# The Naked Scientists Forum

### Author Topic: QotW - 11.08.21 - How do solar sails work?  (Read 4826 times)

#### thedoc

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##### QotW - 11.08.21 - How do solar sails work?
« on: 23/08/2011 17:56:32 »
Howdy!

Ever since I first heard about solar sails I have been curious about how they work.  It is my understanding that light is massless whether considered a particle or wave.  How does a massless particle impart a force on another object?

Regards,

Asked by Jerry Hershman

Find out more on our podcast page

« Last Edit: 23/08/2011 17:56:32 by _system »

#### thedoc

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##### QotW - 11.08.21 - How do solar sails work?
« Reply #1 on: 23/08/2011 17:56:32 »
We answered this question on the show...

We put this to Dr Natasha Hurley-Walker, from the Curtin University in Perth, Western Australia...
Natasha -   To answer your question, in 1871 James Clerk Maxwell predicted that electromagnetic waves would exert a tiny but measurable force on a surface, and this was experimentally verified in 1899 by Pyotr Lebedev.  One can integrate the electromagnetic wave equation and show that for an incoming wave, the exerted pressure is equal to half of the energy density of the wave.  Or, as shown by Einstein in his Theory of Special Relativity, one can think of light as particles, i.e. photons, which have a momentum.  This is equal to the energy of the photon divided by the speed of light.  Therefore, when a photon is reflected or observed by a surface, it imparts some momentum to that surface.  This is called radiation pressure.  Solar sails utilise radiation pressure by combining the imparted pressure over a very large surface area.  At Earth’s distance from the Sun, this adds up to about 1 micro-Pascal of pressure.  Solar sails typically have 20 to 30 square meters of collecting area, but some proposals have been made for designs with half a square kilometre of collecting area.  The pressure is small but with a low mass sail, applied for large time, solar sails can build up to large speeds while using no fuel.
« Last Edit: 23/08/2011 17:56:32 by _system »

#### CliffordK

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##### QotW - 11.08.21 - How do solar sails work?
« Reply #2 on: 20/08/2011 17:54:50 »
There are two aspects of the Sun's energy.

Light
Solar Wind (very rarefied particles)

The solar sail should be able to pick up energy from both.

You can purchase a "Radiometer" or Solar Spiner which is like a solar sail in a bottle.

It has 4 little tabs, one side painted black, one side painted white.  And, the color difference is enough to make the top spin in the sunlight.

#### Geezer

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##### QotW - 11.08.21 - How do solar sails work?
« Reply #3 on: 20/08/2011 22:25:11 »
You can purchase a "Radiometer" or Solar Spiner which is like a solar sail in a bottle.

It has 4 little tabs, one side painted black, one side painted white.  And, the color difference is enough to make the top spin in the sunlight.

Except that it rotates in the wrong direction

« Last Edit: 20/08/2011 22:31:43 by Geezer »

#### CliffordK

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##### QotW - 11.08.21 - How do solar sails work?
« Reply #4 on: 20/08/2011 23:11:34 »
Except that it ["Radiometer" or Solar Spinner] rotates in the wrong direction

It has been years since I've seen one.  I may have to get one to play with.  What is the "right" direction?

Ahhh, found a wikipedia page on it.

So, the theory is that the rotation is due to temperature differences and interactions with air in a partially evacuated bulb rather than light motive forces.

There is supposed to be an experimental earth satellite testing solar sails that was launched recently.
« Last Edit: 20/08/2011 23:13:34 by CliffordK »

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##### QotW - 11.08.21 - How do solar sails work?
« Reply #4 on: 20/08/2011 23:11:34 »