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Author Topic: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?  (Read 309073 times)

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #50 on: 05/04/2007 18:46:54 »


Similar things were found
just about fifty years ago!

Antiparasitic action of dietary cod liver oil
upon Plasmodium berghei and its reversal by vitamin E.

GODFREY DG.

...article too old to get the abstract from PubMed...


Exp Parasitol. 1957 Nov;6(6):555-65.



« Last Edit: 07/04/2007 12:22:19 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #51 on: 02/05/2007 15:30:23 »
Another historical note from the
same 'vintage' paper from Zoey:



When efficacy of cod liver oil began to be widely recognized,
cases of adulteration and fraud contributed to controlling the enthusiasm.
We must keep in mind that vitamin D had not been discovered yet:


Quote
 ...
  In each country, the experience was the same:  Cod liver oil was used by the fishing people and peasantry; then accidentally observed by some physician, tried by him, and so made known generally to the profession.  At first, it was used in chronic rheumatism and gout; then, naturally enough, in other bone and joint diseases, notably rickets, and osteomalacia (which was considered closely allied to gout); then finally in other forms of tuberculosis.  It is interesting that its use in tuberculosis should have been by the way of rickets  and gout.
  It is interesting too, that despite the fact that it was so effective in rickets and despite the fact that this efficacy had beeen observed and carefully recorded by reputable and well-known medical writers, it should have fallen into such widespread disuse.  It is well recommended and reported as late as the middle of the nineteenth century; but late in that century and early in this one the textbooks of pharmacology all speak of cod liver oil as being useful in tuberculosis and rickets because, and only because, it is easily digested and easily assimilated fat (Potter, 1902; Stevens, 1903; Penzoldt, 1904; Hare, 1907; Cushny, 1911 and 1915; Sollmann, 1917).  At the same time appear numerous notes as to the detection, in samples then on the market, of adulteration or substitution of other oils, and also clinical reports both of success and of failure in its therapeutic use.   Heubner, Salge, Baginsky, Biedert and Fishl found it of no use in rickets.  Vierordt, Stoltzner and Finkelstein mantained a vigorous defense of it, although they emphasized the importance of combining it with phosphorous.   From 1908 to 1912, Schabad published the much-discussed matabolism experiments, which indicated a specific effect in rickets not produced by other oils.  He pointed out certain pitfalls in relation to latent period and dosage.   In 1910, Rosenstern(12) wrote: "Cod liver oil is in the forefront of children's remedies.  For long it has been struggling against the scepticism of exact science."  He reported cures in cases of early rickets and tetany with cod liver oil alone, and considered the effect specific.  Czerny,(13) in 1912, asserted most positiviely that its only effect was due to easily assimilated fat.  No definite reports of its failure in actual use appeared in the literature in this country or in England.  However, pharmacologists and chemists were convincedthat its action was in no way specific, and certain noted pediatricians, whose influence was widespread, taught that it was of no particular value.  In the 1901 edition of Rotch's(14)"Pediatrics" he says:

  The treatment of rachitis is essentially dietetic and hygienic.  The infants should be kept in the open air as much as possible, and should live in rooms accessible to sunlight.  There does not seem to be any drug which produces specific effect upon the osseous chnages which take place in rachitis.  Phosphorus is considered by some observers to be a valuable adjunct in the general dietetic and hygienic treatment, but, according to our experience at the Children's Hospital, it has not proved to be of any special benefit.

    He makes no mention of cod liver oil.
    Still,(15) in his textbook, in 1912, notes the use of cod liver oil and give the dosage, and adds:

    There seems to be no specific virtue in cod liver oil, any other oil will do equally well, provided it can be taken without disturbing digestion or causing nausea by its taste.  At one time we used, at the Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street, olive oil and pilchard oil and cotton seed oil, made into as palatable an emulsion as possible, and these seemed to be as useful as cod liver oil, except that they were more apt to cause nausea or digestive disturbance.

