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Offline wanchung

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A new chemical bond theory
« on: 07/02/2011 03:37:07 »
The Nature of Chemical Bonds

Then, I would like to discuss this new atom model and its relation to chemical bonds. Quantum mechanics has its own way to explain the chemical bond formation. This new determinative atom model can explain chemical bond formation better. There are two major chemical bond formation in this new atom model. Traditional chemistry called them ionic bond and covalent bond. In traditional covalent bond, electrons can be ďsharedĒ in the two adjacent atoms by forming a quantum molecular orbit. I think this concept is incorrect. In this new model, the distinguishing of these two bonds should be revised. First, chemical bond can be formatted that recipient atom accept redundant electrons from donor atom. For example: NaCl. There is an additional electron in the outer orbit of Na atom. And, there are 7 electrons in Clís n=2 orbit. Thus, the additional electron of Na atom will go into the outer orbit of Cl atom when these two atoms are approaching. This can explain the origin of Octet rule by Dr. Lewis because the full n=2 orbit needs 8 electrons. We can also see the example of O=C=O(CO2 molecule). Each of the two O atom donates two electrons to the central C atom, so the central C atom can have a full 8 electrons in its outer orbit. It is worth noting that all the 8 electrons in C atomís outer orbit must rotate in the same horizon of C atom. Thus, each of the O atom should be in the same horizon as C atom when they donate two electrons to the C atom. This can explain why CO2 molecule is linear in shape. In my new atom model, there is no pi bond nor delta bond nor sigma bond. There is no molecular hybrid orbit nor hyperconjugation. Atoms are in the same plane is only because all the final electrons of recipient atom should be all in the same horizon to orbit the central recipient atom. Thus, it can explain why all double bond and triple bond always formed in the same plane.

In the second mechanism of chemical bond formation, atom and atom can form a link by one paired electrons with opposite spin direction. The two electrons are attracted by equal force by the two linking atoms and are in the central position between the two linking atom nucleus. The new atom model can also explain other chemicals such as CH4. In this molecule, each H atom donating one electron and the central C atom donates four unpaired electrons. Each electron of the C atom can make a pair with the one electron from each H atom to make a chemical bond. Totally, four chemical bonds will be formed. Then, according to VSEPR theory, all the four H atoms will repel each other. Thus, the CH4 molecule will become a pyramid shape with 109degree bond angle. It can help to explain why CH4 has a not 90degree bond angle. You may ask why CH4 cannot be formed in a plane by 4 H atomís donating 4 unpaired electrons to the central C atom. Because 109degree is larger than 90degree, the pyramid shape is more favorable than planar shape due to VSEPR theory. It is worth noting that only one paired electron with opposite spin direction can be formed between two adjacent atom nucleuses. It is because electron radius(10^-13meter) is larger the proton or neutron radius(10^-15meter). Thus, there cannot be four electrons or six electrons between the two linking atomic nucleus. That is why double bond or triple bond must be formed in the same plane by donating redundant electrons from donor to the outer orbit of recipient to fulfill octet rule. However, there are a few exceptions. For example, the stable H2+  ion. There is only one electron between the two adjacent H atoms. The one electron is attracted by both H atomic nucleuses by Coulomb force. Thus, this ion can still be formed. However, the frame dragging force generated by this single electron cannot be balanced. Another example is He2+ ion. There are totally three electrons with one unpaired electron and two paired electrons in He2+ ion. The paired electrons are belonging to one He atom. The one unpaired electron forms the chemical bond of the two He atom. Thus, He2+ is paramagnetic. Thus, both the bond order of H2+ and He2+ is 0.5. My atom model can easily explain strange molecule such as CH5+, CH62+, B2H6, Al2(CH3)6, or B6H7-. They are called three center two electron or four center two electron compounds. It is because there is only one single electron to form chemical bond between adjacent atomic nucleuses.


 

Offline wanchung

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A new chemical bond theory
« Reply #1 on: 07/02/2011 03:37:54 »
We can also explain the C2H4 molecule. We can rewrite this molecule 2HCCH2. There is a double bond between the two C atoms. As we said above, double bond must be formed in the same plane. Thus C=C is in the same plane. In addition, the two H atoms for one C atom donate two electrons. In this one C atom, it fulfills the octet rule for its outer orbit. Thus, both two H atoms and this C atom are in the same plane. In the other C atom, each of the H atom forms a chemical bond with two paired electrons with the C atom. We know the frame dragging force formula is F= SJmWcosθ/r^2. And, we need to know that only proton part of the atomic nucleus can attract electrons. Since C=C is in the same plane, the proton parts of these two C atoms are also in the same plane. Thus, when the two H atoms form a chemical bond with the second C atom, they must be also in the same plane with this second C atom. It is also due to the VSEPR theory. If the other two H atoms are in the same plane, the bond angle will be 120 degree and 180 degree. If the two H atoms and the adjacent C atom want to form a pyramid-like shape, the bond angle will be less than 120 degree and 180 degree. Thus, pyramid-like shape is not likely. This can explain why C2H2 molecule is a planer molecule. It can also be explained why benzene C6H6 is a planer molecule.

