CHAPTER 6- DOT-WAVE DOPPLER SPACE-TIME EQUATIONS

SECTION 6-0: INTRODUCTION

Einstein produced a set of equations in 1905 that shook the scientific community. He proposed that every inertial system in the universe was an independent inertial platform. As such he produced a set of equations, which has puzzled mankind for one hundred years. Many people believed his special relativity was correct. Many others believed that it was incorrect.

Einstein based his theory upon interpretation of the results of the Michelson/Morley experiment. Lorentz looked at the same experiment and chose a sister solution. Lorentz believed that an object shrinks in the direction of motion. Einstein believed that the instrument did not shrink and that his equations were correct. Who was right? Was the Michelson-Morley experiment a valid test?

The Einsteinian solution enabled him to declare that the Earth was an independent platform and that the speed of light upon the Earth was independent of the relative velocity of the source of the light and the Earth. Thus the speed of light coming into the instrument is identical whether the Earth was approaching the sun or receding from the sun. The speed of light was also equal in the perpendicular direction.

Einstein thus believed that the speed of light is independent of motion. Thus special relativity took over the minds of the scientific community. This was especially true after Einstein’s calculations for the bending of light during the solar eclipse turned true for many measurements.

The Lorentz solution faded away. However something was wrong since the light was blue shifted when the Earth approached the sun and red-shifted when the Earth receded from the sun. Therefore Doppler Equations had to be accounted for. Einstein’s relativity did not explain the Doppler effect.

Since Doppler Equations had to be accounted for in the equations to explain the photonic wave equations, the same would be true for the mass equations. With Doppler equations, we would get a forward mass, which would be larger than a rearward, mass.

We then had two choices. We could rewrite the Einsteinian formulas with Doppler space-time corrections attached. This would produce very complicated math for simple calculations. The Einsteinian formulas are quite simple. Alternatively we could use the Doppler equations directly. The advantage is that the root mean square of the Doppler Equations is identical with the Einsteinian equations. Since the Einsteinian equations have worked so well, the necessity to produce new equations is eliminated. Therefore the simple Doppler Equations suffice to explain space-time with Doppler effects.

In my book “Doppler Space Time” I discussed using Doppler equations based upon the Dot theory. However the Dot-Wave theory is a different theory. Therefore my old Doppler Space Time concepts must be corrected. For 28 years I thought the equations were valid. Now at this time, the Dot-Wave theory has not only replaced the Dot-theory but also has replaced the old Doppler space-time theory. Therefore my understanding of space and time has changed in the last few months. Thus the Dot-Wave theory comes out of the ashes of the Dot-theory.

Much of my work for the last 28 years has been replaced by the new Dot-Wave theory. Many equations remained for sure but my understanding of the dot-wave and space-time changed dramatically.

Let us now treat the dot-wave mass increase in the same manner as sound waves.

SECTION 6-1 DOT-WAVE SPACE-TIME MASS EQUATIONS

In general the dot-waves for mass behave in a similar manner to sound waves.

The Doppler mass equations are:

Mass front = Mo C/(C-V) (6-1)

Mass rear = Mo C/ (C+V) (6-2)

The Doppler root mean mass, calculates to be:

MRMS = Mo / [1- (V/C)^2]^1/2 (6-3)

In equation 6-3 we see that the mass of a moving object is the geometric mean of the Doppler masses. The grav-photonic energy wave builds up in the front of the motion and decreases in the rear of the motion. As the Earth moves in the forward direction the Earths gravitational field and the space dot-waves in the forward direction are compressed. This causes the light speed of the photonic wave coming from the Sun relative to the Earth to decrease.

Therefore the relative speed of light drops in front of the Earth. This causes additional energy from the space dots to be added to the oncoming photonic wave from the sun. When the photons hit the Earth they are blue shifted.

When the Earth moves away from the sun, the gravitational field and the space dots are decompressed. This increases the relative photonic light speed from the sun. This causes the photonic field from the sun to lose energy. Thus the light becomes red shifted.

