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Author Topic: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?  (Read 309010 times)

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #25 on: 27/10/2006 23:50:14 »
Hi Hellena (Grecian),
Thank you for appreciating mycod efforts in this topic!
I apologize for my recent compulsive stick-images-here&there mania...
It will go away, I hope.  I know it is a bit childish: I did that with scissors and glue almost half a century ago (what a shame!).
This brand new Forum is too cooool!!!
Ciao
...Talking about absolute perfection!

ikod

Post Scriptum: did you by any chance read the childhood leukemia topic? Any comment about it? thanks.

« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:38:17 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #26 on: 07/11/2006 18:42:24 »
Cod Liver Oil (song)



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cod Liver Oil was a traditional medicinal drink for a lot of Newfoundlanders that was also made into a song. Cod liver oil in the traditional way of manufacture was sun cured and served in bottles in its raw form. The song was written by Johnny Burke (1851-1930), a balladeer from St. John's, Newfoundland. It has been recorded by the Irish band The Dubliners and by Newfoundland Folk/Rock Band Great Big Sea on their album The Hard and the Easy.

Lyrics
I'm a young married man that is tired of life
Ten years I've been wed to a miserable wife
She does nothing all day but sit down and cry
And prays up to Heaven that soon she will die

Chorus:
Doctor, o doctor, o dear Doctor John
Your cod liver oil is so pure and so strong
I'm afraid of me life, I'll go down in the soil
If me wife keeps on drinking your cod liver oil
Well a friend of my own came to see me one day
He told my darlin' was pining away
He afterwards told me that she would get strong
If only I'd get a bottle from dear Doctor John

Chorus
It was then that I purchased a bottle to try
The way that she drank it you'd think she would die
I bought her another it vanished the same
O me wife she's got cod liver oil on the brain

Chorus
That me wife loves cod liver there isn't a doubt
And a few thousand gallons has made her quite stout
And now that she's stout it's made her quite strong
And now I'm jealous of dear Doctor John

Chorus
My house it resembles a medicine shop
It's covered with bottles from bottom to top
But then in the mornin' the kettle do boil
O you're sure it's singin' of cod liver oil

Chorus  
« Last Edit: 15/12/2006 21:51:05 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #27 on: 07/11/2006 19:15:17 »
I take this every day !!...and it's a bloody long walk to Norway too !!


 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #28 on: 20/11/2006 15:47:25 »
Good news for cod liver oil fanatics!

Vitamin D intake and the risk for pancreatic cancer in two cohort studies.

Skimmer HG, Michaud DS, Giovannucci E.

Vitamin D and its analogues exhibit potent antitumor effects in many tissues, including the pancreas. Normal and malignant pancreatic tissues were recently shown to express high levels of vitamin D 1-alpha-hydroxylase, which converts circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. We examined associations between dietary intake of vitamin D, calcium, and retinol and subsequent risk for pancreatic cancer. We conducted prospective studies in cohorts of 46,771 men ages 40 to 75 years as of 1986 (the Health Professionals Follow-up Study), and 75,427 women ages 38 to 65 years as of 1984 (the Nurses' Health Study), documenting incident pancreatic cancer through the year 2000. Diet was ascertained by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 365 incident cases of pancreatic cancer over 16 years of follow-up. Compared with participants in the lowest category of total vitamin D intake (<150 IU/d), pooled multivariate relative risks for pancreatic cancer were 0.78 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.59-1.01] for 150 to 299 IU/d, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.83) for 300 to 449 IU/d, 0.56 (95% CI, 0.36-0.87) for 450 to 599 IU/d, and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.40-0.88) for >/=600 IU/d (P(trend) = 0.01). These associations may be stronger in men than women. After adjusting for vitamin D intake, calcium and retinol intakes were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In two U.S. cohorts, higher intakes of vitamin D were associated with lower risks for pancreatic cancer. Our results point to a potential role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis and prevention of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Sep;15(9):1688-95.


« Last Edit: 11/05/2007 16:57:39 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #29 on: 23/11/2006 23:35:40 »
Quackery...revisited in 2006!

This comes out crossing "cod liver oil" and Quackery on Google Images!



...Near the beginning of TB treatment in sanatoria, it became known that the sun helped to kill TB bacteria (see heliotherapy). When the Sun's UV rays hit human skin, vitamin D is produced. Naturally, when cod fish were found to be rich in vitamin D, it followed that their oil was sold as "liquid sunshine" (this was a real advertisement in the Valley Echo, March 1944). Cod Liver Oil is still used in "traditional" medicine today, and as an important dietary supplement, but no real evidence exists that it helps to cure tuberculosis.

http://www.lung.ca/tb/tbhistory/treatment/



...NO real evidence? Let's cross quickly "Tuberculosis and vitamin d" on PubMed database...




Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response.


Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H et al.
In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the vitamin D-1-hydroxylase genes, leading to induction of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We also observed that sera from African-American individuals, known to have increased susceptibility to tuberculosis, had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and were inefficient in supporting cathelicidin messenger RNA induction. These data support a link between TLRs and vitamin D-mediated innate immunity and suggest that differences in ability of human populations to produce vitamin D may contribute to susceptibility to microbial infection.
Science. 2006 Mar 24;311(5768):1770-3. Epub 2006 Feb 23.





The effect of vitamin D as supplementary treatment
 in patients with moderately advanced pulmonary tuberculous lesion.

Nursyam EW, Amin Z, Rumended CM.
Dept.Int.Med.University of Indonesia-dr.Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta.

AIM: to compare the vitamin D group of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with a placebo group in terms of clinical improvement, nutritional status, sputum conversion, and radiological improvement. METHODS: sixty seven tuberculosis patient visiting the Pulmonary Clinic, of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, from January 1st to August 31st, 2001 were included in this study. The subjects were randomised to receive vitamin D (0.25 mg/day) or placebo in a double blind method, during the 6th initial week of Tb treatment. The rate of sputum conversion, complete blood counts, blood chemistry as well as radiologic examination were evaluated. RESULTS: there were more male patients than females (39:28), 78.7% were in the productive age group, 71.6% had low nutritional status, 62.4% with low education level, and 67.2% with low income. One hundred percent of the vitamin D group and only 76.7% of the placebo group had sputum conversion. This difference is statistically significant (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: the sputum conversion had no correlation with the hemoglobin level, blood clotting time, calcium level, lymphocyte count, age, sex, and nutritional status. There were more subjects with radiological improvement in the vitamin D group.