    Henoch, 1882;(16) Meiggs and Pepper, 1886;(17) Starr, 1894;(18) Holt, 1896;(19) Kerley, 1907,(21) in their general textbooks, advised the use of cod liver oil, and many physicians were impressed with its obvious benefit in rickets and continued its use.  Recently, well controlled experiments both in the rat and in the human infant have demonstrated beyond criticism the efficacy of cod liver oil in the cure and prevention of rickets, and attention may now be directed to the mechanism which brings about this effect.



from:  "The history of cod liver oil as a remedy"
          Ruth A. Guy  M.D.
          Dept. of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine
          Am. J. of diseases of children    26; 112-116, 1923.
« Last Edit: 13/06/2007 23:24:22 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #52 on: 03/05/2007 23:48:30 »
...from 1923 to 2007, a jump into the new century millennium!


CodPics...

Vitamin D3





An estimate of cancer mortality rate reductions in Europe and the US
with 1,000 IU of oral vitamin D per day.

Grant WB, Garland CF, Gorham ED.
Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center, San Francisco, CA 94109-2510, USA.

Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance and/or vitamin D have been found inversely correlated with incidence, mortality, and/or survival rates for breast, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancer and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Evidence is emerging that more than 17 different types of cancer are likely to be vitamin D-sensitive. A recent meta-analysis concluded that 1,000 IU of oral vitamin D per day is associated with a 50% reduction in colorectal cancer incidence. Using this value, as well as the findings in a multifactorial ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in the US, estimates for reductions in risk of vitamin D-sensitive cancer mortality rates were made for 1,000 IU/day. These estimates, along with annual average serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, were used to estimate the reduction in cancer mortality rates in several Western European and North American countries that would result from intake of 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D. It was estimated that reductions could be 7% for males and 9% for females in the US and 14% for males and 20% for females in Western European countries below 59 degrees. It is proposed that increased fortification of food and increased availability of supplements could help increase vitamin D intake and could augment small increases in production of vitamin D from solar UVB irradiance. Providing 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day for all adult Americans would cost about $1 billion; the expected benefits for cancer would be in the range of $16-25 billion in addition to other health benefits of vitamin D.

Recent Results Cancer Res. 2007;174:225-34.




« Last Edit: 06/05/2007 10:57:27 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #53 on: 05/05/2007 15:45:47 »
Just found a recent report from Hungary about UV-B sunlight in seasons:

[Vitamin D forming effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight
 in different months in Budapest, Hungary]
   [Article in Hungarian]


Bakos J, Miko P.
Fodor Jozsef Orszagos Kozegeszsegugyi Kozpont, Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszsegugyi Kutato Intezete, Budapest. bakos@hp.osski.hu

INTRODUCTION: The vitamin D3 formation in skin is the most important natural source of vitamin D demands of humans. The key step of the phototransformation of provitamin D into previtamin D from which the vitamin D3 is formed by thermal conversion. According to studies run at the latitudes of Hungary the UV-B radiation in winter time is not satisfactory to ensure the need of the vitamin D, which can result in vitamin D 3 deficiency and increases risk of osteoporosis.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to verify whether in the Hungarian population the UV radiation from the Sun ensures the daily synthesis of 1000 IU vitamin D3, or Vitamin D deficiency could occur in the winter and spring months which are less favourable in terms of UV exposure.
METHODS: The data of UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface were used for the evaluation. These data based on regular measurements in Budapest. According to the average of UV-B radiation of each months the "best case scenario" of vitamin D3 production was estimated by using the most optimal conditions of vitamin D synthesis.
RESULTS: It was calculated, that the effective UV irradiance reaching the Earth's surface at noon in Budapest is the highest in July, while the lowest is in December. The difference between these two months is more than 35-fold for July. In the period between November and March more than 200 minutes have to be spent outdoor to ensure the production of satisfactory amount of vitamin D in skin. From one hand it is irrealisticaly long time because it exceeds the duration of maximum irradiation around noon which was the basis of our calculation. From the other hand if only the face and hands are uncovered then the required radiant exposure exceeds the 1 minimal erythemal dose, i.e. the skin should be burnt.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our calculations it was found, that in Budapest more than 95% of yearly effective UV-B radiation is measurable in the period between March and October. Therefore it can be assumed that the UV-B radiation would not be sufficient in the period between November and February even if its efficacy would not be limited by the closed clothing and less time spent outdoor which are anyway characteristic and necessary in that part of year.

