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Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« on: 09/08/2006 12:47:31 »
Malaria remains a major global health concern.
New, inexpensive, and effective antimalarial agents are urgently needed
.



Hey! The old Ayurvedal/Chinese medicine is finally joining western orthodox medicine and is already giving very promising results, perhaps thanks to the immigrants from Asia to the USA/UK who are now leading big research labs.
Curcumin alone (Turmeric) is being extensively tested for various dreadful human diseases: hundreds of scientific reports and astonishing data...
Let's curry on!

iko

...these news come from the original Continent:
 
Curcumin-artemisinin combination therapy for malaria.

Nandakumar DN, Nagaraj VA, Vathsala PG, Rangarajan P, Padmanaban G.
Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

Artemisinin and curcumin show an additive interaction in killing Plasmodium falciparum in culture. In vivo, 3 oral doses of curcumin following a single injection of alpha,beta-arteether to Plasmodium berghei-infected mice are able to prevent recrudescence due to alpha,beta-arteether monotherapy and ensure almost 100% survival of the animals.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 May;50(5):1859-60.
 



But this paper came first:

 
Curcumin for malaria therapy.

Reddy RC, Vatsala PG, Keshamouni VG, Padmanaban G, Rangarajan PN.
Dept.Int.Med.The Univ.Michigan Med.School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0360, USA.

Malaria remains a major global health concern. New, inexpensive, and effective antimalarial agents are urgently needed. Here we show that curcumin, a polyphenolic organic molecule derived from turmeric, inhibits chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture in a dose dependent manner with an IC(50) of approximately 5 microM. Additionally, oral administration of curcumin to mice infected with malaria parasite (Plasmodium berghei) reduces blood parasitemia by 80-90% and enhances their survival significantly. Thus, curcumin may represent a novel treatment for malarial infection.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jan 14;326(2):472-4.



« Last Edit: 01/01/2007 18:46:20 by iko »


 

Offline iko

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Re: New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #1 on: 08/12/2006 10:46:41 »
Allow me a quick topic update:

 ;D

Cytotoxic Effect of Curcumin on Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum:
Inhibition of Histone Acetylation and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species.


Cui L, Miao J, Cui L.
Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University.

The emergence of multidrug resistant parasites is a major concern for malaria control and development of novel drugs is a high priority. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, possesses diverse pharmacological properties. Among its antiprotozoan activities, curcumin was potent against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Consistent with findings in mammalian cell lines, curcumin's prooxidant activity promoted the production in P. falciparum of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose cytotoxic effect could be antagonized by co-incubation with antioxidants and ROS scavengers. Curcumin treatment also resulted in damage of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, probably due to the elevation of intracellular ROS. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that curcumin inhibited the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of the recombinant PfGCN5 in vitro and reduced nuclear HAT activity of the parasite in culture. Curcumin-induced hypoacetylation of histone H3 at K9 and 14, but not H4 at K5, 8, 12, and 16 suggested that curcumin caused specific inhibition of the PfGCN5 HAT. Taken together, these results indicated that at least the generation of ROS and down-regulation of PfGCN5 HAT activity accounted for curcumin's cytotoxicity on malaria parasites.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Dec 4; [Epub ahead of print]

you can view the abstract and related links by clicking down here:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17145789&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum



« Last Edit: 09/12/2006 16:02:31 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #2 on: 25/12/2006 11:42:53 »
Curcumin seems to be a real 'panacea' these days...
Think of the massive impact on our lives and society
severe brain injuries have, either from strokes or
heavy head traumas.


Dietary curcumin counteracts the outcome of traumatic brain injury
 on oxidative stress, synaptic plasticity, and cognition.

Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F.
Dept. Physiological Science, Univ.of California at Los Angeles, 621 Charles E. Young Drive, 90095, USA.