Acta Med Indones. 2006 Jan-Mar;38(1):3-5.




Prevalence and associations of vitamin D deficiency in foreign-born persons with tuberculosis in London.

Ustianowski A, Shaffer R, Collin S, Wilkinson RJ, Davidson RN.
Dept.Infect.Trop.Med.- Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ, UK. ustianowski@doctors.org.uk

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is high amongst foreign-born persons resident in developed countries. Vitamin D is important in the host defence against TB in vitro and deficiency may be an acquired risk factor for this disease. We aimed to determine the incidence and associations of vitamin D deficiency in TB patients diagnosed at an infectious diseases unit in London, UK. METHODS: Case-note analysis of 210 unselected patients diagnosed with TB who had plasma vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels routinely measured. Prevalence of 25(OH)D3 deficiency and its relationship to ethnic origin, religion, site of TB, sex, age, duration in the UK, month of 25(OH)D3 estimation and TB diagnosis were determined. RESULTS: Of 210 patients 76% were 25(OH)D3 deficient and 56% had undetectable levels. 70/82 Indian, 24/28 East African Asian, 29/34 Somali, 14/19 Pakistani and Afghani, 16/22 Sri Lankan and 2/6 other African patients were deficient (with 58, 17, 23, 9, 6 and 1 having undetectable levels, respectively). Only 0/6 white Europeans and 1/8 Chinese/South East Asians had low plasma 25(OH)D3 levels. Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs all had equivalent rates of deficiency though Hindus were more likely to have undetectable levels (odds ratio 1.87, 95% CI 1.27-2.76). There was no significant association between 25(OH)D3 level and site of TB or duration of residence in the UK. There was no apparent seasonal variation in either TB diagnosis or 25(OH)D3 level. CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D3 deficiency commonly associates with TB among all ethnic groups apart from white Europeans, and Chinese/South East Asians. Our data support a lack of sunlight exposure and potentially a vegetarian diet as contributors to this deficiency.

J Infect. 2005 Jun;50(5):432-7.





Those nurses and doctors should be proud and rest in peace.
They gave cod liver oil to their TB patients for years
without any controlled study or scientific evidence,
wisely adopting the old "ex-adjuvantibus" criteria.
They did just the right thing to do in those days
when treatments available were unsatisfactory
and only some patients recovered completely.
Evidence is slowly coming out
more than fifty years later.


ikod



Before the availability of drugs that successfully cured the body of tubercular infections, a widely accepted treatment for non-pulmonary tuberculosis was sunbathing. The sun had sometimes been blamed for increased activity in tubercular infection of the lungs and was therefore not used to treat this form of tuberculosis. However, the Sun offered several curative properties to those suffering from other types of tuberculosis. Sun treatment was used in the treatment of tuberculosis of the glands, bones, joints, peritoneum, skin, eyes, genito-urinary tract, and others.

There were several reasons for the prescription of sun treatment to tuberculosis patients. First of all, the sun acts as a bactericide, killing the Tubercular bacillus organisms that cause the disease. Exposure to moderately hot temperatures for extended periods of time is sufficient to kill off these bacteria and clear up infections. Furthermore, ergosterol, present in the skin in converted by the sunís UV rays into vitamin D, which was thought to do further damage to the TB bacilli.
 
Sunlamps like the ones pictured here were often used to replace natural sunlight in sun-therapy, or "heliotherapy" for tuberculosis (ca. 1925).


      

http://home.tiscalinet.ch/biografien/images/koch.jpg
http://www.lung.ca/tb/images/061_sun_lamps.jpg
http://www.mmaonline.net/Publications/MNMed2005/November/Images/sun.gif






"Il sole dona la vita, il sole se la riprende" M.U. Dianzani 1975.
« Last Edit: 26/07/2010 16:41:54 by iko »
 

Offline moonfire

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #30 on: 01/12/2006 08:07:00 »
Do you think we will ever have a cod liver oil shortage?
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #31 on: 01/12/2006 15:47:41 »

Hi Firemoon!
No idea, no clue about it...but I don't see much of a problem.
I think cod fishlets are still around and the cod industry is actually making some profit out of it.  Quality controls seem to be a 'must' for this type of product, so several companies produce it, test it and distibute all sorts of caps and bottles of flavoured oils. They all seem to do fine to me.
My problem is that - sitting here in front of my PC - I am not able to give 'cod' every day to all the leukemic children in the world. I can only manage to remind my 'little' boy (actually he grew up much taller than his older brother) to take his cod in the evening.
More than seven years have past for our family, and eighteen years from the Shanghai report:
it's just about time to move and tell people around.
Thanks to search engines and this www (what-women-want?). :D
Anyway, I'm not too pessimistic about it.
I think I can make it, and I will succeed in the end.
I promise.
It takes time. ::)
Take care

ikod
« Last Edit: 23/12/2006 19:14:45 by iko »
 

Offline genius91

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #32 on: 03/12/2006 16:29:01 »
you seem to know a lot about cods a. thanks for the info iko
 

Offline genius91

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #33 on: 03/12/2006 19:18:22 »
no sorry i haven't had the chance to read it but i will some time :)

Ryan
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #34 on: 05/12/2006 19:32:10 »
...a highly recodmendable nutrient!

The effect of dietary fish oil on survival
after infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Thors VS, Thorisdottir A, Erlendsdottir H, Einarsson I, Gudmundsson S, Gunnarsson E, Haraldsson A.
Department of Medicine, University of Iceland, Iceland.

Dietary fish oil is believed to have a beneficial effect in various infections and in autoimmune disorders. This effect may correspond to an altered immune response.
In order to discover whether the effect of dietary fish oil is different in various infections, we studied the survival of mice fed fish oil or corn oil supplemented diets and infected in the lungs with either Klebsiella pneumoniae or Streptococcus pneumoniae. 120 NMRI mice were divided into 4 groups, of which 2 groups were fed a fish oil supplemented diet and 2 a corn oil supplemented diet. After 6 weeks the mice were infected in the lungs with Klebsiella pneumoniae (fish oil groups and corn oil groups) or with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 (both groups). The survival rate was monitored. The experiment was performed twice. The survival of the mice fed fish oil enriched diet and infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae was significantly better compared with the mice fed corn oil enriched diet (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0013). No difference was found between the mice fed corn oil enriched diet or fish oil enriched diet and infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 (p = 0.74 and p = 0.15). Our results indicate that dietary fish oil has a beneficial effect on survival of mice after experimental pneumoniae when infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae, but not after infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3.

Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36(2):102-5.





Quite a good match with the 'historical' piece
you can read free full-text clicking down here:

http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/129/4/783

Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940.

Semba RD.
Dept.Ophthalmol. Johns Hopkins Univ.School of Med., Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

In the last fifteen years, a large series of controlled clinical trials showed that vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries. It is less well known that vitamin A underwent two decades of intense clinical investigation prior to World War II. In the 1920s, a theory emerged that vitamin A could be used in "anti-infective" therapy. This idea, largely championed by Edward Mellanby, led to a series of at least 30 trials to determine whether vitamin A--usually supplied in the form of cod-liver oil--could reduce the morbidity and mortality of respiratory disease, measles, puerperal sepsis, and other infections. The early studies generally lacked such innovations known to the modern controlled clinical trial such as randomization, masking, sample size and power calculations, and placebo controls. Results of the early trials were mixed, but the pharmaceutical industry emphasized the positive results in their advertising to the public. With the advent of the sulfa antibiotics for treatment of infections, scientific interest in vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy waned. Recent controlled clinical trials of vitamin A from the last 15 y follow a tradition of investigation that began largely in the 1920s.

1: J Nutr. 1999 Apr;129(4):783-91.


Note:

Fish oil is mainly omega-3 fatty acids.

Fish liver oil is a natural mix of vitamin A, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids.
All these 3 compounds had been studied for their capability of modulating, at
different levels, the basic mechanisms of infection-inflammation and immune response.

ikod  [^] 

« Last Edit: 06/05/2007 10:45:55 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #35 on: 09/12/2006 15:15:55 »
...A massive vitamin D 'tsunami' is coming closer,
spinning out of the scientific literature circuit:
will flu vaccination campaigns be the first casualties?

Epidemic influenza and vitamin D.

Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, Holick MF, Grant WB, Madronich S, Garland CF, Giovannucci E.
Atascadero State Hospital, 10333 El Camino Real, Atascadero, CA 93422, USA.

In 1981, R. Edgar Hope-Simpson proposed that a 'seasonal stimulus' intimately associated with solar radiation explained the remarkable seasonality of epidemic influenza. Solar radiation triggers robust seasonal vitamin D production in the skin; vitamin D deficiency is common in the winter, and activated vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, a steroid hormone, has profound effects on human immunity. 1,25(OH)2D acts as an immune system modulator, preventing excessive expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing the 'oxidative burst' potential of macrophages. Perhaps most importantly, it dramatically stimulates the expression of potent anti-microbial peptides, which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and in epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract where they play a major role in protecting the lung from infection. Volunteers inoculated with live attenuated influenza virus are more likely to develop fever and serological evidence of an immune response in the winter. Vitamin D deficiency predisposes children to respiratory infections. Ultraviolet radiation (either from artificial sources or from sunlight) reduces the incidence of viral respiratory infections, as does cod liver oil (which contains vitamin D). An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children. We conclude that vitamin D, or lack of it, may be Hope-Simpson's 'seasonal stimulus'.

Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40. Epub 2006 Sep 7.






Note: ... Vitamin D deficiency predisposes children to respiratory infections .

from: Rickets Today - Children Still Need Milk and Sunshine

Nicholas Bishop,M.D.  University of Sheffield
...
Rickets may have severe consequences. It is strongly associated with pneumonia in young children in developing countries. In a case–control study at the Ethio-Swedish Children's Hospital in Addis Ababa,3 Muhe and colleagues demonstrated an incidence of rickets among children with pneumonia that was 13 times as high as that among control children, after adjustment for family size, birth order, crowding, and months of exclusive breast-feeding. The relative risk of death for the children with rickets as compared with the children without rickets was 1.7. Furthermore, bony deformity of the pelvis in women leads to obstructed labor and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality.
...
Children in developed countries need calcium, too. There is clear evidence from prospective studies of dietary supplementation that increased calcium intake during childhood results in increased calcium retention and increased bone mass.8 Young adults with a history of greater milk consumption have a higher total-body bone mass than those with lower intake after the influence of body size is taken into account.9 Calcium, vitamin D, and phosphate are essential nutrients for the growing skeleton. Wherever children live, they should follow Grandma's advice: "Drink up your milk, and go play outside."

N.Engl.J.Med. 1999 341(8): 602-604.






...odd fever oil!   ;D

« Last Edit: 24/05/2007 18:37:23 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #36 on: 09/12/2006 16:55:36 »


Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood
 and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults.

Wilkins CH, Sheline YI, Roe CM, Birge SJ, Morris JC.

Dept.Med.Div.Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, the Dept.Psychiatry, Dept.Neurol., and the Div.Biostatistics, Washington Univ.School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and has been implicated in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. This study examined the relationship among vitamin D status, cognitive performance, mood, and physical performance in older adults.

Methods: A cross-sectional group of 80 participants, 40 with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and 40 nondemented persons, were selected from a longitudinal study of memory and aging. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Blessed Test (SBT), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR; a higher Sum of Boxes score indicates greater dementia severity), and a factor score from a neuropsychometric battery; mood was assessed using clinician's diagnosis and the depression symptoms inventory. The Physical Performance Test (PPT) was used to measure functional status. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured for all participants.

Results: The mean vitamin D level in the total sample was 18.58 ng/mL (standard deviation: 7.59); 58% of the participants had abnormally low vitamin D levels defined as less than 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for age, race, gender, and season of vitamin D determination, vitamin D deficiency was associated with presence of an active mood disorder (odds ratio: 11.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.04-66.86; Wald chi(2) = 7.66, df = 2, p = 0.022). Using the same covariates in a linear regression model, vitamin D deficiency was associated with worse performance on the SBT (F = 5.22, df = [2, 77], p = 0.044) and higher CDR Sum of Box scores (F = 3.20, df = [2, 77], p = 0.047) in the vitamin D-deficient group. There was no difference in performance on the MMSE, PPT, or factor scores between the vitamin D groups.