Orv Hetil. 2007 Feb 18;148(7):319-25.




Every year, after the Ratha-yatra in Budapest, Lord Jagganatha visits New Vraja-dham, reaches Vrindavana. Here devotees eagerly welcomes Him and have a half day program. Here are a few pictures about the festival:
Smiling faces, wonderful colours!   http://manorama.1108.cc/?cat=8


« Last Edit: 16/08/2007 22:24:23 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #54 on: 08/05/2007 16:22:02 »
"Fishy news" from Norway:
Fish oils EPA & DHA (not Vitamin A & D!)
are better absorbed in the natural way.


Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils.

Elvevoll EO, Barstad H, Breimo ES, Brox J, Eilertsen KE, Lund T, Olsen JO, Osterud B.
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Department of Marine Biotechnology, University of Tromso, Norway. edel.elvevoll@nfh.uit.no

This work was undertaken to study the impact of the source of n-3 FA(Fat Acids) on their incorporation in serum, on blood lipid composition, and on cellular activation. A clinical trial comprising 71 volunteers, divided into five groups, was performed. Three groups were given 400 g smoked salmon (n = 14), cooked salmon (n = 15), or cooked cod (n = 13) per week for 8 wk. A fourth group was given 15 mL/d of cod liver oil (CLO) (n = 15), and a fifth group served as control (n = 14) without supplementation. The serum content of EPA and DHA before and after intervention revealed a higher rise in EPA and DHA in the cooked salmon group (129% rise in EPA and 45% rise in DHA) as compared with CLO (106 and 25%, respectively) despite an intake of EPA and DHA in the CLO group of 3.0 g/d compared with 1.2 g/d in the cooked salmon group. No significant changes were observed in blood lipids, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in whole blood. EPA and DHA were negatively correlated with LPS-induced TNFalpha, IL-8, LTB4, TxB2, and TF in whole blood. In conclusion, fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil. Since the n-3 FA are predominantly in TAG in fish as well as CLO, it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids.

Lipids. 2006 Dec;41(12):1109-14.



« Last Edit: 11/05/2007 18:45:54 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #55 on: 22/05/2007 17:33:02 »

Golf Enthusiast (urging the merits of the game).
 "—and, besides, it's so good for you."

Unbeliever. "So is cod-liver oil."



http://www.classicistranieri.com/punch/1/6/2/8/16281/16281-h/16281-h.htm   
« Last Edit: 22/05/2007 17:58:34 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #56 on: 22/05/2007 17:44:53 »
THE OLD AMERICAN RECIPE


King's American Dispensatory

by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D, 1898.

Oleum Morrhuae (U. S. P.)—Cod-Liver Oil.


Preparation.
—The principal process by which the oil is now prepared is to remove blood and impurities from the carefully sorted livers by repeated washings; then the gall-bladder is removed and the livers, as soon as practicable, are put into iron kettles and subjected to steam heat with constant stirring. The oil separates from the liver tissue, and, after decantation and filtration through a funnel, is drawn off into barrels. In the Newfoundland fisheries, the oil obtained by steam heat is exposed to intense cold until it is partly solidified; the mass is then put into bags and subjected to strong pressure. In this manner the American shore oil is obtained. The residual stearin is sold to soap-makers.

Description.
—Three kinds of cod-liver oil are usually met with in commerce: The white or pale-yellow, which is obtained from fresh and perfectly healthy livers (shore oil). It is the official oil and is described by the U. S. P. as "a pale-yellow, thin, oily liquid, having a peculiar, slightly fishy, but not rancid odor, and a bland, slightly fishy taste. Specific gravity, 0.920 to 0.925 at 15° C. (59° F.). Scarcely soluble in alcohol, but readily soluble in ether, chloroform, or carbon disulphide; also in 2.5 parts of acetic ether"—(U. S. P.). The second form is pale-brown, or brownish-yellow (straits oil); less care is exercised in the selection of the livers and the preparation of the oil. The third kind is dark-brown (banks oil), and is an inferior grade, being derived from putrefied livers; its odor is disagreeable, its taste acrid and bitter; and it has an acid reaction. The best grade is universally preferred in the United States.