The pervasive action of oxidative stress on neuronal function and plasticity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is becoming increasingly recognized. Here, we evaluated the capacity of the powerful antioxidant curry spice curcumin ingested in the diet to counteract the oxidative damage encountered in the injured brain. In addition, we have examined the possibility that dietary curcumin may favor the injured brain by interacting with molecular mechanisms that maintain synaptic plasticity and cognition. The analysis was focused on the BDNF system based on its action on synaptic plasticity and cognition by modulating synapsin I and CREB. Rats were exposed to a regular diet or a diet high in saturated fat, with or without 500 ppm curcumin for 4 weeks (n = 8/group), before a mild fluid percussion injury (FPI) was performed. The high-fat diet has been shown to exacerbate the effects of TBI on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Supplementation of curcumin in the diet dramatically reduced oxidative damage and normalized levels of BDNF, synapsin I, and CREB that had been altered after TBI. Furthermore, curcumin supplementation counteracted the cognitive impairment caused by TBI. These results are in agreement with previous evidence, showing that oxidative stress can affect the injured brain by acting through the BDNF system to affect synaptic plasticity and cognition. The fact that oxidative stress is an intrinsic component of the neurological sequel of TBI and other insults indicates that dietary antioxidant therapy is a realistic approach to promote protective mechanisms in the injured brain.

Exp Neurol. 2006 Feb;197(2):309-17.





Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.


Thiyagarajan M, Sharma SS.
Dept.Pharmacol.Toxicol., Natl.Inst.Pharmaceutical Edu. and Res.Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar-160 062, Punjab, India.
 
Free radical induced neuronal damage is implicated in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury and antioxidants are reported to have neuroprotective activity. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have proved the antioxidant potential of curcumin and its metabolites. Hence, in the present study the neuroprotective potential of curcumin was investigated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced focal cerebral IR injury. 2 h of MCAO and 22 h of reperfusion resulted in the infarct volume of 210.39 +/- 31.25 mm3. Administration of curcumin 100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min. after MCAO produced 37.23 +/- 5.10% and 46.39 +/- 10.23% (p < 0.05) reduction in infarct volume, respectively. Ischemia induced cerebral edema was reduced in a dose dependent manner. Curcumin at 300 mg/kg, i.p. produced 50.96 +/- 6.04% reduction in edema (p < 0.05) volume. Increase in lipid peroxidation after MCAO in ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere of brain was observed, which was reduced by curcumin (300 mg/kg, i.p.)-treatment. Decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in ipsilateral hemisphere of MCAO animal. Curcumin-treatment (300 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented IR injury mediated fall in glutathione peroxide activity. Peroxynitrite measured using rhodamine123 fluorescence and anti-nitrotyrosine immunofluorescence indicated increased peroxynitrite formation after IR insult. Curcumin-treatment reduced peroxynitrite formation and hence the extent of tyrosine nitration in the cytosolic proteins. These results suggest the neuroprotective potential of curcumin in cerebral ischemia and is mediated through its antioxidant activity.

Life Sci. 2004 Jan 9;74(8):969-85.




Soon curcumin preparations will be quite common
in any Intensive Care Unit of this Planet and
a heady scent of curry will invade all the
hospitals and rehabilitation facilities.
Maybe.


« Last Edit: 26/01/2007 17:11:38 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #3 on: 11/01/2007 22:12:31 »
Curcumin seems to hit quite hard
on Plasmodium malariae and even on other
protozoa parasites and so it will
probably help all of us in the near future...



Cytotoxic effect of curcumin on Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

Perez-Arriaga L, Mendoza-Magana ML, Cortes-Zarate R, Corona-Rivera A, Bobadilla-Morales L, Troyo-Sanroman R, Ramirez-Herrera MA.
 
Departamento de Fisiologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950, Guadalajara, Jalisco, CP 44340, Mexico.

Giardia lamblia is one of the most important worldwide causes of intestinal infections produced by protozoa. Thus, the search for new alternative therapeutic approaches for this parasitic disease is very important. Common drugs used to control and eradicate this infection, frequently exhibit side effects that force patients to abandon treatment. The present work evaluates the anti-protozoan activity of curcumin, the main constituent of turmeric.
Axenic G. lamblia (Portland 1 strain) cultures were exposed to different concentrations of curcumin. Its effects were evaluated on parasite growth, adhesion capacity and parasite morphology.
We also evaluated the capacity of curcumin to induce an apoptosis-like effect.
All curcumin concentrations inhibited trophozoite growth and adhesion in more than 50% in dose and time dependent manner. Morphological changes were described as protrusions formed under the cytoplasmic membrane, deformation due to swelling and cell agglutination. Curcumin induced apoptosis-like nuclear staining in dose and time dependent manner.

