Gravity and Time

Gravity

and Time**Abbreviations used-**

Flexi-time or ∫(t) is used to convey the meaning that the passage of time is variable. Although it is constant within its own reference frame, from any other reference frame it can be variable. Flexi-time is used throughout this paper as a reminder that time is only constant within a limited reference frame, in general and from most reference frames, it is flexible. (This is unlike light, which is a constant speed in a vacuum for all reference frames.)

**This should be read in conjunction with my theory on Time, as they are both part of the same theory. Please read Time first.**

Gravity

∫(t) = √E/m

c = √E/m

In a black hole, gravity is infinite so passage of time is 0

When g = ∞ then speed of light = 0 and ∫(t) = 0

So if g = ∞ then ∫(t) = 0

And if g = 0 then ∫(t) = 0

So ∫(t) and c are inversely proportional to gravity or

Gravity is inversely proportional to flexi-time.

g = 1/√E/m

Everything in the universe is made from Energy.

Energy when un-hindered by gravity wants to dissipate over the largest possible volume instantly.

Everything in the universe is made of energy and matter.

Matter has gravity that wants to shrink all matter and space to a singularity.

Energy and matter interact. That interaction of gravity ‘slowing’ energy down is what we call time.

The interaction also creates space.

Energy wants to make space expand.

Gravity wants to make space contract.

Energy, mass, time, gravity, space, acceleration and entropy are all related. Gravity is the deformation of space time by mass in trying to:-

1) reach the lowest energy level (0 ground state)

2) reach the highest entropy level

3) reduce the universe to its minimum size

4) reduce the rate of flow of time to a minimum

Each of the above are equivalent and are saying the same thing but in different ways.

All of the above conditions are satisfied within a black hole.

**The universe has an average flexi-time but in any locality, this can be variable.**Likewise

T

**he universe has an average strength of gravity but in any locality, this can be variable.**The infinite speed of a photon in a vacuum not subject to gravity, when slowed by gravity has a certain speed. Speed is distance divided by time. v = d/t

∫(t) = √E/m

So v = d/√E/m

Another way of thinking about this is a photon traveling at infinite speed when slowed by gravity looses energy. Flexi-time adjusts in just the right manner to cancel the effect and the speed of light remains a constant.

Zero size and time when ‘stretched’ (expanded) by energy creates space and time. The universe is trying to return to a singularity with no energy, space or time, this is what we call gravity. Gravity squeezes mass into a singularity. While entropy is the term used to describe energy reduction (by conversion to matter or absorption by a black hole or both)

g = 1/√E/m

and v = d/ √E/m

√E/m = c

therefore g = 1/c

The speed of gravity, v.gravity = 1/c, taking c as 1 then

**The speed of gravity is 1, the same as the speed of light.***"Newton thought that gravity's force was instantaneous. Einstein assumed that it moved at the speed of light, but until now, no one had measured it," said Sergei Kopeikin, a physicist at the University of Missouri-Columbia.*

"We have determined that gravity's propagation speed is equal to the speed of light within an accuracy of 20 percent," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, VA. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA. January 7, 2003 http://www.nrao.edu/pr/2003/gravity/

If we think of a hypothetical universe containing only mass, the mass is contained within a singularity. It contains zero space-time. If we introduce energy then it must be contained within the Schwarzschild radius, as there is ‘nothing’ outside.

Matter plus energy = space and time.

By increasing the energy level, the Schwarzschild radius increases. The universe is by definition contained within a Schwarzschild radius.

**How does gravity work?**All mass has potential energy as it is in a gravitational field. If two massive objects combine their joint mass creates a slower (dilated) flexi-time than either of them experienced individually. An increase in mass causes flexi-time to dilate. Flexi-time dilating is equivalent to a reduction of energy.

In other words when two massive objects combine they loose energy and flexi-time for them dilates. See points 1 to 4 above.

This process if not stopped by some other action will continue until the universe is contracted to a singularity with no energy, space or time.

John Wheeler famously said,

*"Matter tells Space-time how to curve, and Space-time tells matter how to move.*"

We call it gravity when referring to how mass tells space-time to curve. We call it entropy when space- time tells mass how to move. Both take place within space-time.

Entropy is the main example of the arrow of time as it shows order to chaos increasing over time. However, it is not the ‘physical’, arrow, which is either matter or antimatter depending upon the universe.

If we consider a hypothetical universe that contains a black hole, mass and energy, it makes it easy to understand both time and gravity.

A black hole has gravity, gravity although by itself is not ‘time’ does contain the arrow of time. The arrow points toward gravity (the singularity). Everything moves in space-time toward that singularity which ultimately, unchecked, will devour all matter, space and time.

**Size of the universe**The size of the universe is dependent upon the total amount of energy (including mass) that it contains and its energy/mass ratio at any given time.

**Static, expanding or contracting?**Although the total amount of energy in the universes is finite, its energy/mass ratio is continually changing. Therefore, the universe cannot be static. While stars still convert mass into energy at a high enough rate, energy will continue to expand the universe.

When energy production decreases below a certain threshold gravity will cause the universe to collapse.

**Overall Conclusion****Gravity is**A clock runs faster (flexi-time is faster) in space than it is on the surface of the Earth. This slight warping of space time is what causes gravity. Remember, gravity is an outcome of the energy/mass ratio of the universe as is time. Mass always seeks to exist in a slower flexi-time, this is gravity.

All mass has potential energy as it is in a gravitational field. If two massive objects combine their joint mass creates a slower (dilated) flexi-time than either of them experienced individually. An increase in mass causes flexi-time to dilate. Flexi-time dilating is equivalent to a reduction of energy.

In other words when two massive objects combine they loose energy and flexi-time for them dilates. See points 1 to 4 below.

Gravity is the deformation of space-time by mass in trying to:-

1) reach the lowest energy level ( 0 ground state) 0

2) reach the highest entropy level ∞ *

3) reduce the universe to its minimum size 0

4) reduce the passage of time to a minimum 0

Each of the above are equivalent and are saying the same thing but in different ways.

All of the above conditions are satisfied within a black hole.

*2) Another way of looking at this is, if there is no energy there can be no entropy so this could also be regarded as 0. If there is no space or time then entropy would be 0. However, entropy exists until the black hole consumes everything.

The speed of gravity is the same as the speed of light in a vacuum.

The arrow of time is gravity, which points towards mass. Ultimate mass is a black hole the destroyer of space and time.

**Space is**Space is the, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events exist and have relative position and direction plus it has the fourth dimension of time. The three dimensions of space-time and one of time are possibly not discrete but interwoven.

Space is a volume that is both filled with energy and gravity. Without energy, there will be no space. Without gravity, there will be no space.

**Everything in the universe is created from energy**The universe contains energy and matter

The relationship between energy and matter creates time and space

Gravity is an attribute of matter

**The creation of time**Photons in a vacuum when not subject to gravity travel infinite distance instantaneously. Gravity ‘slows’ the photons endowing them with a finite speed within a finite ‘space’.

**The creation of space**The ‘pressure’ of photons inside the Schwarzschild radius of a singularity creates space and time.

**The creation of gravity**The resistance of space and time to being created is known as gravity.

**Cosmological constant**Energy is the ‘force’ that drives the expansion of the universe. No cosmological constant is required.

This theory predicts what gravity is. What is testable within this theory? Nothing that I can think of, the problem being that, we cannot divorce ourselves or any experiment from time or gravity.