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### Author Topic: Theory of Time 2 of 2  (Read 1306 times)

#### MikeS

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##### Theory of Time 2 of 2
« on: 10/05/2011 17:45:13 »
Time and Gravity

Abbreviations used-
Flexi-time or ∫(t)  is used to convey the meaning that the passage of time is variable.  Although it is constant within its own reference frame, from any other reference frame it can be variable.  Flexi-time is used throughout this paper as a reminder that time is only constant within a limited reference frame, in general and from most reference frames it is flexible.  (This is unlike light, which is a constant speed in a vacuum for all reference frames.)

How does the universe ‘tick’?

The clockmaker can adjust the speed of the clock, he can make it run fast or slow.  (Flexi-time means that as the clockmaker makes the clock run fast or slow, he is not doing that within time but it is time itself that is being dilated or contracted.)  He can disable the governor or regulator, in which case it will run down essentially instantly or he can stop the clock.  In this universe, the beings that inhabit it will not experience any changes whether the clock runs fast or slow.  To them the passage of time, flexi time, will remain the same within their time frame.  It is flexi time that allows the speed of light to be a constant.

Lets use the analogy of a mechanical clock to explain what I mean by flexi-time or ∫(t).

A clock needs a power source to supply the energy to drive the mechanism and a regulator to stop it from running down all at once.  The regulator in a mechanical clock is called the escapement.  It is called the escapement because it only allows one tooth of a cog to escape at once.  This motion is geared down and rotates the hands on the face of the clock.  The escapement may use a pendulum as the timekeeper.  A pendulum of 39 ¼ inches swings once per second (1 meter).  In a grandfather clock the energy to drive the mechanism comes from converting the potential rest energy of mass contained in a weight on a string or chain as it slowly falls being regulated by the escapement.  The weight has constant mass so gravity pulls at it with a constant ‘force’.  The energy of the system is constant.  The escapement applies a small amount of energy to the pendulum at every tick otherwise the clock would stop.  The pendulum swings at a given rate depending upon the energy applied to it in every swing, its length and gravity.  For a clock to keep accurate time, the energy applied to the pendulum via the escapement must be constant but escapements are not perfect.  In a weight driven clock this is no problem as gravity is constant.   However, most clocks use the energy of a wound up spring to operate.  This has the problem that a fully wound spring exerts more force on the mechanism tending to make the clock run fast.  When the spring is unwinding, it contains less energy and the clock runs slower.  This was obviously an unsatisfactory arrangement and with the arrival of trains, accurate clocks became a necessity.  The answer to this dilemma, the fusee was a good mainspring compensator and used in train stations, by the military and Post Offices all over the world for many years.  The principle being that as the mainspring unwound the variable ratio due to the conical driven shaft would compensate and keep the force applied to the mechanism and pendulum constant.

This is exactly what the universe does.  It takes a varying ratio of energy (photons) and matter (gravity) and produces a constant speed. The speed of light

At the start of this section, I referred to a mechanical clock as an analogy.  As you can now see, it is not.  Both the universe and a clock derive the rate of flow of time from the same process, which is the division of energy by gravity.

If you are still following me then you can see that the speed of light in a vacuum is a constant because the rate of flow of time is a variable.  This still begs the question what makes light special?  It is special because it is the most fundamental of ‘particles’ out of which everything else is made.  It is special, I believe, because it contains its own unique clock in the sense that it travels at constant speed in a vacuum. What does that mean it contains its own clock?  The photon being the only massless particle can only travel at the speed of light; it is born and dies at that speed.  It experiences no passage of time.  How can something travel at the speed of light without experiencing time?
Speed v is distance d divided by time t,
v = d/t
t = d/v
If the speed of light is infinite then it takes no time to travel an infinite distance.  Einstein said that the speed of light in a vacuum is a constant.  This paper proposes that the speed of light is the ratio of energy divided by matter and that the speed of light in a vacuum when not subject to gravity is infinite.

A photon travels infinite distance instantly in a vacuum if not subject to gravity but is ‘slowed’ down by gravity endowing upon it finite speed.

Speed is distance / time.  It would be more technically correct to say that gravity does not influence the speed of light because gravity does influence time in precisely the right way.

The Equivalence of Energy and matter
The two most fundamental things are the speed of light and the frequency of vibration of an electron.  In the Rutherford picture of an electron the frequency of light emitted is the same as the orbital frequency of that electron.