In conclusion, curcumin exhibited a cytotoxic effect in G. lamblia inhibiting the parasite growth and adherent capacity, induced morphological alterations, provoked apoptosis-like changes. Future in vitro and in vivo experiments are endowed to elucidate the effect of curcumin in an experimental model of G. lamblia infection, analyze the involvement of ion channels in the swelling effect of curcumin during an apparent osmotic deregulation in G. lamblia trophozoites. This will lead to the proposal of the action mechanism of curcumin as well as the description of mechanism involved during the activation process for the apoptotic-like effect.

Acta Trop. 2006 May;98(2):152-61. Epub 2006 May 5.



« Last Edit: 19/01/2007 23:15:36 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #4 on: 19/01/2007 17:06:45 »
The 'panacea' effect is still on...


"Spicing Up" of the Immune System by Curcumin.


Jagetia GC, Aggarwal BB.
 
Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an orange-yellow component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), a spice often found in curry powder. Traditionally known for its an antiinflammatory effects, curcumin has been shown in the last two decades to be a potent immunomodulatory agent that can modulate the activation of T cells, B cells, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Curcumin can also downregulate the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines including TNF, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and chemokines, most likely through inactivation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Interestingly, however, curcumin at low doses can also enhance antibody responses. This suggests that curcumin's reported beneficial effects in arthritis, allergy, asthma, atherosclerosis, heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancer might be due in part to its ability to modulate the immune system. Together, these findings warrant further consideration of curcumin as a therapy for immune disorders.

J Clin Immunol. 2007 Jan 9; [Epub ahead of print]





« Last Edit: 08/07/2007 21:53:45 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #5 on: 19/02/2007 22:01:08 »
Have heavy-metal intoxication problems?
Lead overload leading to leave?
Curcumin is what you need!
Curcuminoids, curcumin, and demethoxycurcumin
reduce lead-induced memory deficits in male Wistar rats.

Dairam A, Limson JL, Watkins GM, Antunes E, Daya S.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Biotechnology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa.

This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of the curcuminoids against lead-induced neurotoxicity. The results show that lead significantly increases lipid peroxidation and reduces the viability of primary hippocampal neurons in culture. This lead-induced toxicity was significantly curtailed by the co-incubation of the neurons with the curcuminoids.
In a whole animal experiment, rats were trained in a water maze and thereafter dosed with lead and/or curcumin (CURC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), or bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) for 5 days. Animals treated with curcumin and demethoxycurcumin but not bisdemethoxycurcumin had more glutathione and less oxidized proteins in the hippocampus than those treated with lead alone. These animals also had faster escape latencies when compared to the Pb-treated animals indicating that CURC- and DMC-treated animals retain the spatial reference memory.
The findings of this study indicate that curcumin, a well-established dietary antioxidant, is capable of playing a major role against heavy metal-induced neurotoxicity and has neuroprotective properties.

J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 7;55(3):1039-44.




Lead at low levels is a serious threat to the central nervous systems of infants and children. Lead toxicity in the blood has been found not only to impair early school performance, later grade school performance, but also to negatively affect cognitive functioning into young adulthood. According to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1990:

"The persistence toxity of lead was seen to result in signifiant and serious impairment of academic success, specifically a seven fold increase in failure to graduate from high school, lower class standing, greater absenteeism, impairment of reading skills sufficiently extensive to be labeled reading disability (indicated by scores two grades below the expected scores), and deficits in vocabulary, fine motor skills, reaction time and hand-eye coordination."

for more reading, click here:   http://lead-info.com/

« Last Edit: 19/02/2007 22:08:18 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #6 on: 21/02/2007 21:43:17 »
I feel I have no word to say,
just cross my fingers and
HOPE   ikod

The chemopreventive polyphenol curcumin prevents
hematogenous breast cancer metastases in immunodeficient mice.

Bachmeier B, Nerlich A, Iancu C, Cilli M, Schleicher E, Vene R, Dell'eva R, Jochum M, Albini A, Pfeffer U.
Department of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Surgical Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.