Conclusions: In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated with low mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitive performance.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;14(12):1032-1040.






Good news for Africa?        

A potential role for vitamin D on HIV infection?


Villamor E.
Dept.Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Despite advances in the knowledge of vitamin D's potent immunomodulatory activity, its role on HIV disease progression is unknown. Decreased concentrations of 1alpha,25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 1,25(OH)2D, the active form of vitamin D, have been reported among HIV-infected people and attributed to defects in renal hydroxylation and increased utilization. A few studies also described low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 25(OH)D, the vitamin obtained from solar synthesis and diet. An inverse association between 1,25(OH)2D concentrations and mortality has been reported from a small cohort of HIV-infected adults, and some cross-sectional studies have indicated positive correlations between 1,25(OH)2D and CD4+ cell counts. Additional observational studies are needed to confirm the associations between vitamin D status and HIV disease progression. These investigations would provide useful insights on the potential role of vitamin D supplementation to HIV-infected persons and the planning of intervention trials.

Nutr Rev. 2006 May;64(5 Pt 1):226-33.




« Last Edit: 12/12/2006 10:58:46 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #37 on: 10/12/2006 10:01:07 »
Revisiting Vitamin D in humans.
just a few clever minds got this point
first, several years ago...


A hypothesis concerning deficiency of sunlight,
cold temperature, and influenza epidemics associated with
the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in northern Finland.


Timonen TT.

University of Oulu, Department of Internal Medicine, Kajaanintie 50, FIN-90220 Oulu, Finland.

Research to detect new factors contributing to the etiology of acute leukemia (AL) is urgently needed. Located between latitudes 65 degrees and 70 degrees north, the population in northern Finland is exposed to extreme seasonal alterations of ultraviolet-B light and temperature. There is also a seasonal variation of both the 25(OH)- and 1,25(OH)2-D3 vitamin serum concentrations. In the present work, the frequencies of different types and age-groups at diagnosis of AL were compared during the dark and light months of the year, to uncover seasonality. Between January 1972 and December 1986, 300 consecutive patients aged >/=16 years and diagnosed as having AL were enrolled. The observed mean monthly global solar radiation, temperature measurements, and influenza epidemics were compared with the monthly occurrence of AL. Both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (p=0.006) and total AL (p=0.015) were diagnosed excessively in the dark and cold compared with light and warm period of the year. There was a tendency for de novo leukemia to increase also in the dark and cold, but for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients the excess was not significant. Age >/=65 was strongly associated with the dark and cold season (p=0.003). Significantly more ALL (p=0.005) and de novo leukemias (p=0.029) were observed during influenza epidemics than during nonepidemic periods. However, a seasonality, i. e., the fluctuation of numbers of AL cases, was not determined, either monthly or during different photo- and temperature periods or influenza epidemics; this might be due to the small numbers of patients studied. Nevertheless, it is hypothesized that sunlight deprivation in the arctic winter can lead to a deficiency of the 1, 25(OH)2D3 vitamin, which might stimulate leukemic cell proliferation and block cell differentiation through dysregulation of growth factors in the bone marrow stromal cells, causing one mutation and an overt ALL in progenitor cells damaged during the current or the previous winter by influenza virus, the other mutation.

Ann Hematol. 1999 Sep;78(9):408-14
.

« Last Edit: 29/04/2007 21:00:47 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #38 on: 10/12/2006 12:29:41 »


Messing with synthetic compounds
instead of the natural recipe
may lead to make wrong deductions
and to realize it many years later:



The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement.


Houghton LA, Vieth R.
School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Acadia University, Wolfville, Canada.

Supplemental vitamin D is available in 2 distinct forms: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Pharmacopoeias have officially regarded these 2 forms as equivalent and interchangeable, yet this presumption of equivalence is based on studies of rickets prevention in infants conducted 70 y ago. The emergence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D as a measure of vitamin D status provides an objective, quantitative measure of the biological response to vitamin D administration. As a result, vitamin D3 has proven to be the more potent form of vitamin D in all primate species, including humans. Despite an emerging body of evidence suggesting several plausible explanations for the greater bioefficacy of vitamin D3, the form of vitamin D used in major preparations of prescriptions in North America is vitamin D2. The case that vitamin D2 should no longer be considered equivalent to vitamin D3 is based on differences in their efficacy at raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diminished binding of vitamin D2 metabolites to vitamin D binding protein in plasma, and a nonphysiologic metabolism and shorter shelf life of vitamin D2. Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol, should not be regarded as a nutrient suitable for supplementation or fortification.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):694-7.





Comment: (from a reknown website)
http://www.mercola.com/2006/oct/26/beware-of-most-prescription-vitamin-d-supplements.htm

...Supplemental vitamin D comes in two forms: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).
They have generally been regarded as equivalent and interchangeable, but that notion is based on studies of rickets prevention in infants conducted seven decades ago.
Recent studies have shown that  vitamin D3 is a more potent form of vitamin D. Vitamin D2 has a shorter shelf life, and its metabolites bind with protein poorly, making it less effective. One unit of cod liver oil (containing vitamin D3) has been shown to be as effective as four units of Viosterol (a medicinal preparation of vitamin D2).
However, the form of vitamin D used in prescriptions in North America is almost invariably vitamin D2.
...


from Dr. Mercola's notes:

Basically there are two types of oral vitamin D supplements. The natural ones are D3, and they contain the same vitamin D your body makes when exposed to sunshine. The synthetic ones are vitamin D2, which are sometimes called ergocalciferol.
Once either form of the vitamin is in your body, it needs to be converted to a more active form. Vitamin D3 is converted 500 percent faster than vitamin D2. Interestingly, it was previously thought that the kidney exclusively performed this function, as least that is what I was taught in med school.
However, in 1998 Dr. Michael Hollick, the person who discovered activated vitamin D, showed that many other cells in your body can make this conversion, but they use it themselves, and it is only the kidney that makes enough to distribute to the rest of your body.
While there have been no clinical trials to date demonstrating conclusively that D2 prevents fractures, every clinical trial of D3 has shown it does.
However, nearly all the prescription-based supplements contain synthetic vitamin D2, which was first produced in the 1920s through ultraviolet exposure of foods. The process was patented and licensed to drug companies for use in prescription vitamins. In case you didn't know, the vitamin D that is added to milk is NOT D3 but the highly inferior vitamin D2.
The study linked above concluded that "vitamin D2 should no longer be regarded as a nutrient appropriate for supplementation or fortification of foods."

