force equal to the mass times the velocity squared and divided by the distance.

   Equation 8-8 is independent of the mass Mx. It could have been a proton. It could have been a dot mass. The equation simply says that the gravitational force on any object depends upon the total mass of the universe, the gravitational constant, the distance from the universe to the common center, and the equivalent velocity of the mass. For this example the outward expansion velocity of 0.865256C has been chosen. Solving for the mass of the Universe we get:

    Mu = V^2 Ru / G                        (8-27)

  Since the velocity is (e/π) C, we get:

        Mu = (C e/π)^2 Ru / G                     (8-28)

  Since G = 6.67428E-11, Ru = 1.302418E26, and C = 2.997925E8, we get:

   Mu = 1.3130362E53Kg.                     (8-29)

  Since Mp = 1.672622E-27Kg, the number of protons in the universe is:

   # Protons = Mu/Mp = 7.8501672E79               (8-30)

  Since at least half the energy of the universe was expended at the big bang, the number of protons at the big bang was twice this amount. Therefore:

#Protons = 1.5700334E80                  (8-31)

   At the big bang, the electrons had been merged into the protons. Therefore the number of neutrons is basically the same as the number of protons. Alternately we could have used the neutron mass in the above ballpark calculation.

   The volume occupied by the protons at big bang will be the number of protons or neutrons times the Plank volume. Assuming all the protons encounter total compression, the radius of the black hole at big bang will be the Plank radius times the cube root of the number of protons. Thus:

   Ru (big bang) = (1.616252E-35) 5.394729E28 = 8.719824E-9 meters.

   Therefore the entire universe has been reduced to a sphere of less than 10 billionths of a meter. This would be the volume for a single light speed solution. The multi-light speed universe causes our universe to be spread over a spherical surface.

   We can assume that the total universe below us follows the following light-speed series.

    C, C/2, C/4, C/8, C/16,……etc.               (8-32)

   We can also assume that the volume of each lower universe is half of each higher universe. Therefore the total volume is:

    Volume =2(Volume Light Speed 1)               (8-33)

  For this case, the total radius would be:

   R = (20.33333) Rmin = 1.25992Rmin               (8-34)

Therefor for this case, the radius of the universe would be:

   Ru = 1.098628E-8 meters                  (8-35)

  The thickness of the universe at big bang would be:

    T = 1.25992 Rmin – Rmin = 0.25992Rmin            (8-36)

    The thickness T becomes:

    Thickness = 8.719824E-9 x 0.25992 = 2.266457E-9meters   (8-37)

   Thickness percentage = 2.266457E-9/ 1.098628E-8 = 20.63%   (8-38)

   We see that the thickness is approximately 20 percent of the total radius when we include all the lower light speed universes. Therefore our started out as a sphere as a hollow center. This became our huge universe, which is till a sphere exists as a sphere with a hollow center. However the thickness of our universe has decreased over the ages.

 Einstein’s special relativity suffers from faults as explained in Chapter 6. No doubt his general relativity also suffers from similar faults. The big problem is that the universe we live in looks like a perfect sphere when viewed from outside the universe and within the higher light speed universes.

   Therefore any solution to general relativity which does not produce a perfect sphere is only a partially correct solution. At the big bang we were a very complex six-dimensional space-time entity. However the Universe evolved into the basically perfect sphere that it is today.

 
 

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Time of Universe from Big Bang
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