Dissemination of metastatic cells probably occurs long before diagnosis of the primary tumor. Metastasis during early phases of carcinogenesis in high risk patients is therefore a potential prevention target.
The plant polyphenol Curcumin has been proposed for dietary prevention of cancer.
We therefore examined its effects on the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in a mouse metastasis model. Curcumin strongly induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells in correlation with reduced activation of the survival pathway NFkappaB, as a consequence of diminished IotakappaB and p65 phosphorylation.
Curcumin also reduces the expression of major matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) due to reduced NFkappa B activity and transcriptional downregulation of AP-1. NFkappa B/p65 silencing is sufficient to downregulate c-jun and MMP expression. Reduced NFkappa B/AP-1 activity and MMP expression lead to diminished invasion through a reconstituted basement membrane and to a significantly lower number of lung metastases in immunodeficient mice after intercardiac injection of 231 cells (p=0.0035). 68% of Curcumin treated but only 17% of untreated animals showed no or very few lung metastases, most likely as a consequence of down-regulation of NFkappa B/AP-1 dependent MMP expression and direct apoptotic effects on circulating tumor cells but not on established metastases.
Dietary chemoprevention of metastases appears therefore feasible.

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;19(1-4):137-52.


« Last Edit: 21/02/2007 21:47:27 by iko »
 

another_someone

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #7 on: 21/02/2007 23:52:29 »
Simple question - is there any epidemiological evidence that indicates reduction in disease in populations that eat lots of curry?

Second question - nothing is without cost - what is the trade off - what are the risks with chronic overdosing on Curcumin ?
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #8 on: 23/02/2007 09:32:50 »
Simple question - is there any epidemiological evidence that indicates reduction in disease in populations that eat lots of curry?

Second question - nothing is without cost - what is the trade off - what are the risks with chronic overdosing on Curcumin ?

Hi George,
I think there are suggestions, more than real evidence.
It seems almost impossible to demonstrate something like that just epidemiologically: there are too many differences in diet and lifestyle between populations eating lots of curry and the rest of the world.
On the other hand, "significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases" (see below).


Experimental toxicity of curcumin has probably been defined as LD50 in animals and should be far higher than usual 'doses' (sorry I can't find any reference).
No idea about chronic overdosing.

ikod

Cancer risk and diet in India.

Sinha R, Anderson DE, McDonald SS, Greenwald P.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892-7273, USA. sinhar@nih.gov

India is a developing country with one of the most diverse populations and diets in the world. Cancer rates in India are lower than those seen in Western countries, but are rising with increasing migration of rural population to the cities, increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyles. In India, rates for oral and oesophageal cancers are some of the highest in the world. In contrast, the rates for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers are one of the lowest. Studies of Indian immigrants in Western societies indicate that rates of cancer and other chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease and diabetes, increase dramatically after a generation in the adopted country. Change of diet is among the factors that may be responsible for the changing disease rates. Diet in India encompasses diversity unknown to most other countries, with many dietary patterns emanating from cultural and religious teachings that have existed for thousands of years. Very little is known, however, about the role of the Indian diet in causation of cancer or its role, if any, in prevention of cancer, although more attention is being focused on certain aspects of the Indian diet, such as vegetarianism, spices, and food additives. Of particular interest for cancer prevention is the role of turmeric (curcumin), an ingredient in common Indian curry spice. Researchers also have investigated cumin, chilies, kalakhar, Amrita Bindu, and various plant seeds for their apparent cancer preventive properties. Few prospective studies, however, have been conducted to investigate the role of Indian diet and its various components in prevention of cancer. From a public health perspective, there is an increasing need to develop cancer prevention programs responsive to the unique diets and cultural practices of the people of India.

J Postgrad Med. 2003 Jul-Sep;49(3):222-8.



It is actually a problem to search toxicity of curcumin, because you get confused in the enormous bulk of reports about curcumin anti-toxic properties.



Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase,
and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases.