The two being equivalent we could choose either the speed of light or the orbital frequency of an electron as the fundamental constant, the “clock”. The speed of light would seem, in a way to be more fundamental as matter is created from energy.
All of the other constants of nature are constant in regard to the speed of light.  However, the speed of light is only a constant because the rate of flow of time is a variable.
A photon is the most fundamental object.  It carries the arrow of time because it is both emitted and absorbed.  It quantifies the rate of flow of time as it travels at the speed of light but the photon experiences no passage of time itself.  As it has no mass it is unaffected by gravity but can tell us the relationship between itself and gravity.

During the twentieth century, the speed of light in a vacuum has reached the theoretical status of a “universal constant”, a fixed value of c0 = 299,792,458 m s −1 being chosen in 1983 as a basis for the international unit system.

Gravitational time dilation
General Relativity allows for both relativistic time dilation and mass to affect the rate of flow of time.  Mass slows the rate of flow of time as does traveling near the speed of light.

Gravitational time dilation This has been demonstrated by noting that atomic clocks at differing altitudes (and thus different gravitational potential) will eventually show different times. The effects detected in such experiments are extremely small, with differences being measured in nanoseconds.”

The relative rate of flow of time
As the rate of flow of time in the universe is proportional to the amount of energy divided by its mass (matter), a stationary observer from his reference frame in the universe will always experience the same passage of flexi-time.  However, a distant observer outside the universe would perceive a very different passage of flexi-time in his reference frame. One hour to the observer within the universe could represent one minute or a million years to the observer outside.  In addition, the outside observer would see clocks running at different rates and measuring rods contracting and expanding all over the universe.

Conclusion

Time is a measure by which things happen, the yardstick of causality and is a fundamental property of the universe.  The direction of the arrow and rate of flow of time equals the square root of the energy of the universe divided by its gravity.

Mass gives an arrow to time (forward for matter, reversed for antimatter); energy gives it a ‘rate of flow’.  The interaction of mass (gravity) and energy is what we call time.

The speed of light in a vacuum without the influence of gravity is infinite.  In the real universe, gravity ‘slows’ the photons down endowing them with finite speed.  It is this ‘slowing down’ of photons by gravity that we call time.  The rate of flow of time is a variable so that the speed of light is a constant.  Any fuzziness in understanding this is probably due to language being inadequate.  For c to be a constant speed, it has to be directly tied to flexi-time or ∫(t).

As the frequency of light emitted by an electron is the same as the orbital frequency of that electron, it is another way of seeing the duality of energy and mass.

Entropy is the main example of the arrow of time as it shows order to chaos increasing over time.  However, it is not the ‘physical’, arrow, which is either matter or antimatter depending upon the universe.  The arrow points toward the source of gravity.

Zero size and time when ‘stretched’ (expanded) by energy creates space and time.  The universe is trying to return to a singularity with no energy, space or time, this is what we call gravity.  Gravity squeezes mass into a singularity. While entropy is the term used to describe energy reduction (by conversion to matter or absorption by a black hole or both)
g  =  1/√E/m
and v = d/ √E/m
√E/m  = c
therefore g = 1/c

The speed of gravity,  v.gravity = 1/c, taking c as 1 then
The speed of gravity is 1, the same as the speed of light.

"Newton thought that gravity's force was instantaneous. Einstein assumed that it moved at the speed of light, but until now, no one had measured it," said Sergei Kopeikin, a physicist at the University of Missouri-Columbia.

"We have determined that gravity's propagation speed is equal to the speed of light within an accuracy of 20 percent," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, VA. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA.  January 7, 2003 http://www.nrao.edu/pr/2003/gravity/

Time is

The speed of light in a vacuum without the influence of gravity is infinite.  In the real universe, gravity ‘slows’ the photons down endowing upon them a finite speed.  It is this ‘slowing down’ of photons by gravity that we call time.  The rate of flow of time is a variable so that the speed of light is a constant.    For c to be a constant speed, it has to be directly tied to flexi-time or ∫(t).
The passage of time or flexi-time is the square root of the energy of the universe divided by its mass.
∫(t) = √E/m.   where ∫(t) is flexi-time, m is mass or   ∫(t) = √E/m + -ma  where m is matter and ma is antimatter.  Time is counting down to reach points 1 to 4 below.
Although entropy carries the main arrow of time, matter and antimatter carry the physical arrows.  The arrow itself is gravity and it always points towards mass.  A black hole being the ultimate expression of mass and the end of space and time.

This theory predicts what time is.  What is testable within this theory?  Nothing that I can think of, the problem being that, we cannot divorce ourselves or any experiment from time or gravity.

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##### Theory of Time 2 of 2
« on: 10/05/2011 17:45:13 »