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Offline The Scientist

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« on: 03/01/2011 13:15:42 »
Element? Chemical? Object? Which is the most poisonous? Please elaborate upon explanation. Thanks!


 

Offline Bill.D.Katt.

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #1 on: 03/01/2011 16:45:37 »
I think the botulinum toxin is the most dangerous naturally found toxin. I'm not sure if there are synthetic toxins (probably chem weapons) that are stronger.
 

Offline RD

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #2 on: 03/01/2011 22:21:19 »
KGB favourites Ricin and Polonium-210

Quote
Ricin (pronounced /ˈraɪsɨn/) is a protein that is extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Ricin may cause allergic reactions, and is toxic, though the severity depends on the route of exposure.
The LD50 of ricin is around 22 micrograms per kilogram (1.76mg for an average adult, around 1/228 of a standard aspirin tablet (0.4g gross)) in humans if exposure is from injection or inhalation. Oral exposure to ricin is far less toxic and lethal dose can be up to 20-30mg/kg.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricin


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By mass, polonium-210 is around 250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide (the actual LD50 for 210Po is about 1 microgram for an 80 kg person (see below) compared with about 250 milligrams for hydrogen cyanide[34]). The main hazard is its intense radioactivity (as an alpha emitter)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonium


botulinum toxin has a lower lethal dose though ...
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mere 90–270 nanograms of botulinum toxin could be enough to kill an average 90 kg (200 lb) person
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botulinum_toxin


Tobacco deserves a mention for the numbers it kills ...

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Deaths from Smoking

400,000 deaths annually in the US (Mayo Clinic)
http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/s/smoking/deaths.htm
« Last Edit: 03/01/2011 23:03:10 by RD »
 

Offline Geezer

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #3 on: 03/01/2011 23:00:57 »
Apparently, cigarette smoke contains some polonium, but I can't remember where I read that!
 

Offline CliffordK

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #4 on: 03/01/2011 23:20:05 »
I'm seeing mixed data about Plutonium, but see a LD50 toxicity reported of about 20-60 micrograms/kg.

Sorry for the units, but I'm seeing Americium is lethal at about 1.5 μCi/kg.  I assume other radioactive materials with relatively short half-lives would be similar.

One of the most common "toxic" substances is Potassium Chloride with a lethal dose of about 100 mg/kg when injected IV.  You can buy it at your local grocery store as "No-Salt".

 

Offline CliffordK

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #5 on: 03/01/2011 23:26:02 »
Apparently, cigarette smoke contains some polonium, but I can't remember where I read that!

Wikipedia has some notes of Polonium and Tobacco.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonium#Tobacco

"Tobacco plants fertilized by rock phosphates contain polonium-210, which emits alpha radiation estimated to cause about 11,700 lung cancer deaths annually worldwide."

It is good to keep in mind that many radioactive substances, uranium, radium, etc...  are all pretty ubiquitous in our environment.  The notes of polonium in fertilizer might be a good reason for trying organics.
 

Offline JP

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« Reply #6 on: 04/01/2011 04:16:57 »
A cigar with a poison arrow frog in it?

 

Offline AlphaPiRho

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #7 on: 05/01/2011 10:04:56 »
There is a paste that can be made from a tobacco leaf and water that I found out how to make in an old KGB feild guide. The paste would be put on the head of a needle and then the agent would then procced to stab the mark with the needle. The poison for to say would attach to blood cells and the cells would eventually travel to the cerebral cortail area and attack the cerebellem, the paste is only untraceable if the person killed by the poison is a smoker due to the large amounts of nicotine contained in the paste. The true recipe can be found in the feild guide. My input is for educational purpose only I take no responsibility for anyones actions in attemt to produce the poison and use it.
 

Offline AlphaPiRho

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #8 on: 05/01/2011 10:20:33 »
Apparently, cigarette smoke contains some polonium, but I can't remember where I read that!

Wikipedia has some notes of Polonium and Tobacco.
newbielink:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonium#Tobacco [nonactive]

"Tobacco plants fertilized by rock phosphates contain polonium-210, which emits alpha radiation estimated to cause about 11,700 lung cancer deaths annually worldwide."

It is good to keep in mind that many radioactive substances, uranium, radium, etc...  are all pretty ubiquitous in our environment.  The notes of polonium in fertilizer might be a good reason for trying organics.

For one wikipedia is not a very good source for information.  Second plants cannot be irradiated by the fertizers used to grow them they may get a fine dust of radioactive material on them but if you have ever handled any type of radioactive metals you know that when burned they produce ane oxide which is not radioactive. And the chance of getting enough of the metals in your lungs to actually cause cancerwould be little to non. It would take .008 g. of polonium-210 in someones blood to kill someone. So by the time a peson smokes 20 packs of cigarets they have already urinated/evacuated the .00000000267 g. of polonium-210 that would come from the cigaretes.
 