The dot-waves of space are really similar to air molecules. The Doppler effect is identical for sound and for light. The only difference is air molecules traveling at a speed of sound which depends upon temperature and pressure. If the temperature rises, the speed of sound goes up because the molecules are moving faster. If the pressure falls, the speed of sound drops because the air molecules are further apart. In general temperature and pressure are inter-related.

In the case of photonic energy, the higher the density of dots the higher the space pressure of the dots and dot-waves. As photonic waves flow into areas of higher space pressure, there is a tradeoff between relative velocity and energy. Thus:

Photonic Energy x Relative Photonic Velocity = Constant (6-4)

In an area of space, if the relative photonic-wave light speed drops 0.01 percent, then, the energy of the wave will increase 0.01 percent. The energy of a photon is:

E = hC/λ (6-5)

The photon coming from the sun is part of a photonic wave. As the wave leaves the sun, its velocity is slower due to the strong gravitational field around the sun. This produces compressed gravitational space-time and a higher density of dot-waves. Then the wave speed increases in velocity as it reaches free space. The light speed reaches a maximum at the gravitational center between the sun and the Earth. As the photonic wave approaches the Earth, it encounters the Earth’s moving gravitational field.

If the Earth is coming toward the photons, the gravitational field will be compressed and the photons will slow in relative velocity. As the photons slow they will gain energy from the field and turn slightly blue. If the gravitational field is moving away from the photons, the photons will lose energy to the field and the photons will turn slightly red.

Why does the relative light speed drop when the density of dots increases whereas the sound speed increases when the density of air molecules increases? Sound operates a little differently. The increased density of the sound molecules permits a faster exchange of information between sound waves. Usually the increase of density occurs when the temperature rises. Therefore the sound molecules are traveling faster. Thus sound velocity increases with density.

For photonic waves, the situation is different. The dot-wave velocity when the dot-wave is moving through free space is Co, where Co is the absolute speed of light with respect to the universal spherical reference system at light speed infinity. Any speed we measure anywhere in the universe is less than Co.

As a photonic wave from the Sun encounters the Earth’s moving gravitational field, it finds a higher density of gravitational space-time as it gets closer and closer to the Earth. The photonic waves always changes from electro-photonic dot to mass dot every split second. The more this occurs, the slower the light speed. Ideally, in pure free space, the photonic wave will remain a pure photon. Thus in pure free space, the photonic wave will reach Co. However this only occurs between galaxies. The minute the wave enters a galaxy, it encounters a mass to energy oscillation. The more it oscillates the slower the light speed.

The photon travels at the speed of light most of the time. Some of the time, the photon stands still. When the photonic wave reaches the Earth’s gravitational field, it encounters a higher gravitational density and higher density of space dots. This causes the photonic wave to have a greater mass/energy oscillation. The result is that the dot-waves drop in speed. They lose linear momentum and at the same time they gain orbital momentum and a greater percentage of spherical momentum. Thus there is a transfer of momentum from linear to orbital and spherical momentum.

The drop in light speed shows up as an increase in photonic frequency. By the time the photon reaches the Michelson/Morley test instrument, the light speed is Earth’s speed Ce. This is faster than the sun’s speed Cs. It is slower that the highest light speed between the Earth and the Sun, which is Cse. This is still slower than Co.

As we look at the Earth we find that the gravitational field of the Earth produces a basically spherical shape. The field is very strong. All the action of the photons occurred before the photonic waves hit the Earth. Therefore the lightspeed upon the Earth is Ce. It really does not matter where we are on the Earth. The speed of light will be basically Ce everywhere. Thus the Michelson-Morley experiment had a severe fallacy. The instrument was not large enough to really do the job. The correct experiment would be a test instrument in outer space far from any galaxies. There in pure free space, the instrument would not null. Thus the experiment was defective. All it proved is that the Earth’s light speed is constant everywhere.

The Michelson/Morley experiment was based upon pure electrical theory taken to the ideal. The equations are ideal equations. The scientists then translated the results to apply to pure free space. Einstein’s special relativity is excellent for explaining linear and orbital problems within a closed system. Thus upon the Earth, the speed of light in all direction is basically constant as long as we are moving slowly. Once you move the electron in a cyclotron near the speed of light, the Doppler effects become important.

