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Author Topic: What is the real repulsive force of cosmological constant? "REVISED"  (Read 11772 times)

Offline jsaldea12

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What is the real repulsive force of cosmological constant? (revised with more clarity)

Dr. Albert Einstein introduced cosmological constant, re-repulsive force,  in 1917 to counteract gravity and stabilize the universe.  Dr. Einstein shared the cosmological concept of  Dr. Fred Hoyle, re- the “steady state theory” . But, shortly,  with  Big Bang theory of astronomer-physicist, Lemaitre  and  the evidenctial astronomical observation  of Astronomer, Edwin Hubble,of red-shifting of ALL galaxies, implicating that ALL galaxies  were moving outward, led uncomfortable Dr. Einstein to declare that his cosmological constant was his biggest mistake.  Cosmological constant was later on adopted, re-the repulsive force concept,  as the  explanation why galaxies are running away,.. It is now strongly considered that the repulsive force could be dark energy pushing the galaxies outward? There could be another more valid  explanation for the phenomena, re-repulsive force” of cosmological constant.. Here it is:


Hydrogen has proton (positive-directional) and electron (negative-directional). If there are 1 million hydrogen atoms, gaseous, in a sealed jar, all will be repulsing one another. Why? In keeping with the law of opposite, when the direction of one side is  positive, the direction in the opposite side is  negative. In electron, no matter how it revolves around the nucleus, always its revolving side, facing the positive directional nucleus, is flexible negative directional, thus, binding both positive of nucleus with the negative of electrons. (This is something new and  could be difficult to digest but this is in keeping with the universal law of opposite) But  the outer sides of electrons of all atoms, always facing other electrons of other atoms, will be always all positive, thus,  the tendency is to repulse from one another atoms..  Stars of galaxies are like electrons as to nucleus of atoms, stars and even planets, have both positive and negative .property. Like the air pumped  into  air rifle ,  once fired, expands and is blown, actually, the air molecules repulse one another, could be positive to positive repulsion.. Gravity is like magnet, with positive and negative property:: cut and cut into smaller pieces a bar magnet, and always on each cut has positive and negative. It is the direction that determines whether it is positive and negative, pointing clockwise, it is negative, pointing counterclockwise, it is positive.. .earth has reversible poles.

As it is in micro atom, so  in macro  galaxies. In gargantuan suspended bodies in outer space, as a lumpsum, each galaxies has  nucleus ( black hole) with flexible positive directional  property while the rotating billions of satellite stars, like electrons at outer shell, has flexible negative directional  property, thus the gravitational fields  of both black holes and stars, facing one another, always attracts and binds one another, re-positive to negative binding, in keeping with universal law of opposite: like repulse, unlike attract. But, always,   the opposite sides of the stars, facing toward  outer space, are all positive directional, thus, all  galaxies repulse one another to keep distance, re- positive to positive repulsion.. In isolated cases like two galaxies, wherein one galaxy has prominently positive outer shell, and the other approaching  galaxy, prominently negative, there is attraction, binding of both gravitational fields, as result, the greater  galaxy eats the lesser galaxy, re-black hole eating the other galaxy.


Dark energy, much less dark matter, appears  to be sparse in the transparent harsh cold universe. The comet tail, for instance, of some 150 million kilometers length  of ionized fundamental particles, is visible because light comes in contact with the ionized particles but the conceived fundamental particle dark energy and dark matter  to consist 96% content of the universe, is not visible because both appear scarce.  What causes the red-shifting of ALL galaxies? The undeniable existence of spacetime of Dr. Einstein finally rear its head., In those great, great distances, re-millions. billions of light years distances from all galaxies to earth, the spacetime, its all-encompassing supra-supra thin no-mass skein, is bound to thicken, like London fog, and to interfere with travelling light waves to causes light waves to weaken, to slow down (and  ultimately to stop), to lengthen and widen  wave length, thus to cause red-shifting of ALL galaxies the farther the distance...

