Human skin is a pretty tough barrier, so your body won't explode.
The human body has a very high thermal inertia, so even though the skin will cool due to increased evaporation into the vacuum, your core body temperature will remain warm for some time (after all, vacuum is an excellent insulator).
Death will come by asphyxiation, with brain damage after about 4 minutes.
If you expel the air from your lungs just before exposure to vacuum, there should be minimal damage to the throat, and you would be capable of resuming breathing if air pressure were restored.
Another (comparatively minor) risk is severe sunburn - without earth's atmosphere to shield us, there would be extreme levels of ultraviolet light, and even X-Rays, if you faced the sun.