Adulterations and Tests.
—Cod-liver oil is subjected to adulterations in several ways. One method is to bleach an inferior, dark oil, it is stated, by exposure to the rays of the sun. The addition of mineral oils can be recognized by saponification which leaves the adulterant unaffected. An oil that has undergone partial putrefaction may be judged by the quantity of free volatile acids in the oil. Such oils also absorb much less iodine than fresh cod-liver oil. Refined seal oil and seed oils are also used as adulterants of cod-liver oil. (For a more detailed consideration of this phase of the subject, see special works on analysis, e.g., A. H. Allen, Commercial Organic Analysis, Vol. II, Part I, 3d ed., 1899, p. 197.) The U. S. P. gives the following tests for the purity of cod-liver oil: "If 1 drop of the oil be dissolved in 20 drops of chloroform, and the solution shaken with 1 drop of sulphuric acid, the solution will acquire a violet-red tint, rapidly changing to rose-red and brownish-yellow. If a glass rod, moistened with sulphuric acid, be drawn through a few drops of the oil, on a porcelain plate, a violet color will be produced. Cod-liver oil should be only very slightly acid to litmus paper previously moistened with alcohol (limit of free fatty acids). When the oil is allowed to stand for some time at 0° C. (32° F.), very little or no solid fat should separate (absence of other fish oils, and of many vegetable oils). If 2 or 3 drops of fuming nitric acid be allowed to flow alongside of 10 or 15 drops of the oil, contained in a watch-glass, a red color will be produced at the point of contact. On stirring the mixture with a glass rod, this color becomes bright rose-red, soon changing to lemon-yellow (distinction from seal oil, which shows at first no change of color, and from other fish oils, which become at first blue, and afterward brown and yellow"—(U. S. P.). The presence of seal oil may also be detected by means of Amagat and Jean's oleo refractometer (see Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1898, p. 888).

from:   http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/gadus_oleu.html 





Quote



August 1998: The Portuguese tall ship CREOULA returns to St. John's harbour. 
The CREOULA, a Portuguese Navy training vessel, sailed from Lisbon (Lisboa) to St. John's to commemorate Portugal's cod fishery heritage.
The Creoula made 37 voyages to the Grand Banks. The Last was in 1973.
The Creoula could carry about 12,800 quintals of "Green Cod" (about 800 tonnes) together with about 60 tonnes of cod liver oil. PHOTO BY H. PINSENT 1998.

from "Terra Nova Greens":   http://www.infonet.st-johns.nf.ca/green/historicvessels.html

« Last Edit: 23/05/2007 11:44:41 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #57 on: 04/06/2007 11:08:47 »
Outdoor activities and diet in childhood and adolescence
 relate to MS risk above the Arctic Circle.

Kampman MT, Wilsgaard T, Mellgren SI.
Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital of North Norway, P.O. Box 33, 9038, Tromsø, Norway.

BACKGROUND : A relationship between the latitude-related distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) and exposure to sunlight has long been considered. Higher sun exposure during early life has been associated with decreased risk of MS.
OBJECTIVE : Since Norway is an exception to the latitude gradient of MS prevalence, we tested here whether sunlight exposure or vitamin D-related dietary factors in childhood and adolescence are associated with the risk of MS.
METHODS : Retrospective recall questionnaire data from 152 MS patients and 402 population controls born at and living at latitudes 66-71 degrees N were analysed by means of conditional logistic regression analysis accounting for the matching variables age, sex, and place of birth.
RESULTS : Increased outdoor activities during summer in early life were associated with a decreased risk of MS, most pronounced at ages 16-20 years (odds ratio (OR) 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.78, p = 0.001, adjusted for intake of fish and cod-liver oil).

A protective effect of supplementation with cod-liver oil was suggested in the subgroup that reported low summer outdoor activities (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.31-1.05, p = 0.072).

Consumption of fish three or more times a week was also associated with reduced risk of MS (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.93, p = 0.024).
CONCLUSION : Summer outdoor activities in childhood and adolescence are associated with a reduced risk of MS even north of the Arctic Circle. Supplemental cod-liver oil may be protective when sun exposure is less, suggesting that both climate and diet may interact to influence MS risk at a population level.