Thus, we donít need molecular hybrid orbit, or pi bound/sigma bond/delta bond to explain the shape of a molecule. There is no hyperconjugation, so the bond rotation barrier of ethane is totally due to steric hinderance. We can also use this new atom model to explain why O2 molecule is paramagnetic. The Lewis format of O2 is O=O. In my prediction, there are full 8 electrons in one O atom. In the other O atom, there are four unpaired electrons which cause O2 paramagnetism. In one single O atom, there are two paired electrons and two unpaired electrons. When two O atoms are meeting each other, the fastest way to make one O atom to fulfill the octet rule is to transfer the two paired electrons from donor to recipient atom. Thus, one O atom has four paired electrons and the other O atom has four unpaired electrons. We can also predict the structure of NH3. The N atom has five electrons which include one paired electrons and three unpaired electrons. When, the three H atoms are meeting N atom. Each of the unpaired electrons of N atom will go to form a chemical bond with each unpaired electron from the H atom. Thus, the NH3 structure is a pyramid shape. It is due to the pre-existing electron configuration of N atom, the new NH3 molecule is not a planer molecule.

We can explain the hypervalent molecules which cannot be explained by Lewis octet rule such as PCl5, SF6, or PO4^3-. There are ten electrons around central atoms which cannot be explained by Lewis octet rule. Their existence is a long term paradox. In each P atom, there are five unpaired electrons. Thus, it can formed five chemical bonds (one paired electrons with opposite spin direction) with each Cl atom donating one unpaired electron. So does SF6. Due to VSEPR theory, all the Cl atom or F atom will repel each other to form a tetragonal or octahedral structure. It is also the same for phosphate. P=O can form a double bond in the same plane(P atom donate two electrons for O atom to let O atom to fulfill total eight electrons in O atomís outer orbit). In addition, the three unpaired electrons of P atom can form the second type of chemical bond with the other three O atoms. Thus, phosphate can form a tetrahedral structure. The perplex of hypervalent molecules is solved.
 

Offline wanchung

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A new chemical bond theory
« Reply #2 on: 07/02/2011 03:38:39 »
My atom model can also be used in several aspects in modern chemistry. First, metalís color can be explained. Based on my atom model, Au(gold) configuration is 2,8,18,18,32,1. It has 2 electrons in n=1(r=1) orbital, 8 electrons in n=2(r=4) orbital, 36 electrons in n=3(r=9) orbital, 32 electrons in n=4(r=16) orbital, and one single electron in n=5(r=25) orbital. Thus, when the single electron jumps from n=5 to n=6 orbital, it gives out the golden color. No S or D orbital in quantum mechanics is needed.

Second, transitional metalís structure can be explained. Here, I will use four acceptors of one complex to be an example to explain their structure difference. One is pyramid, and the other is square planar. For example:[Ni(CN)_4]^-2 is a square planar. Ni configuration is 2, 8, 8,10 based on my atom model. Thus, Ni^2+ is 2, 8, 8, 8. It has 8 (=2*4) unpaired electrons in the outermost orbit. Remember that all electrons are in the same plane. And, CN^-1 provides two unpaired electrons for binding. Thus, each Ni^+2 with each CN^-1 will form 2 chemical bond in the same plane of Ni atom. Since this is a double bond, these bonds can only be formed in the same plane. In the n=4 orbit of Ni atom, there are totally 16 electrons in the outermost orbit. And, the CN^-1 group will expel each other to achieve a maximal distance between them. Thus, the resulting structure will become square planar. [CoCl_4]^-2 is a pyramid. Co configuration is 2,8,8,9 in my atom model. Co^2+ is 2,8,8,7. It has 7 unpaired electrons in the outermost orbit. Co^2+ doesn't use the 7 unpaired electrons for binding to CL^-1. And, CL^-1 provides two paired electrons for binding. Since Co^2+'s 7 unpaied electrons are not for binding, chemical bond between Co and Cl is not restricted to Co atom's plane. All Cl^-1 will expel each other to form a 3D pyramid structure. And, since [CoCl_4]^-2 still has 7 unpaired electrons, it is ferromagnetic. You can play this with other metal which can form square planar structure such as Pd^2+(2,8,18,16); Pt^2+(2,8,18,32,16); Au^3+(2,8,18,32,16). They all use 16 unpaired electrons for binding to form a square planar in n=4 orbit.