That being said, optimizing your sun exposure and levels of vitamin D3 may, indeed, be one of the most important physical steps you can take in support of your long-term health. Conventional medicine is finally beginning to get on board the vitamin-D3 bandwagon, using the natural power of sunshine to treat type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis during a woman's pregnancy and even tuberculosis.
It is important to understand that the ideal and STRONGLY preferred method of increasing your vitamin D3 level is through appropriate sun exposure. I really do not advise oral supplements, not even cod liver oil now, UNLESS you can have your blood levels regularly monitored. 
It just is too risky. I have seen too many potentially dangerous elevations of vitamin D levels, including my own, from those that are taking oral supplements.
But when you get your vitamin D from appropriate sun exposure your body can indeed self-regulate and greatly reduce vitamin D production if you don't need it, which makes it very difficult to overdose on vitamin D from sun exposure.




Even taking for granted that omega-3 and retinol were not needed together with vitamin D, the alternative to cod liver oil for leukemic children would be driving them for a hike in the sunshine three times a week...for at least 5-7 years after diagnosis.
I'd need a big school-bus and sunny days most of the year. I wouldn't be able to retire right now, and they couldn't miss their classes.
Mission Impossible from my point of view (ask Tom Cruise).

These little patients are tough: they could certainly take a risk of a slight vitamin D intoxication...most of the current treatment protocols are far more toxic.
Moderate use of cod liver oil is harmless, actually good for all of us.
It has always been like that.


ikod

Addendum:

Vitamin D As Treatment

How much vitamin D should one take if they have cancer? We don't know as the research is far from complete. Although vitamin D may help, it should only be taken in addition to standard cancer treatment. It should not be considered a first, or only, treatment but used in addition to regular chemotherapy or surgery. Oncologists and surgeons work miracles every day. Remember, vitamin D may be toxic in overdose, although one expert recently said, "worrying about vitamin D toxicity is like worrying about drowning when you are dying of thirst". That said, many people think "if a little is good then a lot is better". This is definitely not true about vitamin D.

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com/cancerMain.shtml


...in the meantime, waiting for scientific confirmation, a little bit of 'cod' every day should work just fine. ;)

Take care

ikod
« Last Edit: 26/01/2007 23:50:07 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #39 on: 25/12/2006 11:16:18 »
...little bits from:

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com/

just a 'basic' website for this topic!
Bits Of Wisdom: Those 'old wives' might be on to something


For many years, the "old wives" have been ridiculed as superstitious know-nothings.
Now science seems about to vindicate them.
The old wives maintained that a dose of cod-liver oil would do a body good.
Many children dreaded it because it tasted so awful. But come the dark days of winter, mothers and grandmothers insisted that all family members should hold their noses and swallow a spoonful of cod-liver oil.
During the past 20 years, this practice has gone the way of the manual typewriter.

Few children get cod-liver oil these days.

Doctors don't recommend it because it seems like such an unscientific relic of the past.

The vitamin D that is abundant in cod-liver oil has numerous health benefits though, especially in the winter. That's because levels of vitamin D frequently drop when people are not exposing their skin to the sun.
Cold, dreary weather and diminished sunlight can create borderline vitamin D deficiency in a surprising number of people. In Boston, 42 percent of people studied had too little vitamin D in winter. In Calgary, Canada, almost no one maintains adequate vitamin D in the winter.

In 2005, a psychiatrist who treated his patients for vitamin D deficiency noticed something odd. Influenza hit hard at the Atascadero State Hospital, a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. His ward was spared, with not a single person catching the flu, even though they had been exposed to the virus just like everyone else. The psychiatrist wondered whether the vitamin D he had prescribed had anything to do with their immunity.
This question led to an interesting review of research and a credible hypothesis.
Studies in the past 70 years hint at a connection between vitamin D and overall immunity.

The active form of vitamin D greatly increases the body's production of a natural infection-fighting chemical called cathelicidin. Cathelicidin seems to help fight off illnesses caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses, including influenza.
This might help explain why people are more susceptible to colds and flu in the winter. If their vitamin D levels drop, so does their production of cathelicidin and their overall resistance to infection.

Vitamin D also appears to have anti-cancer activity. People who get regular sun exposure are less susceptible to common cancers that affect the colon, breast, prostate, ovaries and lungs. Even conditions like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and Type 2 diabetes are less common in people with ample vitamin D levels.

Vitamin D has long been associated with stronger bones, but there is also research showing that it contributes to stronger muscles and fewer falls in the elderly.

The old wives did not have sophisticated scientific tools or methods, but they were skilled observers.

It's fascinating when the scientists supply the explanation behind their wisdom.

...

from:  Winston-Salem Journal, Tuesday, November 28, 2006.

http://www.journalnow.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=WSJ%2FMGArticle%2FWSJ_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1149191909636&path=!living&s=1037645509005



Photograph of Old Wives Lake in scenic Saskatchewan Canada




« Last Edit: 22/02/2010 21:24:52 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #40 on: 12/01/2007 18:20:35 »

Circannual vitamin d serum levels and disease activity
 in rheumatoid arthritis: Northern versus Southern Europe.


Cutolo M, Otsa K, Laas K, Yprus M, Lehtme R, Secchi ME, Sulli A, Paolino S, Seriolo B.
Division of Rheumatology - Dept Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

BACKGROUND:
Greater intake of vitamin D has been associated with a lower risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and low serum vitamin D together with higher prevalence of RA seem common among North European people when compared to Southern Europe.
OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in female RA patients from North (Estonia) and South (Italy) Europe and to correlate them with the disease activity score (DAS28) during winter and summer.
METHODS:
Fifty-four RA Italian patients (IP) and 64 RA Estonian patients (EP) were evaluated for serum 25(OH)D levels in winter and summer time, as well as for DAS28 score. Normal female controls (C) were 35 (IC) and 30 (EC) age-matched subjects, respectively. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by a competitive radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by "r" Pearson correlation, "t" Student with Bonferroni correction and by repeated ANOVA measures (summer and winter) with two factors (country and clinical status).
RESULTS:
25(OH)D levels were found significantly higher in IP versus EP (p = 0.0116) both in winter and in summer time. Differences were observed also in controls. The variations (increase) of 25(OH)D levels between winter and summer were found significant (p = 0.0005) in both IP and EP. Differences were observed also in controls. No significant differences were found concerning 25(OH)D levels between RA patients and their controls in either country. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation between 25(OH)D and DAS28, was found in summer only in IP (r =-0.57, p < 0.0001) and in winter in EP (r =-0.40, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Significantly lower 25(OH)D serum levels were observed in RA patients from North versus South Europe with a circannual rhythm in winter and summer time.
In addition, 25(OH)D values showed a significant correlation (negative) with RA clinical status (DAS28) in both North and South European RA patients, suggesting possible effects of vitamin D among other factors on disease activity.

Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006 Nov-Dec;24(6):702-4.



 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #41 on: 26/01/2007 23:05:08 »
A little help for your nerves...
Associations between cod liver oil use
and symptoms of depression: The Hordaland Health Study.

Raeder MB, Steen VM, Vollset SE, Bjelland I.
Dr. Einar Martens' Research Group for Biological Psychiatry, Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Helse Bergen HF, N-5021 Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine and Bergen Mental Health Research Center, University of Bergen, Norway.

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials suggest that omega-3 fatty acids improve the outcome of depression. This study aimed to evaluate the association between intake of cod liver oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and high levels of symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population. METHODS: We used data from the "The Hordaland Health Study '97-'99" (HUSK), a population based cross-sectional health survey from Norway including 21,835 subjects aged 40-49 and 70-74 years. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used logistic regression to study associations.
RESULTS: Among the participants, 8.9% used cod liver oil daily. A total of 3.6% had high levels of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of such depressive symptoms among the subjects who used cod liver oil daily was 2.5%, as compared to 3.8% in the rest of the population. The users of cod liver oil were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms than non-users after adjusting for multiple possible confounding factors (odds ratio=0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.52 to 0.97). These factors included age, gender, smoking habits, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and education. In addition, we found that the prevalence of high levels of depressive symptoms decreased with increasing duration (0-12 months) of cod liver oil use (multivariate adjusted test for trend, P=0.04). We were only able to study this latter association in a subset of the population aged 40-46 years.
LIMITATIONS: Data are cross sectional.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that regular use of cod liver oil is negatively associated with high levels of depressive symptoms in the general population.

J Affect Disord. 2006 Dec 18; [Epub ahead of print]


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17184843&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum
« Last Edit: 26/01/2007 23:10:19 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #42 on: 13/02/2007 11:00:14 »
Reading an 'ancient' paper
from Zoey (thanks!)... I found
one of the best cod-citations:

Quote

"Cod liver oil is in the forefront of children's remedies.

For long it has been struggling against the scepticism of exact science"


Rosenstern:  Berl. klin. Wchuschr. 47;822, 1910.
 

from:  "The history of cod liver oil as a remedy"
          Ruth A. Guy  M.D.
          Dept. of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine
          Am. J. of diseases of children    26; 112-116, 1923.
« Last Edit: 19/02/2007 21:40:38 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #43 on: 13/02/2007 11:09:36 »
Historical notes from the same
'ancient' paper (Zoey's copy):



...The introduction of cod liver oil into France, which came a few years later than in Germany, is described by Trousseau (10):

Quote
   
   The manner in which M. Bretonneau, of Tours, was induced to give the oil in this disease deserves notice.
He had treated the rachitic child of a rich Dutch merchant with preparations of iodine and other means, for some time, without success.
He was then told by the father that the elder children had previously suffered under the same malady, and had been cured by the cod liver oil, which, in Holland, was a popular remedy.
 Bretonneau gave the same substance to his young patient, and was much struck with the very rapid and successful result which followed.
He commenced making researches with it on other patients, and it was only then that he learnt for the first time what had been written by the German authors on this subject.
He has since given it extensively in rachitis, with the happiest results.
This fact was communicated to the Societe de Medicine de Paris, in 1837, by M. Roche.

  10.   Trousseau:   Clinical Medicine,  Philadelphia  2: 734, 1882.


from:  "The history of cod liver oil as a remedy"
          Ruth A. Guy  M.D.
          Dept. of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine
          Am. J. of diseases of children    26; 112-116, 1923.
« Last Edit: 02/05/2007 15:27:01 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #44 on: 07/03/2007 18:28:19 »
Cut and Paste from "Childhood Leukemia" topic (Physiol.& Medicine)


How did the cod deficiency affect the evolution of the culture?
Zoey


Good question, I'd like to know history better than I actually do.
To simplify your difficult question I would start like this:
Cod liver oil is certainly very good stuff for the undernurished, but its components can be found in other nutrients.
Vitamin A for sure, omega-3 in some seed-plant (different type, similar effects).
And vitamin D...here we are: vitamin D can be assembled by the skin itself through sunlight exposure.
That is tricky, so northern countries have a problem and somebody in certain areas found the solution for rickets and osteomalacia using cod.
As with other cofactors, some people eventually need more to counteract their congenital (invisible) metabolic defects, others do just fine with a minimal dose here and there.
We have probably been selected over generations to be 'cod' independent.
Difficult to find, it works after weeks, so the cause/effect link is easily missed.
It is definitely dedicated to our sick children.
To help their growth, brains and strenghten their immune system.
A bit of help from the ocean where we all came from.
Am I corny enough?

ikod



« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 13:04:46 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #45 on: 22/03/2007 22:49:00 »
For skeptical people searching for 'gold standard' treatments
here is reported a precious annotation by Dr. Cannell from the

http://www.vitamindcouncil.com


Vitamin D Newsletter


This is a periodic newsletter from the Vitamin D Council, a non-profit trying to end the epidemic of vitamin D deficiency.  If you don't want to get the newsletter, please hit reply and let us know.  We don't copyright this newsletter.
Please reproduce it and post it on Internet sites.
Remember, we are a non-profit and rely on donations to publish our newsletter and maintain our website.  Our pathetic finances are open to public inspections.  Send your tax-deductible contributions to:
The Vitamin D Council
9100 San Gregorio Road
Atascadero, CA 93422