In a nutshell, the greatest mistake of Dr. Einstein, re-the cosmological constant,  is no mistake after all.. Outer space/ spacetime  is in steady state. About the CMBR,  thicker CMBR was observed  in clusters of galaxies. Also, it was observed that CMBR distribution throughout the universe is not all even or smooth. It could be that through several billions of years, some 15 billion years old, .the CMBR, the making  of some 15 billion galaxies in the visible universe, could have scattered and distributed widely and almost throughout the  universe. Another puzzle maybe solved: Is Big Bang an  explosion of matter or inflation of both matter and spacetime?  With the universe in steady state, it implicates that the spacetime of Dr. Einstein,( which is also the old aether, and the new aether of Dr. Einstein, himself)  was ahead in the making of the make-up of the universe than the matter explosion of Big Bang.. (A picture cannot be drawn without a convas)

jsaldea12
2.23.10

« Last Edit: 28/02/2010 06:03:29 by jsaldea12 »


 

Offline Bored chemist

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"If there are 1 million hydrogen atoms, all will be repulsing one another. "
Plain wrong as usual.
Hydrogen atoms stick together in pairs. They don't repel.
"Air molecules in atmosphere are in expanded state, actually, all air molecules, having similar negative porperty are repulsing one another, re-negative to negative"
Air molecules attract one-another. If you cool them down they form a liquid, and then solid as these attractive forces  stick them together.
 

Offline jsaldea12

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Thank you for reminding…I am not a chemist. I have to learn from you. But in dirigible, they use pure hydrogen or helium.

You are right…air molecules when cooled solidify into water. But when water is subjected to sunlight, it evaporates into atmosphere, into individual intact H2O atom?.

In a free state as in atmosphere,  elements such as oxygen, carbon, helium, hydrogen, etc . have  negative prominent outer shells facing same negative prominent  outer shells one another elements, thus, all repel one another  This is what I mean.

In a free state such as outer space, galaxies have negative-prominent outer shells facing one another galaxies, thus, the tendency is to repulse one another..

The principle is laid down: like repel, thus, negative outer shells of the stated elements in FREED state in atmosphere repel one another element....


Jsaldea12

2.23.10
 

Offline Bored chemist

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"n a free state as in atmosphere,  elements such as oxygen, carbon, helium, hydrogen, etc . have  negative prominent outer shells facing same negative prominent  outer shells one another elements, thus, all repel one another  This is what I mean. "
It doesn't matter what you mean.

They actually attract one another.
The mechanisms of attraction are well known (dipole- dipole interactions; dipole- induced dipole; and  Van Der Walls forces if you want to look them up)
Your idea rests on a false premise and is therefore wrong.
That should be the end of this thread.
 

Offline jsaldea12

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Dipole-dipole interaction, dipole-induced interaction, Van der walls, etc. and ANY KIND OF INTERACTION involves positive to negative attraction and binding. But   independent atoms, molecules, FREE  in atmosphere, each, has acquired a shield, like in movie, “Independence”, and generally, that shield, the outer shell, is negative-prominence direction, that as a whole, each, the shield is negative. When the atoms, molecules etc. have these TOTALLY ALL OVER negative shields at their outer shells,  they repulse one another, in keeping with the UNSHAKABLE OPPOSITE LAW OF THE UNIVERSE:RE-LIKE REPULSE, UNLIKE ATTRACT. This unlike attract behavior is what is happening in dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, attraction.

But in the case of: compressed independent air into air gun tank and feed to air gun. is different, it is like -repulse. Press trigger to fire: the air molecules expands, actually, repel one another because their shields are negative to negative facing. Thus, the same air molecules, as released, fired, retain their independence,  separateness, in their usual distance from one another in the  FREE atmosphere.

The same principle applies to FREE outer space: each galaxy has acquired ALL OVER shielding negative-prominence direction, that repulse one galaxy to another …to safe distance from one another.


Jsaldea12

2.24.10

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Offline Bored chemist

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" But   independent atoms, molecules, FREE  in atmosphere, each, has acquired a shield"
Where from? Ebay?

"like in movie, "
As in not like in real life.
"they repulse one another, in keeping with the UNSHAKABLE OPPOSITE LAW OF THE UNIVERSE:RE-LIKE REPULSE, UNLIKE ATTRACT"
No they still attract one another as in the Joule Thomson effect. So it's clearly not a universal law - but we know that anyway because, if it were we would have drifted off into space.