Offline lightarrow

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #9 on: 05/01/2011 11:25:48 »
What about antimatter?   :)
Reacting with ordinary matter inside the body, it would release much more energy, as radioactivity, than Polonium, at least 100 times as much (and so ~ 27 ng or less would be enough to kill an adult).
Of course this is just science fiction...
« Last Edit: 05/01/2011 11:28:36 by lightarrow »
 

Offline SeanB

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #10 on: 06/01/2011 18:19:42 »
Most poisonous object is the pen............

Or mother in law's tongue.
 

Offline Geezer

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« Reply #11 on: 06/01/2011 18:54:26 »
Or mother in law's tongue.

I didn't know sansevieria trifasciata was that poisonous  ::)
 

Offline CliffordK

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« Reply #12 on: 07/01/2011 02:03:36 »
Second plants cannot be irradiated by the fertizers used to grow them they may get a fine dust of radioactive material on them

The tobacco is probably no different than lettuce would be if it was fertilized with the same fertilizer.  Plants absorb nutrients such as nitrogen compounds, phosphates, & etc through their roots, and distribute them throughout the plants.  Polonium (Po) is in the same group in the periodic table as Oxygen, Sulfur, and Selenium, and could potentially mimic the above elements to some extent.  It is possible that there is something in tobacco that concentrates the Polonium more than lettuce would, but it is likely that someone added the reference as propaganda after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko.  The amount is likely negligible, although the exposure route through the lungs may be more problematic than eating the lettuce, for example.  Excess mortality would be averaged over all smokers, and would be due to chronic exposure, not acute exposure.

11,000 excess mortality out of 1,100,000,000 smokers is only 1/100,000 chance (per year).

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If you have ever handled any type of radioactive metals you know that when burned they produce an oxide which is not radioactive.

Really?

Radiation is a consequence of unstable isotopes of various materials.  Chemical changes do not change the isotopes. 

Sustained Fission reactions may require high purity of radioactive materials.  However, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma decays don't.

What about antimatter?   :)
Reacting with ordinary matter inside the body, it would release much more energy, as radioactivity, than Polonium, at least 100 times as much (and so ~ 27 ng or less would be enough to kill an adult).
Of course this is just science fiction...

Positrons have actually been used in medicine without killing the patients.

If, say, you had anti-hydrogen, then you would have to have an exposure route.  For example, it might make a big hole in your tongue, but not cause lethal damage unless it created a chain reaction of some sort.
 

Offline Geezer

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #13 on: 07/01/2011 02:50:06 »
A bit more on polonium in tobacco. This from that unimpeachable source - The New York Times  ;D

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/01/opinion/01proctor.html
 

Offline lightarrow

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #14 on: 07/01/2011 14:40:03 »
What about antimatter?   :)
Reacting with ordinary matter inside the body, it would release much more energy, as radioactivity, than Polonium, at least 100 times as much (and so ~ 27 ng or less would be enough to kill an adult).
Of course this is just science fiction...

Positrons have actually been used in medicine without killing the patients.
Even X rays. Do you believe X-rays are healthy?  :)
Of course it depends on doses. The doses used in medicine are not high enough to cause patologies. 27 nanograms of antimatter would.
 

Offline yamo

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #15 on: 08/01/2011 08:20:11 »
no mention of nerve gases?  i though one drop was lethal...
 

Offline Airthumbs

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #16 on: 08/01/2011 08:56:55 »
I think the most poisonous object on the world are humans. 
 

Offline The Scientist

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #17 on: 08/01/2011 10:35:33 »
I think the most poisonous object on the world are humans. 

Thats interesting, maybe I know the answer and maybe I don't. Would you like to elaborate on your point?
 

Offline Bill.D.Katt.

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #18 on: 08/01/2011 18:02:49 »
no mention of nerve gases?  i though one drop was lethal...
Yes, that's true. Depending on the agent of course. However with toxalbumins such as ricin or abrin, if you can see that you're consuming it, you're dead. That means literally the size of a grain of sand. Botulinum is even worse. If you have some bad canned food and you test to see if it is bad by licking a little off of your finger, chances are, you're dead. I believe the LD50 was posted above.

I think the most poisonous object on the world are humans. 

That's interesting, maybe I know the answer and maybe I don't. Would you like to elaborate on your point?

Perhaps the reference was to the fact that humans willingly kill more people that poisons ever have. Or that we poison each others minds. Or that we "bestow" hate, anger, and jealousy around the globe. There are infinite reasons.
 

Offline Airthumbs

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
« Reply #19 on: 08/01/2011 19:26:48 »
Thats interesting, maybe I know the answer and maybe I don't. Would you like to elaborate on your point?

Well ignoring things like asteroids and other catastrophic events, if you added up all life that humans have managed to kill, in the past and the present it would be a huge number!  Not only that but also add up all the toxins or poisons that humans have introduced to the planet either through dumping vast amounts of waste in to the oceans and burning fossil fuels, radiation and the destruction of vast amounts of jungle/forests/woodlands, then surely we are the ultimate poisonous object on this planet?

Added to all of this we are the only object on the planet that have also managed to poison space.  That has to be a record!

Also as the previous post mentions there is also the psychological part of this. 
« Last Edit: 08/01/2011 19:33:23 by Airthumbs »
 

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Which is the poisonous object in the world?
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