Supplement
 
Some of you didn't get the last newsletter.  Here's a link.
Why is athletic performance medically important?  If you think for a minute, you'd realize that athletic performance is the same as physical performance.  What happens when physical performance is impaired?  People fall and break their hips, resulting in death, disability, or nursing home admission.  Many people don't realize how fatal falls can be in the elderly.  In 2003, the CDC reported 13,700 persons over 65 in the USA died from their falls, and 1.8 million ended up in emergency rooms for treatment of nonfatal injuries from falls.  Falls cause the majority of hip fractures, which - if they don't result in death - often result in admission to a nursing home.  That's 13,700 deaths, hundreds of thousands of surgeries, countless nursing home admissions, and tens of billions in health care costs every year from impaired athletic performance.  That's why it matters.
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Fatalities and injuries from falls among older adults--United States, 1993-2003 and 2001-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Nov 17;55(45):1221-4. Link:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17108890&query_hl=9&itool=pubmed_DocSum
 
The scientific evidence that vitamin D reduces falls in the elderly is quite strong.  Some physicians say they must wait for randomized, placebo controlled, interventional trials, saying they need such "gold standard" evidence before they will act to prevent falls.  Here are four such "gold standard" studies:
 
Bischoff HA, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Feb;18(2):343-51.
Dhesi JK, et al.  Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing. 2004 Nov;33(6):589-95.
Flicker L, et al.   Should older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Nov;53(11):1881-8.
Harwood RH, et al.  A randomised, controlled comparison of different calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens in elderly women after hip fracture: The Nottingham Neck of Femur (NONOF) Study. Age Ageing. 2004 Jan;33(1):45-51.

Some say they require a meta-analysis of such "gold standard" studies, from a top-flight university, published in a respected journal, proving vitamin D reduces falls.  Here's a meta-analysis from Harvard, published is the Journal of the American Medical Association, showing vitamin D reduces falls:

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett WC, Staehelin HB, Bazemore MG, Zee RY, Wong JB. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004 Apr 28;291(16):1999-2006.
 
Will these "gold standard" studies prompt physicians to act?  Will older patients finally get a vitamin D blood level and appropriate treatment of their vitamin D deficiency?  No, most will not.  I wish physicians acted on scientific studies but they do not, no matter how many people are dying.  Vitamin D scientists conducting such trials are in for a rude surprise.
No matter how good their studies, no matter how well designed or meticulously conducted, no matter how good the journal, practicing physicians will continue to ignore such studies.  Practicing physicians do what they learned in medical school, do what their colleagues do, and do what the drug company salespersons say.  Very few keep abreast of medical research, unless a drug company representative puts that research under their nose.

That's why I wrote about athletic performance.  If you think about it for a minute, you'll realize that falling is a failure of athletic performance.  Anything that improves athletic performance will reduce deaths from falls.

As far as athletic performance in younger people goes, I certainly got some interesting letters.  One guy from Tennessee agreed to list his phone number in case the press wanted to call or come by and watch him do chin-ups.

Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
I've been reading your newsletter for about a year and started taking 5,000 units a day this last fall.  I live in Minnesota and play a lot of basketball.  I play outside during the summer and inside in the winter.  I usually notice a winter slump, my friends have talked about it too.  You feel tired, like not being able to jump, like your muscles are dead.  This winter was different, I felt great all winter.  I didn't realize it might be the vitamin D.  I know what he means when he said the ball was "sweeter."  it feels that way now. 
 
Greg
Plymouth, Minnesota
 
Dr. Cannell:
 
I play tennis inside during the winter.  About January, I have always felt different; I couldn't get a jump on the ball or see it as well.  Since I've been on 2,000 mg of vitamin D, I've been getting to the ball much faster.  Now I feel like I do in the summer.  I didn't realize it could be the vitamin D, until your latest newsletter.  Thanks.  I don't know if I should tell my friends because then they'll are start taking vitamin D and I won't be able to beat them?
 
Maria
Portland, Oregon
 
Dear Maria:
 
I hope that 2,000 units not 2,000 mg.  2,000 mg would be 80 million units or 80,000 of the 1,000 IU tablets.  2,000 IU (.05 mg) per day is enough if you are a small woman and get some sunlight in the sunnier months.  Tell your friends, it might save their lives and that's a better feeling than beating them in tennis.
 
Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
I'm a weight lifter and most lifters know that you can lift more in the summer than the winter.  I never knew why until I saw all those old German and Russian studies.  No wonder the Germans and Russians used to do so well in the Olympics.  I started on vitamin D yesterday.  I found it in Costco for almost nothing.
 
Tom
Redding, California

Dear Dr. Cannell:
 
My name is Ed Jones and I have been nuts about doing chin ups for many years.  Three years ago when I really got interested in the Vitamin D story in regard to health, I found that I was very low in D, (12ng/ml)  I started supplementing and started to raise my level however it came slowly.  In April of 2005 I decided to try to break a record on chin ups and in front of several media people, I did 285 chin ups.  I quit doing chin ups after this because it was so difficult however I continued to work at achieving 50ng/ml on my blood work.  This January I finally got my D over 40ng/ml and started doing chin ups again.  I quickly found that chin ups now were easier than ever!  Last week, March 8, 2007, I completed 300 chin ups and it was almost easy!  I could not believe it.  I am training now to do 500 chin ups in the next three months and the only change in my supplements, diet, etc is increasing my D level.  I completely agree with the relationship of Vitamin D to strength and stamina.
 
Ed Jones
Chattanooga, Tennessee
423-892-4085




The Green Iguana Society

Lighting: Iguanas must have a source of UVA and UVB light! UVA stimulates natural behaviors by providing a component of natural sunlight. UVB is important to iguanas for another reason. Without it, their bodies cannot manufacture vitamin D3 or properly metabolize calcium. Iguanas that are deprived of proper UV lighting suffer from a disease called Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) which is unfortunately very common in captive iguanas. MBD causes weak bones, jaw and bone deformities and early death.

The absolute best source of UV light is the sun. Allowing your iguana to bask in the sun on a regular basis will provide it with large amounts of natural UV light. The general rule of thumb is - the more real sun your iguana has access to, the better. One thing to be aware of is that glass and plastic filter out the UV components of sunlight. It is for this reason that you cannot just set your iguana in front of a closed window in the sun. The window glass filters out most of the UV light, so your iguana will not benefit from such sunbathing in terms of vitamin D3 production (although he might enjoy this (in)activity immensely).