Bengmark S.
Institute of Hepatology, University College, London Medical School, London, United Kingdom. s.bengmark@ucl.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: The world suffers a tsunami of chronic diseases, and a typhoon of acute illnesses, many of which are associated with the inappropriate or exaggerated activation of genes involved in inflammation. Finding therapeutic agents which can modulate the inflammatory reaction is the highest priority in medical research today. Drugs developed by the pharmaceutical industry have thus far been associated with toxicity and side effects, which is why natural substances are of increasing interest.
METHODS: A literature search (PubMed) showed almost 1500 papers dealing with curcumin, most from recent years. All available abstracts were read. Approximately 300 full papers were reviewed.
RESULTS: Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has been shown to be non-toxic, to have antioxidant activity, and to inhibit such mediators of inflammation as NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (LOX), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases.

CONCLUSIONS: Turmeric, an approved food additive, or its component curcumin, has shown surprisingly beneficial effects in experimental studies of acute and chronic diseases characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory reaction. There is ample evidence to support its clinical use, both as a prevention and a treatment. Several natural substances have greater antioxidant effects than conventional vitamins, including various polyphenols, flavonoids and curcumenoids. Natural substances are worth further exploration both experimentally and clinically.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006 Jan-Feb;30(1):45-51.

« Last Edit: 23/02/2007 10:00:02 by iko »
 

another_someone

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #9 on: 23/02/2007 12:40:07 »
Simple question - is there any epidemiological evidence that indicates reduction in disease in populations that eat lots of curry?

Second question - nothing is without cost - what is the trade off - what are the risks with chronic overdosing on Curcumin ?

Hi George,
I think there are suggestions, more than real evidence.
It seems almost impossible to demonstrate something like that just epidemiologically: there are too many differences in diet and lifestyle between populations eating lots of curry and the rest of the world.
On the other hand, "significant preventive and/or curative effects have been observed in experimental animal models of a number of diseases, including arteriosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, respiratory, hepatic, pancreatic, intestinal and gastric diseases, neurodegenerative and eye diseases" (see below).


Experimental toxicity of curcumin has probably been defined as LD50 in animals and should be far higher than usual 'doses' (sorry I can't find any reference).
No idea about chronic overdosing.

ikod

As you say, LD50, even in humans, is the easy one – if someone takes massive quantities of a substance, and dies two days later, the link between cause and effect is fairly apparent; but if somebody takes moderately raised quantities of a substance, but dies 20 years earlier or 20 years later, it is difficult to link a single cause amongst all the myriad of competing causes; yet it is just such a moderately raised quantities that are suggested as being of claimed benefit.

The problem I have, is how much extra should we be taking to gain this benefit, if benefit it be.  The only argument put forward is that more is better, but self evidently such an argument cannot be taken without limit.  Maybe some people are taking too much already, while others may be taking not enough.  Maybe some people need more, and for others, even as much as they already take might be dangerous to them.  Even how much is the right amount might vary from person to person, from gender to gender, from age to age, and from race to race.

Until we know what harm can befall from an excess, how can we know what is the right amount?

Given that we are talking about usage as a preventative measure, we are inevitably talking about long term usage, not massive short term usage, and thus LD50 is of limited pertinence.

What I am talking about is not just an issue with regard to  curcumin, but with regard to all lifestyle drugs (for that is what  curcumin is being touted as).
« Last Edit: 23/02/2007 12:45:04 by another_someone »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #10 on: 23/02/2007 12:56:33 »
Curcumin is a nutrient, not a drug.
Modified synthetic analogues are far
away to come: these discoveries are
quite recent for western science.
As with vitamin D in cod liver oil,
eventually a low dose should be good
for us, too much...
...exactly the opposite.

ikod

P.S.
I'm not trying to sell either curcumin or cod liver oil.
I am trying to communicate my enthusiasm about simple
nutrients that could help in human disease.
I have this feeling that they are neglected, a bit.
« Last Edit: 23/02/2007 13:03:32 by iko »
 

another_someone

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #11 on: 23/02/2007 13:33:41 »
Curcumin is a nutrient, not a drug.
Modified synthetic analogues are far
away to come: these discoveries are
quite recent for western science.
As with vitamin D in cod liver oil,
eventually a low dose should be good
for us, too much...
...exactly the opposite.

ikod

P.S.
I'm not trying to sell either curcumin or cod liver oil.
I am trying to communicate my enthusiasm about simple
nutrients that could help in human disease.
I have this feeling that they are neglected, a bit.