J Neurol. 2007 Apr;254(4):471-7. Epub 2007 Mar 21.



« Last Edit: 04/06/2007 14:29:35 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #58 on: 09/06/2007 19:08:08 »
"Fishy news" from Norway:
Fish oils EPA & DHA (not Vitamin A & D!)
are better absorbed in the natural way.


Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils.

Elvevoll EO, Barstad H, Breimo ES, Brox J, Eilertsen KE, Lund T, Olsen JO, Osterud B.
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Department of Marine Biotechnology, University of Tromso, Norway. edel.elvevoll@nfh.uit.no

This work was undertaken to study the impact of the source of n-3 FA(Fat Acids) on their incorporation in serum, on blood lipid composition, and on cellular activation. A clinical trial comprising 71 volunteers, divided into five groups, was performed. Three groups were given 400 g smoked salmon (n = 14), cooked salmon (n = 15), or cooked cod (n = 13) per week for 8 wk. A fourth group was given 15 mL/d of cod liver oil (CLO) (n = 15), and a fifth group served as control (n = 14) without supplementation. The serum content of EPA and DHA before and after intervention revealed a higher rise in EPA and DHA in the cooked salmon group (129% rise in EPA and 45% rise in DHA) as compared with CLO (106 and 25%, respectively) despite an intake of EPA and DHA in the CLO group of 3.0 g/d compared with 1.2 g/d in the cooked salmon group. No significant changes were observed in blood lipids, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in whole blood. EPA and DHA were negatively correlated with LPS-induced TNFalpha, IL-8, LTB4, TxB2, and TF in whole blood. In conclusion, fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil. Since the n-3 FA are predominantly in TAG in fish as well as CLO, it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids.

Lipids. 2006 Dec;41(12):1109-14.




Is that the northern lights again IKO?? It is so beautiful.. I wish to see those one day!!!
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #59 on: 09/06/2007 20:08:55 »
Yes Karen,

those "aurorae borealis" are just
astonishingly beautiful: I never
saw one, of course, but I think
that some perfect pics might even
be better than the original image!

We should go to Scandinavia next September and have a gander...



Aurora (astronomy)



An aurora (plural aurorae/auroras) is an electro-static phenomenon, characterised by a bright glow and caused due to the collision of charged particles in the magnetosphere with atoms in the Earth's upper atmosphere. An aurora is usually observed in the night sky, particularly in the polar zone. For this latter reason, some scientists call it a "polar aurora" (or "aurora polaris").
In northern latitudes, it is known as the aurora borealis (IPA /ɔˈɹɔɹə bɔɹiˈælɪs/), which is named after the Roman goddess of the dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for north wind, Boreas. Especially in Europe, it often appears as a reddish glow on the northern horizon, as if the sun were rising from an unusual direction. The aurora borealis is also called the northern lights since it is only visible in the North sky from the Northern Hemisphere. The aurora borealis most often occurs from September to October and from March to April. Its southern counterpart, aurora australis, has similar properties. Australis is the Latin word for "of the South".

more From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora_%28astronomy%29
« Last Edit: 09/06/2007 20:14:43 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #60 on: 09/06/2007 21:14:44 »
In my Dreams Iko.. Wouldn't that be fun...LOL..I cannot even imagine how beautiful they would be! I know little about them other then they are beautiful. Sorry I am really geographically challenged, so pardon me asking, is Scandinavia where one should go to see these beautiful lights?

You better be careful I might take you up on that! LOL
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #61 on: 09/06/2007 21:41:58 »
In the polar zone of Scandinavia, the northern, the better...
Sweden, Norway: the first picture is actually from Thromso, Norway, home country for the cod liver oil fanatics!
Take care

ikod  [^]

« Last Edit: 09/06/2007 21:44:45 by iko »
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #62 on: 09/06/2007 23:34:15 »
Drive north 1000 miles or more probably.. then fly or take a plane from there! LOL...
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #63 on: 10/06/2007 16:30:50 »
Thanks Karen,

You get a larger pic if you click down there, do you know?
It's a free picture for you from an italian friendo! [8D]
LOL x LOL !!!
Do you remember our triple misunderstanding with Neil?  :D
By the way, where is our friendo Neilepus?

ikod

I think he has been really busy... Forum is awful slow without him! I guess that's the way it goes..