An additional source of UV light is special fluorescent UV bulbs available in pet stores that sell reptile supplies. Some people feel that if daily doses of real, unfiltered sunlight can be obtained on most days, then the use of artificial UV light bulbs in the iguana's enclosure is not necessary. However, The Green Iguana Society strongly recommends the use of artificial UV in addition to as much basking time in the sun as possible, to ensure that your iguana gets adequate amounts of UV. The effectiveness of real sunlight to stimulate iguanas to produce vitamin D3 varies with the time of year and latitude of your location. Therefore, the additional use of artificial UV lights acts as a safety net - especially in cool, cloudy and/or northern climates. See the Heating, Lighting and Humidity section for specific information on the proper use of UV bulbs in your iguana's enclosure.

from:  http://www.greenigsociety.org/habitatbasics.htm     

 
...What about captive humans?   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
« Last Edit: 30/03/2007 18:18:41 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #46 on: 31/03/2007 18:33:25 »
From Iceland, where most of the
wise cod liver oil people live....



Laufey Steingrímsdóttir, Ph.D.

Cod Liver OIl - How much is too much?

11. nóvember 2004

Ever since Dyerberg and Bang published their pioneering research on Greenlanders, fish oils and the possible health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been a subject of great interest to researchers as well as the general public. We in Iceland have followed these developments with particular interest. Icelanders have a tradition of considerable fish consumption, but more unique is the widespread use of cod liver oil among all age groups in Iceland. The lack of sunshine during the long winter months has made cod liver oil an important, even indispensable source of vitamin D for the population for centuries. However, even with the advent of vitamin preparations, cod liver oil has continued to be popular in Iceland, and still today over half the population takes cod liver oil regularly. The most common dosage is 10 to 15 ml per day, but some, especially older people, take quite a bit more.

Cod liver oil is a particularly rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, but many researchers have been hesitant to recommend its use, because of its high vitamin A and D content. Both of these fat soluble vitamins are known to be toxic if taken in large doses, but the margin for safety is considered even lower for vitamin D than for vitamin A. One tablespoon of cod liver oil contains approximately 37 mg (microgram) of vitamin D, which is well above the recommended intake of 5 to 10 mg a day.

In spite of high vitamin D intake, overt vitamin-D toxicity has never been reported in Iceland. Still, long term consumption of relatively large quantities of cod liver oil might have some adverse effects on the population. For this reason we decided to perform a small study on a group of 19 adult Icelanders who had taken more than one tablespoon of cod liver oil daily for the last 5 years or longer. Seventeen adults of same age and sex distribution who had not taken any vitamin D preparations during the previous year were chosen for control purposes. Serum vitamin D metabolites, 25(OH)D and 1,25(DH)2D were measured in all subjects, as well as serum calcium. All methods have previously been described.

The results were as follows: Consumers of cod liver oil had significantly higher levels of 25(DH) vitamin-D serum than did the control group, or 34,2ng/ml(+- 9,8 S.D.) compared with 18,0ng/ml(+-6,6 S.D.) amongst controls. All values in the cod liver oil group were in the high normal range, the highest value being 59ng/ml. In the control group most values were in the low normal range, but three individuals were below 10ng/ml, with the lowest value measured at 5 ng/ml. No significant difference was found in serum 1,25 (DH) 2vitamin-D or serum calcium between the groups, and all values measured within normal ranges.

This small study could not detect any indication for even small adverse effects of long term consumption of cod liver oil amongst Icelanders. In fact beneficial effects were observed, as three out of seventeen individuals from the control group showed lowered 25(DH)vitamin-D in serum, bordering on deficiency. We find it unlikely that consumption of cod liver oil can reach such levels as to cause toxicity among adults on Western diets, unless other preparations containing large amounts of vitamin D are taken simultaneously. Certainly more research needs to be done on this subject, but here in Iceland at least, we do not find any reason to warn the public against the hazards of cod liver oil, on the contrary, we continue to encourage its use for all age groups.

Laufey Steingrímsdóttir, Ph.D.
University of Iceland


http://www.lysi.is/lysi/is/newsdisplay_en/?cat_id=23099&ew_0_a_id=97163



Icelandic landscape



« Last Edit: 31/03/2007 18:46:30 by iko »
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #47 on: 31/03/2007 18:52:52 »
Nice picture IKO! Quite a view! I have never really seen pictures of Iceland!
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #48 on: 31/03/2007 20:37:56 »
Thanks Karen,

You get a larger pic if you click down there, do you know?
It's a free picture for you from an italian friendo! [8D]
LOL x LOL !!!
Do you remember our triple misunderstanding with Neil?  :D
By the way, where is our friendo Neilepus?

ikod
« Last Edit: 02/04/2007 22:31:51 by iko »
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #49 on: 03/04/2007 22:31:05 »
Curcumin is not alone as a natural
remedy against dreadful Plasmodia:
from 'cod' a little help for malaria too!

The suggestive potentiating effect of cod liver oil
on the efficacy of artesunate in Plasmodium berghei infected mice


O Awodele, MO Araoye,AI Oreagba, SO Kolawole, A Akintonwa.
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria.

The effects of cod liver oil on the potency of artesunate was determined using Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Fifty (50) adult albino mice weighing between 15-25g were used for this experiment. There were five groups of ten animals each per group. Groups I to IV were infected with plasmodium berghei and also received 0.9% normal saline (Group I), Artesunate (Group II), Cod liver oil (Group III) and Cod liver oil plus Artesunate (Group IV). Group V was not infected and was not treated. The parasitaemia level was monitored for eight days post inoculation of the parasites into the animals. The group IV animals that received the combination of both Artestunate and Cod liver oil demonstrated a better clearance of malaria parasite than Artesunate montherapy (Group II) with 48.7%, 90.3%, 98.9% and 99.2% suppression of parasiteamia from days 4 to 5, 5 to 6, 6 to 7 and 7 to 8 respectively.
These findings showed that the combination of Artesunate and Cod liver oil is more effective against plasmodium berghei infection than artesunate alone. This combination may thus be considered as a suitable and cost effective Artemisinin Combination Therapy.
 
Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: 74-78

from:   http://www.ajol.info/viewarticle.php?jid=67&id=29728&layout=abstract
 



« Last Edit: 05/04/2007 18:48:08 by iko »
 

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