Reality doesn't agree with you Jsaldea, and it isn't because reality is wrong.

 

Offline jsaldea12

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Can air taken/suctioned from atmosphere BE FUSED?…no matter how much pressure is applied to pump and compress air into air rifle tank, or compress in gasoline station  air hydraulic lifter (that can easily lift a car), NO MATTER HOW MUCH AIR IS COMPRESSED, once the air rifle tank or air hydraulic lifter  is open,  AIR is RELEASED, FREED, independent from one another molecule. ACTUALLY THEY REPEL ONE ANOTHER IN OPEN ATMOSPHERE.,  because their outer shells have negative shields that repulse other similar shields. of other air molecules. That air, you might say, are crowding themselves in atmosphere that they appear to be attracting one another. That air molecules are crowding in atmosphere is due to gravity that FORCE THEM to be closer to one another..

Reiterating, this is a principle, applicable to suspended bodies, like galaxies, in open outer space.. Moving galaxies at hi-speed of 1 million miles per hour, repulse one another until they are at farthest unrepulsable distance from one another.

Regards.

Jsaldea12

2.24.10.
 

Offline Bored chemist

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And, after all that, they still attract.
If you take some air and squash it into a container, leave it for a while then open the valve the air rushes out and, in doing so, it gets cold. That's because the expansion has to pull the molecules apart in spite of their attraction. To do so takes energy. There's only thermal energy around and so they use that. Using the thermal energy in this way drops the temperature.

Why won't you accept that you are just plain wrong again?
 

Offline jsaldea12

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You posted, “That’s because the expansion has to pull the molecules apart in spite of their attraction???”.  Where did you get that idea. It expands because the molecules repel one another.!!! It is not attraction. Is this something NEW, this concept that is not yet in the book. Think again. The law of opposite is universal: like repulse, unlike attracts.

Jsaldea12

2.25.10
 

Offline jsaldea12

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"Thatis because the expansion has to pull the molecules apart INSPITE OF THEIR ATTRACTION???"

If there is attraction, air compressed tightly inside the container would not rush out when valve is open because all molecules would stuck with one another inside the container.

jsaldea12
2.25.10
 

Offline Bored chemist

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You need to learn about enthalpy and entropy.
Once you understand them you will see that you are wrong.
 

Offline Madidus_Scientia

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If there is attraction, air compressed tightly inside the container would not rush out when valve is open because all molecules would stuck with one another inside the container.

Unless something is overcoming the attraction maybe? Temperature for a guess?

So what would happen if we significantly reduced the temperature?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_oxygen
http://www.vuw.ac.nz/scps-demos/demos/Fluids_Thermal_Gases/SolidNitrogen/SolidNitrogen.htm

And a solid
Quote
would not rush out when valve is open because all molecules would stuck with one another inside the container.
 

Offline jsaldea12

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On same temperature, inside and outside the container, the pumped air molecules are separate from one another.,, no matter how much air is pumped/compressed into the container, that when valve is open and air is released, the molecules expand, actually repel one another. It shows just how elastic and strong is the field, call it force field, that cordon the air molecules, individually.  When temperature is reduced significantly to a point below zero temperature,  air molecules constrict their force field, due to lessen energy level, to elbow (attract?) one another and solidify, like ice, But when temperature is normalized at atmospheric temperature, ice liquefies and evaporates. Now, was that elbow to elbow ice solidification attraction or simply FORCED  elbow-to-elbow solidification, like very crowded spectators in football field.?

But I agree, temperature and pressure can alter the symmetry of matter, from solid, liquid, gaseous, and vice versa. But in all the changing states, the law of opposite operates: like-repel, unlike –attracts, in keeping with law of conservation.


Jsaldea12

2.25.10. .
 

Offline BenV

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Quote
When temperature is reduced significantly to a point below zero temperature,  air molecules constrict their force field, due to lessen energy level, to elbow (attract?) one another and solidify, like ice, But when temperature is normalized at atmospheric temperature, ice liquefies and evaporates.

From reading this thread, it would seem that you have been repeatedly proven wrong, and refuse to admit it.