Firstly, I was not accusing you of selling anything - this was not an argument with you, just a concern about the way these things might be perceived by those looking for miracle cures, or the elixir of youth.  You have merely been reporting things you have noticed that you think might be of interest – I have no problem with that.  You have not put any substantive spin on any of it, so I have nothing to complain about there.  My complaint is more about how the popular press, and some of the less thoughtful readers of such articles, might interpret these 'promising' results, without asking the appropriate questions that should also be asked of them.  None of this is to suggest that the research, in and of itself, is anything but highly interesting, if taken with the appropriate cautions.

The distinction between nutrient and drug is not in what they do, but in how we use them.  If we consume something for nourishment, then it is a nutrient, if we consume it for its health giving properties (or other medicinal, psychoactive, etc., functions), then it is a drug.

It is only recently that drugs have been synthesised through chemically pure processes; traditionally, drugs have merely been ordinary foodstuffs put to medicinal purposes.   Curcumin is one such foodstuff that has traditional uses as a drug.
« Last Edit: 23/02/2007 13:57:33 by another_someone »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #12 on: 23/02/2007 17:45:12 »
I imagine we are witnesses of a new confrontation between traditional oriental medicine and western standards of investigation.

Quote
The old Ayurvedal/Chinese medicine is finally joining western orthodox medicine and is already giving very promising results, perhaps thanks to the immigrants from Asia to the USA/UK who are now leading big research labs.


Final results are still pending (Further research is needed...)

In the meantime there should be enough information for the 'prepared minds'.

iko
« Last Edit: 04/03/2007 11:08:52 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #13 on: 28/04/2007 15:08:02 »
Curcumin is not alone as a natural
remedy against dreadful Plasmodia:
from 'cod' a little help for malaria too!

The suggestive potentiating effect of cod liver oil
on the efficacy of artesunate in Plasmodium berghei infected mice


O Awodele, MO Araoye,AI Oreagba, SO Kolawole, A Akintonwa.
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.

The effects of cod liver oil on the potency of artesunate was determined using Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Fifty (50) adult albino mice weighing between 15-25g were used for this experiment. There were five groups of ten animals each per group. Groups I to IV were infected with plasmodium berghei and also received 0.9% normal saline (Group I), Artesunate (Group II), Cod liver oil (Group III) and Cod liver oil plus Artesunate (Group IV). Group V was not infected and was not treated. The parasitaemia level was monitored for eight days post inoculation of the parasites into the animals. The group IV animals that received the combination of both Artestunate and Cod liver oil demonstrated a better clearance of malaria parasite than Artesunate montherapy (Group II) with 48.7%, 90.3%, 98.9% and 99.2% suppression of parasiteamia from days 4 to 5, 5 to 6, 6 to 7 and 7 to 8 respectively.
These findings showed that the combination of Artesunate and Cod liver oil is more effective against plasmodium berghei infection than artesunate alone. This combination may thus be considered as a suitable and cost effective Artemisinin Combination Therapy.
 
Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: 74-78

from:   http://www.ajol.info/viewarticle.php?jid=67&id=29728&layout=abstract
 



 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #14 on: 28/04/2007 16:21:59 »
...even nanotechnology experts are paying
attention to Curcuma longa!


Polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (nanocurcumin):
a novel strategy for human cancer therapy.


Bisht S, Feldmann G, Soni S, Ravi R, Karikari C, Maitra A, Maitra A.
ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a yellow polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potent anti-cancer properties as demonstrated in a plethora of human cancer cell line and animal carcinogenesis models. Nevertheless, widespread clinical application of this relatively efficacious agent in cancer and other diseases has been limited due to poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, minimal systemic bioavailability. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery approaches have the potential for rendering hydrophobic agents like curcumin dispersible in aqueous media, thus circumventing the pitfalls of poor solubility.
RESULTS: We have synthesized polymeric nanoparticle encapsulated formulation of curcumin - nanocurcumin - utilizing the micellar aggregates of cross-linked and random copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM), with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) and poly(ethyleneglycol)monoacrylate (PEG-A). Physico-chemical characterization of the polymeric nanoparticles by dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy confirms a narrow size distribution in the 50nm range. Nanocurcumin, unlike free curcumin, is readily dispersed in aqueous media. Nanocurcumin demonstrates comparable in vitro therapeutic efficacy to free curcumin against a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, as assessed by cell viability and clonogenicity assays in soft agar. Further, nanocurcumin's mechanisms of action on pancreatic cancer cells mirror that of free curcumin, including induction of cellular apoptosis, blockade of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation, and downregulation of steady state levels of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNFalpha).
CONCLUSIONS: Nanocurcumin provides an opportunity to expand the clinical repertoire of this efficacious agent by enabling ready aqueous dispersion. Future studies utilizing nanocurcumin are warranted in pre-clinical in vivo models of cancer and other diseases that might benefit from the effects of curcumin.