I did not know about the picture I will click and see it..

Our triple misunderstanding are you referring to the first time you said, I am your friend.. LOL I remember that I was embarrassed! LOL

BTW i also posted in the a#z to try to get it going again ..LOL You did Good Iko! LOL

I will look at the picture and print it for me self! Thanks Iko!
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #64 on: 10/06/2007 16:48:55 »
I am sorry I missed this post a long time ago.. but realize the questions could remain valid today...
Are we all thats left????
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #65 on: 13/06/2007 22:38:10 »
More recent hints on vitamin D and TB protection.
Special antimicrobial peptides called "defensins"
are synthesized thanks to the hormone vitamin D:


IFN-gamma- and TNF-independent vitamin D-inducible
human suppression of mycobacteria: the role of cathelicidin LL-37.

Martineau AR, Wilkinson KA, Newton SM, Floto RA, Norman AW, Skolimowska K, Davidson RN, Sørensen OE, Kampmann B, Griffiths CJ, Wilkinson RJ.
Wellcome Trust Center for Research in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Medicine, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, and its biologically active metabolite, 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)), has pleiotropic immune effects. The mechanisms by which 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) protects against tuberculosis are incompletely understood. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced the growth of mycobacteria in infected human PBMC cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. Coculture with agonists or antagonists of the membrane or nuclear vitamin D receptors indicated that these effects were primarily mediated by the nuclear vitamin D receptors. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced transcription and secretion of protective IFN-gamma, IL-12p40, and TNF in infected PBMC and macrophages, indicating that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) does not mediate protection via these cytokines. Although NOS2A was up-regulated by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), inhibition of NO formation marginally affected the suppressive effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on bacillus Calmette Guérin in infected cells. By contrast, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) strongly up-regulated the cathelicidin hCAP-18 gene, and some hCAP-18 polypeptide colocalized with CD14 in 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulated PBMC, although no detectable LL-37 peptide was found in supernatants from similar 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated PBMC cultures. A total of 200 mug/ml of the active peptide LL-37, in turn, reduced the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture by 75.7%.
These findings suggest that vitamin D contributes to protection against TB by "nonclassical" mechanisms that include the induction of antimicrobial peptides.

J Immunol. 2007 Jun 1;178(11):7190-8.



« Last Edit: 13/06/2007 22:56:35 by iko »
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #66 on: 14/06/2007 22:43:46 »
Isn't there a certain amount of vitamine D we can get from the sunshine.. and isn't it rickets that can be improved with the sun because of the vitamine " D!"
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #67 on: 15/06/2007 10:44:13 »
Isn't there a certain amount of vitamine D we can get from the sunshine.. and isn't it rickets that can be improved with the sun because of the vitamine " D!"

You are certainly right.  Cod liver oil helps with vitamin A and D plus 'therapic' fatty acids like omega-3 so good for brain and things.  Human skin exposed to sunlight is able to make vitamin D3 in a variable fashion, depending on subcutaneous tissues, age, pigmentation and other factors...

CodPics...

Vitamin D3





« Last Edit: 15/06/2007 10:50:46 by iko »
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #68 on: 15/06/2007 19:01:21 »
Thanks Iko..What else is a good source of A!hi
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #69 on: 23/06/2007 18:34:52 »


The photobiology of vitamin D--a topic of renewed focus.  [Article in Norwegian]

Moan J, Porojnicu AC.Avdeling for strålingsbiologi, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet, 0310 Oslo. johan.moan@labmed.uio.no