Maybe you don't get what Bored and Madidus have just explained to you.  If you remove energy from air molecules, the air will condense into a liquid - the molecules will not repel one another.  If you remove more energy, it will condence into a solid - the molecules will not repel one another.

You are claiming that the molecules will repell one another.

Can you see how your hypothesis doesn't match reality?
 

Offline jsaldea12

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Here is the clinger: at what state is the 15 billion plus galaxies in the universe.? Is it solid, liquid or gaseous? The galaxies are suspended in outer space, free to move but always at distance from one another, ALL THE GALAXIES ARE NOT IN ONE SOLID STATE LIKE ICE, NOT IN ONE LIQUID STATE EITHER.. The state of the galaxies are like air molecules in the atmosphere, free to move but never binding at one another. Why because of stated outer shells of the galaxies are negative-prominence directional that when galaxies move freely toward one another, they repulse one another to keep safe distance.


Jsaldea12

2.26.10.
 

Offline Bored chemist

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That's a very abrupt change of subject Jsaldea. Were you hoping we wouldn't notice?
While any one substance is in a given state of matter (solid, liquid or gas) most of the time. mixtures are not.
So, a mixture of sand and water with air bubbles in isn't solid liquid or gas.
The answer to the question about the state of the universe is "none of the above"
Anyway
Have you stopped talking nonsense about molecules repelling one another yet?
 

Offline jsaldea12

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It is the heart of the subject: what causes the galaxies to distant/repel one another.. It is because it is like the air molecules suspended at atmosphere on earth…call it in gaseous form in earth, and in outer space whre galaxies are suspended because the distance of ions is even greater, call it plasma.

It is true that temperature, particularly, extreme heat and extreme cold,  affects the energy level, and correspondingly, the electro-magnetic property of atoms. to a point that the positive and negative property can easily flip,as in air molecules, temporarily, to attract and align one atom to another  atom to expand more when super-heated, and  solidify as in ice,  when applied by zero temperature and down. But when air molecules are back at normal atmospheric temperature, air molecules return, retain its status, gaseous. And in the gaseous state, the positive and negative property are operating properly, and in deeper plasma state,the normal state of galaxies,  the galaxies, like air molecules, operates normally…repulsing one another for reason as stated..


Jsaldea12

2.26.10 .
 

Offline Bored chemist

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Fill up a car (or bike) tyre. Let it get back to ambient temperature. Then let the air out.
It cools
Explain that drop in temperature.

If the molecules repelled one another there would be a rise in temperature.
There isn't .
Stop trying to insist that your idea is right.
 

Offline jsaldea12

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...drop in temperature: INSIDE or outside the tire?
 

Offline Bored chemist

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Certainly outside, but I think the answer is both
 

Offline jsaldea12

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Yes, both: Because the volume increase inside and outside while the molecules remain the same.

Super-heat and super-cold can cause normal state gaseous state of matter to liquefy, to solidify. It is more of fusion, forced fusion, rather than exactly attraction.. When returned to normal  temperature, it returns from solid to liquid to gaseous.


Jsaldea12

2.28.10
 

Offline Madidus_Scientia

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If it were "forced fusion" then we would have to put energy into it to solidify it. This is opposite to what happens in reality.
 

Offline jsaldea12

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Super-heating and super-cooling mean exerting more energy of opposite direction of temperature, say, re-super heating to 1 million C or cooling to close to absolute zero.


Jsaldea12

2.28.10
 

Offline Madidus_Scientia

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Read your own post again and think carefully about what you just said.
 

Offline Bored chemist

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Jsaldea,
Try to get some sort of grip on reality.
It's currently 18 degrees in this room- not superheated or super cold. I happen to have some acetic acid and it's currently a slush of crystals in liquid.
If I had an open bottle of ethyl nitrite it would be boiling gently.
There's no need to talk about these silly things like "super heat" "super cold" or millions of degrees C. These changes take place at readily accessible temperatures.
As I said, the experiment with a car tyre proves that the molecules attract each other.

I also strongly suspect that you couldn't be bothered learning about entropy and enthalpy.
Do you realise that if someone gives you advice you should follow it?
 

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