# The Naked Scientists Forum

### Author Topic: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?  (Read 19878 times)

#### tweener

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #25 on: 18/11/2003 15:18:12 »
Actually, as you go in toward the center of the earth (or any sphere of matter) the gravitational acceleration you experience, toward the center of mass, drops linearly to zero at the exact center.  This is because the gravitational acceleration due to the whole body is canceling itself out as you go in.  Indeed you reach equilibrium.

I wish I had a way to draw this, but here goes with a description:

If you plot the gravitational acceleration versus distance from the center of mass of a sphere (i.e. the earth), the plot would increase in a straight line starting at zero at the center of mass and reach a maximum (9.8 m/s2 for earth) at the surface of the earth.  Then the gravitational acceleration would start decreasing with the inverse square of distance (1/R2) as you went farther along the axis.  This means it would decrease more rapidly near the surface and then less rapidly as you move away from the surface of the sphere.

----
John

#### cuso4

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #26 on: 19/11/2003 13:17:08 »
John is right (Sorry Quantum, nice try anyway). As you go toward the centre of the Earth, the mass beneath you is decreasing so the attraction force decreases and the mass above you is increasing. And it will indeed reach an equilibrium.

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." -Albert Einstein

#### cuso4

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #27 on: 19/11/2003 13:27:25 »
Now this question is probably for the chemists.

Esters can be made by reacting an alchol with a carboxylic acid in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 (act as a catalyst) with water as the by-product. Why couldn't mineral acids (that's HCl, HNO3, H2SO4) be used?

Angel

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." -Albert Einstein

#### chris

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #28 on: 19/11/2003 18:39:36 »
The formation of an ester linkage is energetically favourable because water is produced with the formation of an OH bond (OH+H -> H2O) plus a C-O bond. The formation of water (which is removed by the strong acid) shifts the equilibrium in favour of the formation of more ester.

But with the mineral acids, you would have to break a sulphur-oxygen or nitrogen-oxygen bond before even having vacant electrons to participate in the bond, let alone a stable product to mop up the protons. It is not energetically favourable. In the case of HCl, it couldn't form a link anyway because chlorine can only make one bond.

Chris

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#### cuso4

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #29 on: 20/11/2003 08:36:54 »
H+ ions from a strong acid will dehydrate the alcohol forming an alkene.

Angel

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." -Albert Einstein

#### chris

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #30 on: 20/11/2003 12:39:59 »
But you make an ester in the presence of a strong acid (e.g. sulphuric) as you outlined above.

Chris

"I never forget a face, but in your case I'll make an exception"
- Groucho Marx

#### cuso4

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #31 on: 20/11/2003 13:17:49 »
Maybe you need more acid to dehydrate the alcohol? But a srong acid will definitely convert the alcohol into alkene. Perhaps cannabinoid can explain.

Angel

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." -Albert Einstein

#### tom

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #32 on: 21/11/2003 09:39:46 »
Probably H20 can form with H2SO4 far more H-bonds and dipole-dipole bonds than with other strong acids so the enthalpy of mixing is in this case far more negative.
Ok you smart guys, I see you are familiar with chemistry, answer this question: if you heat tablet of aspirin, acetic acit is produced, you can smell it. How is this possible, because there in tablet is no water? Structure of aspirine is: put on benzene ring -COOH group on C atom no.1 and -O-CO-CH3 group on the C-atom no.2 (orto position). You know that for hydrolysis of esters water is needed!

#### cuso4

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #33 on: 21/11/2003 12:22:43 »
What's the structure of acetic acid?

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." -Albert Einstein

#### tom

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #34 on: 21/11/2003 12:36:52 »
Who told you, copper sulfate, that you need acid for elimination? You need nucleophile, that's base (OH-). You eat CH3COOH every day so shame on you you don't know what this compound represent.

#### cuso4

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #35 on: 23/11/2003 13:39:34 »
Hey! I didn't know ethanoic acid is the same as acetic acid![:(!] I always known the structure as ethanoic acid.

OK, I know the answer now. An organic acid has to be used because that's what an ester is: RCOOR' so the acid has to be an carboxylic acid.

Moving on. Who can tell me which compound (acid or alcohol) does the oxygen (not the C=O) in ester come from? And how can you prove it?

Angel

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." -Albert Einstein

#### cuso4

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #36 on: 27/11/2003 08:26:08 »
No one is going to have a go?
Then I will reveal the answer.

The oxygen actually come from the alcohol and this is proven by using an alcohol with a radioisotope of oxygen, O18. And then detected using a Geiger counter.

Angel

"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." -Albert Einstein

#### Qing

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #37 on: 28/11/2003 15:12:11 »
Angel,you revealed the answer too quickly,I lost my chance,but do you know why it's not coming from the acid? I could never get the answer from JKS![V]

Qing

#### Qing

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #38 on: 05/12/2003 09:17:26 »
Angel,have you got more brain teasers?

Qing

#### nandakumar

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #39 on: 28/12/2003 07:43:21 »
hi
I think that the ball will standstill at the centre of the earth as there is equal gravitationl pull from all sides of the earth.

Angel remember one thing that the maximum depth the borehole has been sunk may be 10 to 15 kilometers,it took nearly ten months. Then how you are going to borehole to the centre of the earth.

Am i correct.

hi iam a student of geology and currently doing my post graduate degree in remotesensing

#### Ylide

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #40 on: 31/05/2004 11:08:05 »
Unless of course one of his tools is a teleporter.  Oh wait, that's from another older thread.  ;)

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#### qpan

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #41 on: 31/05/2004 14:16:41 »
quote:
Originally posted by Quantumcat

He could "swim" by moving his tool hard ibehind him, moving them slowly in front, then hard behind him again, that way he wouldn't lose his tools. If you sit in a chair that can spin, wave your arms really hard in the direction you don't want to go and you'll move in the other direction. Bring them slowly back and repeat. Just by swinging your arms you can make yourself spin right around. :-)

Am I dead? Am I alive? I'm both!

Errm- i'm gonna have to disagree with you on this one quantum- the only reason it works on a swivel chair is because there is an atmposphere here on earth. If we consider the momentum of the astronaut and his tools as 0, the astronaut cannot gain any momentum (by conservation of momentum) unless an equal momentum is imparted in the opposite direction. On the swivel chair, you impart this momentum to the countless number of air molecules, but in space, there is no such medium! The only way he could get back is by chucking his tools!

"I have great faith in fools; self-confidence my friends call it."
-Edgar Allan Poe

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##### Re: What happens if you drill a hole through Earth ?
« Reply #41 on: 31/05/2004 14:16:41 »