The sun is our most important source of vitamin D. Exposure to solaria, in sub-erythemogenic doses, also gives large amounts of this vitamin. The ultraviolet radiation in these sources converts 7-dihydrocholesterol to previtamin D3 in the skin. Furthermore, heat isomerization to vitamin D3 takes place, then transport to the liver and hydroxylation to calcidiol, which is transported to the kidneys and hydroxylated to the active hormone calcitriol. The vitamin D3 status of the body is supposed to be reliably imaged by calcidiol measurements. Calcidiol levels above 12.5 nmol/l prevent rickets and osteomalacia, but optimal levels are probably higher, in the range 100-250 nmol/l. A daily food intake of 100-200 microg vitamin D3 (50-100 g cod-liver oil), or a weekly exposure to two minimal erythemal doses of ultraviolet radiation (20 to 40 minutes whole body exposure to midday midsummer sun in Oslo, Norway), will give this level.
An adequate supply of vitamin D3 seems to reduce the incidence rates or improve the prognosis of several cancer forms, including prostate, breast and colon cancer, as well as of lymphomas.
Several other diseases are related to a low vitamin D3 status: heart diseases, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and arthritis. The action mechanisms of vitamin D are thought to be mainly related to its known cell-differentiating and immuno-modulating effects. Even though most of the 250 annual death cases from skin cancer in Norway are caused by sun exposure, we should, in view of the health effects of ultraviolet radiation, consider modifying our restrictive attitude towards sun exposure and use of solaria.

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006 Apr 6;126(8):1048-52.



« Last Edit: 23/06/2007 18:38:47 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #70 on: 23/06/2007 22:49:01 »
Crossing MS and vitamin D on PubMed Database
you find plenty of studies and experimental
data suggesting a positive effect in such a
chronic, long-lasting and highly debilitating
disease like multiple sclerosis.
Strangely enough, I could not find any clinical
study with vitamin D3 GIVEN to the patients...
I might have missed some report or trial, maybe.
It would not cost much, compared with all the
various expensive new drugs being tested on MS!
We seem to be quite late, approximately 2-3
decades behind with this.


A longitudinal study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact PTH levels
indicate the importance of vitamin D and calcium homeostasis regulation in multiple sclerosis.

Soilu-Hanninen M, Laaksonen M, Laitinen I, Eralinna JP, Lilius EM, Mononen I.
University of Turku, Finland.

BACKGROUND: Past sun exposure and vitamin D3 supplementation have been associated with a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). There are no previous longitudinal studies of vitamin D in MS.
OBJECTIVES: To compare regulation of vitamin D and calcium homeostasis between MS patients and healthy controls. To study correlation of parameters of vitamin D metabolism with MS activity.
METHODS: We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, chloride, alkaline phosphatase, albumin and TSH in serum every three months and at the time of relapses during one year in 23 MS patients and in 23 healthy controls. MRI BOD and T2 activity was assessed every 6 months.
RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency [S-25(OH)D </= 37 nmol/L] was common affecting half of the patients and controls at some time of the year. Seasonal variation of 25(OH)D was similar in the patients and in the controls, but the 25(OH)D serum levels were lower and the iPTH serum levels were higher during MS relapses than in remission.
All 21 relapses during the study occurred at serum iPTH > 20 ng/L (2.2 pmol/L)
, whereas 38% of patients in remission had iPTH </= 20 ng/L. MS patients had a relative hypocalcaemia and a blunted PTH response in the winter. There was no correlation between serum 25(OH)D and MRI parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: The endocrine circuitry regulating serum calcium may be altered in MS. There is an inverse relationship between serum vitamin D level and MS clinical activity. The role of vitamin D in MS must be explored further.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 19; [Epub ahead of print]



Maybe something is actually 'moving' !

http://www.msrc.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseaction=show&pageid=96


« Last Edit: 07/07/2007 10:58:37 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #71 on: 25/06/2007 14:06:44 »
Link to Multiple Sclerosis Resource Center:

Vitamin D
Below is the latest Research into Vitamin D and MS available.
...





« Last Edit: 25/06/2007 14:20:43 by iko »
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #72 on: 02/07/2007 05:21:50 »
I like Escher! He has some really cool images!
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #73 on: 02/07/2007 23:15:23 »
Quote from: ROBERT
See what too much cod liver oil can do  :)

 


LOL Well I have not seen that piccy for a long while ! LOL! Good Day Iko!
 