Einstein’s special relativity is both valid and invalid. It was based upon the Michelson-Morley experiment, which was invalidated by the Earths gravitational field, which equalized the light speed in all directions. Since all the photonic corrections occurred before the photons entered the Earth’s surface, we had a constant speed of light Ce. Thus the basis of the experiment was destroyed before the photons reached the test instrument.

However in spite of this the gravitational field turned the Earth into an independent inertial platform. In pure free space, Einstein’s equations would fail. However Einstein’s equations are true because they are the root mean square of Doppler and because the gravitational field caused the equalization of light in all directions in the instrument. Therefore Einstein’s theory and general relativity is based upon independent inertial systems.

In truth, the systems are only independent after the gravitational field corrects the light speeds. The photons before they reached the Earth were converted into the Earths light speed before they reached the instrument. Therefore Einstein’s results are basically correct not because the experiment was valid but because the Earth’s gravitational field made it valid.

We can now look at the Doppler length equations and compare them with Einstein’s equations.

SECTION 6-2: DOPPLER LENGTH EQUATIONS

Now let us look at the gravitational length of a particle/wave as it moves close to the speed of light and comes toward this Earth. The forward mass of the particle wave would be:

MF = Mo C/(C-V) (6-6)

The corresponding Doppler length in the front direction would be

LF = Lo (C-V) /C (6-7)

As the mass of the object builds up in the forward direction, the length of the particle/wave shrinks toward zero. Let us now look at the Doppler length in the rearward direction for the particle coming toward the Earth.

LR = Lo (C+V) /C (6-8)

We notice that the particle wave elongates to a maximum of twice the original length Lo as it reaches near the speed of light C. The root mean square of the Doppler Length is

LRMS= LO [1- (V/C)^2]^0.5 (6-9)

In equation 6-9 we have the root mean square of the Doppler Length. This is identical with the Einsteinian formula. Thus an object moving close to the speed of light shrinks to zero size as the energy builds up toward infinity.

We now need to know the root mean square time as the object shrinks. What does a time clock aboard a particle wave do when we approach the speed of light? If we have a mechanical time clock ticking back and forth over shorter and shorter distances internally while moving greater and greater distances externally, the particle wave is spending more and more time as a photon moving at light speed C and less and less time as a particle. Thus the physical time clock of the particle wave slows down. Since C is meters per second and length is meters, the time clock is:

Time = L/C = (LO/C) [1- (V/C)^2]^0.5 (6-10)

Using Lo /C as To we get (6-11)

T = To [1- (V/C)^2]^0.5 (6-12)

Equation 6-12 specifies that a physical time clock moving toward the speed of light slows and finally stops.

We see that the Doppler Equations are the same as Einstein’s equations. Thus Einstein is root mean square of Doppler. We did not need the Michelson-Morley experiment to produce these equations.

The muons which travel at 0.98C as they come to the Earth have a time clock of:

TMuons = 0.199 To (6-13)

The muons have a slow clock as they enter the Earth’s atmosphere. This enables them to survive till they hit the Earth. Einstein shrunk space-time to let them survive. However the truth is that the Muon clock merely slowed.

We see that the Einsteinian equations and the Doppler Equations are identical. Thus Einstein is root mean square of Doppler. That is why his answers are so good.

The universe we live in has many distortions. The Earth’s gravitational field is not perfectly spherical as we move outward in space. We see the Doppler effects. Yet by the time we reach the Earth’s surface, the field is nearly perfect.

Therefore Einstein’s equations eliminate the complexity of non-linear space-time into very simply salient solutions. His work enables us to look at the Earth as a perfect platform. There are many error terms due to velocity. The motion of the galaxy produces errors. The motion of the sun and the Earth’s orbit produces errors and distortions. The Earths light speed will constantly vary over its orbit. However most of the errors are root mean square errors. Therefore the Earth’s gravitational field automatically produces corrections for the galaxy motion. This means that it will be difficult to measure very small differences in the Earths light speed as we move in orbit. However we should be able to do it someday.