J Nanobiotechnology. 2007 Apr 17;5(1):3 [Epub ahead of print]



« Last Edit: 01/05/2007 16:34:47 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #15 on: 08/07/2007 21:40:35 »







Sequestration of parasites and obstruction of brain vessels (RPH)

The cause of cerebral malaria is not well understood. Currently, there are two major hypotheses explaining its etiology. They are the mechanical and the humoral hypotheses.

The mechanical hypothesis asserts that a specific interaction between a P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein (PfEMP-1) and ligands on endothelial cells, such as ICAM-1 or E-selectin, reduces microvascular blood flow and induces hypoxia. This selective cytoadherence of PRBCs and non-PRBCs, also known as rosetting, can apparently better account for CMs histopathological hallmark and its characteristic coma condition. However, this hypothesis is inadequate in explaining the relative absence of neurological deficit even after days of unconsciousness.

The humoral hypothesis suggests that a malarial toxin may be released that stimulates macrophages to release TNF-a and other cytokines such as IL-1. The cytokines themselves are not harmful, but they may induce additional and uncontrolled production of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide would diffuse through the blood-brain barrier and impose similar changes on synaptic function as do general anesthetics and high concentrations of ethanol, leading to a state of reduced consciousness. The biochemical nature of this interaction would explain the reversibility of coma.



click here to read more:  http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects1999/malaria/cermal.html

 

Offline iko

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #16 on: 03/10/2007 09:57:51 »



Curcumin as "Curecumin": From kitchen to clinic.

Goel A, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal BB.
Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Laboratory, Department of Internal Medicine, Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center and Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Although turmeric (Curcuma longa; an Indian spice) has been described in Ayurveda, as a treatment for inflammatory diseases and is referred by different names in different cultures, the active principle called curcumin or diferuloylmethane, a yellow pigment present in turmeric (curry powder) has been shown to exhibit numerous activities. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed several important functions of curcumin. It binds to a variety of proteins and inhibits the activity of various kinases. By modulating the activation of various transcription factors, curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell survival proteins. Curcumin also downregulates cyclin D1, cyclin E and MDM2; and upregulates p21, p27, and p53. Various preclinical cell culture and animal studies suggest that curcumin has potential as an antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antiangiogenic agent; as a mediator of chemoresistance and radioresistance; as a chemopreventive agent; and as a therapeutic agent in wound healing, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and arthritis. Pilot phase I clinical trials have shown curcumin to be safe even when consumed at a daily dose of 12g for 3 months. Other clinical trials suggest a potential therapeutic role for curcumin in diseases such as familial adenomatous polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, hypercholesteremia, atherosclerosis, pancreatitis, psoriasis, chronic anterior uveitis and arthritis. Thus, curcumin, a spice once relegated to the kitchen shelf, has moved into the clinic and may prove to be "Curecumin".

Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 19;


« Last Edit: 03/10/2007 10:00:53 by iko »
 

Offline devdally

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New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #17 on: 23/05/2010 23:33:45 »
Let's give it to the Chinese who seem to be the pioneers in alternative treatments, from newbielink:http://www.urgentcare1.com/ [nonactive] (read: ma huang) to newbielink:http://www.urgentcare1.com/ [nonactive] (read: chuan xin lian and cholinex).  And now, the latest cure in malaria.
 

The Naked Scientists Forum

New spicy treatment for malaria?
« Reply #17 on: 23/05/2010 23:33:45 »

 

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