Third, my atom model can also explain band structure. You only know a concept called metallic bonding. In metallic bond, strong positive charged nucleus attract few(one or two) electrons to form bond. For example, Cu, Ag, Au all have one free electron in the outermost orbit. These free electrons form electric sea. Similar to H2+ molecule, the only one free electron forms the chemical bond between two metal atoms. However, this single electron receives only weak Coulomb attractive force from the metal atom since there are a lot inner electrons cancel the attractive force. In addition, the single free electron is easily affected by external force or external radiation (photoelectric effect). Thus, the single electron is freely movable and is called free electron. When external electric current is applied, the free electrons can conduct electricity. Thus, it can explain why metal is conductive. We can also explain why diamond is non-conductive and graphite is conductive. Each C atom from the diamond uses four unpaired electrons to bind other unpaired electrons from other four C atoms to form a pyramid shape structure. There are one paired electrons in each chemical bond and the electrons receive strong Coulomb attractive force from the two adjacent C atoms. Thus, this kind of chemical bond is very stable. No free electron is generated. Thus, diamond is non-conductive. However, in graphite, only three electrons from each C atom are used to bind other three adjacent C atoms to form a tri-polar shape structure flat layer. Within the layer, this kind of chemical bond is formed by one paired electrons. Between layer and layer, one single electron is used for chemical bonding for different layers. This single electron is very similar to the free electron of metals. Thus, graphite is conductive. This new atom model can well explain the conductivity of different molecules! My atom model and chemical bond theory can replace the current electronic band structure theory. There is no need of conduction band or valence band. The most important concept is the single free electron!
 

Offline wanchung

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A new chemical bond theory
« Reply #3 on: 07/02/2011 03:39:35 »
Finally, I would like to discuss about quantum chemistry. The principle of quantum mechanics was used by Drs. W. Heitler and F. London to explain the formation of H2 molecule. However, they didnít get the true exact value of H2 bonding energy and they only got approximation. Using quantum mechanics wave function to explain atom-atom binding is wrong. Here, I will propose a new mechanism to explain atom-atom binding. For example, there are two H atoms. One H atom is near resting status, and the other H atom is linearly moving. Once the second H atom is approaching the first H atom, the orbiting electron of the second H can collide with the orbiting electron of the first H atom. After the collision, these two electrons can be moving together to form a chemical bond between the two H atoms. It is worth noting that the collision is complete inelastic collision, so there will be energy loss during the electron-electron collision. But, it must fulfill the conservation of linear momentum. The two bumped electrons can then move together if their spin direction is opposite that magnetic force cancels the Coulomb repulsion force between them. And, the two H atoms will then move together to form a stable H2 molecule. We need to know that the coefficient of restitution of the two collide electrons should be zero. In addition, there will be a specific angle between the two electrons and the bonding energy released by H2 molecule formation is a fixed value. This mechanism can also be used to explain more complicated molecule formation. Quantum chemistry is completely unnecessary! We can calculate the inelastic collision below:

M1V1+M2V2=(M1+M2)Vf

Since M1=M2=electron mass, V1=V2=electron initial linear velocity, Vf=final speed
Vf=1/2(V1+V2)

If the V1 and V2 has 90 degree apart, then Vf=0.7V.
If the V1 and V2 has 0 degree apart, then Vf=V

We can calculate the Vf by using H-H bonding energy=436KJ/mol at 298K
436KJ/mol->4.55ev/per molecule
H atom electron energy=13.6ev
Thus, 13.6*2-4.55=22.65ev
22.65ev=0.5(2M)Vf2
Vf=0.9V (V=electron linear velocity in H atom=2.2*106m/s)

Thus, the collision angle between the two electrons of two H atoms is between 90 degree and 0 degree. After the complete inelastic collision, one H2 molecule is formed.

I strongly suggest to use this new determinative atom model to replace Schrodinger and Diracís quantum mechanics. In addition, further researches are required to confirm and extend this new atom model.




References
[1] N. Bohr, Nature 92, 231 (1914)
[2] N. Bohr, Philosophical Magazine 26,1 (1913)
[3] W. Heisenberg, Zeitschrift fur Physik 43,172 (1927)
[4] A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen Phys Rev 47:777 (1935)
[5] D.J. Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (2nd ed) (2004)
[6] T. Otsuka, Phy Rev Let 71,1804 (1993)
[7] B. Mashhoon, F. W. Hehl, and D. S. Thesis, General Relativity and Gravitation 16, 711 (1984)
[8] L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, The Classical Theory of Fields (1975)
 

Offline Geezer

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A new chemical bond theory
« Reply #4 on: 07/02/2011 06:22:54 »
As this is a new theory, it has been relocated to that forum.
 

Offline Bored chemist

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A new chemical bond theory
« Reply #5 on: 07/02/2011 07:19:19 »
SO, after 4 pages, this new theory can  predict the properties of hydrogen better than two people who were dead before I was born.

Can it do a better job than modern science?
Also, it seems a bit unsure of its ground.
Without quantum mechanics, where do the shells come from?
 

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A new chemical bond theory
« Reply #5 on: 07/02/2011 07:19:19 »

 

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