Offline iko

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #74 on: 21/07/2007 12:57:53 »
The "Vitamin D Tsunami" is definitely coming,
spinning out of the restricted scientific circuit.
Finally prof. Michael Holick is in the New England
Journal of Medicine...
and -as usual- lay press will follow pretty soon!



"...rickets can be considered the tip of the vitamin D-deficiency iceberg.  In fact, vitamin D deficiency remains common in children and adults."

Michael F. Holick "Vitamin D Deficiency" N Eng J Med 2007;357:266-81.

July 19, 2007 splendid review article in 'Medical Progress'
Unfortunately this one is not available in free full-text...you may go to last year paper published in J Clin Invest for similar refreshing good news:





As far as this topic is concerned, one thing should be noticed: the 'Shanghai Report' is not mentioned, probably because of its unconfirmed data and weak evidence. But decreased lymphoma incidence (40% reduced risk) due to proper sunlight exposure is reported, and a specific reference quoted:




Family history of hematopoietic malignancy and risk of lymphoma.

Chang ET, Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Porwit-MacDonald A, Roos G, Glimelius B, Adami HO.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. ellen.chang@meb.ki.se

BACKGROUND: A family history of hematopoietic malignancy is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), although the magnitude of the relative risk is unclear. We estimated the association between familial hematopoietic cancer and risk of lymphoma using validated, registry-based family data, and we also investigated whether associations between some environmental exposures and risk of lymphoma vary between individuals with and without such a family history. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study of malignant lymphoma, 1506 case patients and 1229 control subjects were linked to the Swedish Multi-Generation Register and then to the Swedish Cancer Register to ascertain history of cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with malignant lymphoma. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with the risk of lymphoma.
RESULTS: A history of hematopoietic malignancy in any first-degree relative was associated with an increased risk of all NHL (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.5), common B-cell NHL subtypes, and HL. Relative risks were generally stronger in association with sibling hematopoietic cancer (OR for all NHL = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.3 to 7.6) than with parental hematopoietic cancer (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.3). A family history of NHL or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was associated with an increased risk of several NHL subtypes and HL, whereas familial multiple myeloma was associated with a higher risk of follicular lymphoma. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in NHL risk associations with environmental factors between individuals with and without familial hematopoietic malignancy.

CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of NHL and HL among individuals with a family history of hematopoietic malignancy was approximately twofold for both lymphoma types. There was no evidence that etiologic associations varied between familial NHL and nonfamilial NHL.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Oct 5;97(19):1466-74.







Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas.

Smedby KE, Hjalgrim H, Melbye M, Torrång A, Rostgaard K, Munksgaard L, Adami J, Hansen M, Porwit-MacDonald A, Jensen BA, Roos G, Pedersen BB, Sundström C, Glimelius B, Adami HO.
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Box 281, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. karin.ekstrom@meb.ki.se

BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant lymphomas has been increasing rapidly, but the causes of these malignancies remain poorly understood. One hypothesis holds that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases lymphoma risk. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden.
METHODS: A total of 3740 patients diagnosed between October 1, 1999, and August 30, 2002, with incident malignant lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3187 population controls provided detailed information on history of UV exposure and skin cancer and information on other possible risk factors for lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed consistent, statistically significant negative associations between various measures of UV light exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A high frequency of sun bathing and sunburns at age 20 years and 5-10 years before the interview and sun vacations abroad were associated with 30%-40% reduced risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (e.g., for sunbathing four times a week or more at age 20 versus never sunbathing, OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.9; for two or more sunburns a year at age 20 versus no sunburns, OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.8). These inverse associations increased in strength with increasing levels of exposure (all P(trend)< or =.01). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed for Hodgkin lymphoma. There were no clear differences among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, although associations were stronger for B-cell than for T-cell lymphomas. A history of skin cancer was associated with a doubling in risks of both non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma.

CONCLUSIONS: A history of high UV exposure was associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The positive association between skin cancer and malignant lymphomas is, therefore, unlikely to be mediated by UV exposure.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Feb 2;97(3):199-209.



« Last Edit: 21/07/2007 14:20:45 by iko »
 

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Re: Is Cod Liver Oil actually good for us?
« Reply #74 on: 21/07/2007 12:57:53 »

 

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