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Author Topic: A-Z of AVIONICS  (Read 449560 times)

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:24:35 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #326 on: 23/12/2006 21:29:30 »
Dawkins,Richard = Author of, The Selfish Gene; The Extended Phenotype; The Blind Watchmaker;  River Out Of Eden; and Cimbing Mount Improbable.
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #327 on: 25/12/2006 17:45:57 »
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
IL-10 signaling is essential for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated inhibition
 of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.


Spach KM, Nashold FE, Dittel BN, Hayes CE.
Dept.Nutr.Sciences, College Agricultural & Life Sciences, Univ.Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) results from an aberrant, neuroantigen-specific, T cell-mediated autoimmune response. Because MS prevalence and severity decrease sharply with increasing sunlight exposure, and sunlight supports vitamin D(3) synthesis, we proposed that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) may protect against MS.
In support of this hypothesis, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This inhibition required lymphocytes other than the encephalitogenic T cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) might inhibit EAE through the action of IL-10-producing regulatory lymphocytes. We report that vitamin D(3) and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) strongly inhibited myelin oligodendrocyte peptide (MOG(35-55))-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice, but completely failed to inhibit EAE in mice with a disrupted IL-10 or IL-10R gene.
Thus, a functional IL-10-IL-10R pathway was essential for 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) to inhibit EAE. The 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) also failed to inhibit EAE in reciprocal, mixed bone marrow chimeras constructed by transferring IL-10-deficient bone marrow into irradiated wild-type mice and vice versa. Thus, 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may be enhancing an anti-inflammatory loop involving hemopoietic cell-produced IL-10 acting on brain parenchymal cells and vice versa.
If this interpretation is correct, and humans have a similar bidirectional IL-10-dependent loop, then an IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could abrogate the anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective functions of sunlight and vitamin D(3). In this way, a genetic IL-10-IL-10R pathway defect could interact with an environmental risk factor, vitamin D(3) insufficiency, to increase MS risk and severity.

J Immunol. 2006 Nov 1;177(9):6030-7.



« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:25:15 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #328 on: 26/12/2006 04:44:34 »
 Faraday Michael, FRS (September 22, 1791 August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.

Some historians of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology. The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that a magnetic field changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force.

He held the post of Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.




 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #329 on: 26/12/2006 05:06:50 »
Gluons-The quanta of color charge that binds the quarks into nucleons.
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #330 on: 26/12/2006 11:58:44 »
Heinrich Hertz      (1857-1894)




In 1888, Heinrich Hertz built an apparatus that could transmit and receive electromagnetic waves of about 5 meters in length. He used a coil to generate a high voltage spark between two electrodes which served as a transmitter. The detector was a loop of wire with a small gap.
A spark at the transmitter produces electromagnetic waves that travel to the detector, producing a spark in the gap.  He showed that the waves were polarized, and that they could interfere with each other, just as predicted by theory.

from:  National Radio Astronomy Observatory
       http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/hist_prehist.shtml



« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:26:02 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #331 on: 26/12/2006 22:27:39 »
Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 15 September 1859) (IPA: [ˈɪzəmbɑ(ɹ)d ˈkɪŋdəm brʊˈnɛl]), was an English engineer. He is best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges.

Though Brunel's projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. During his short career, Brunel achieved many engineering "firsts", including assisting in the building of the first tunnel under a navigable river and development of the first propeller-driven ocean-going iron ship, which was at the time also the largest ship ever built.[1]

Brunel suffered several years of ill health, with kidney problems, before succumbing to a stroke at the age of 53. Brunel was said to smoke up to 40 cigars a day, and get by on only four hours of sleep a night.

In 2006, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work on the bicentenary of his birth under the name Brunel 200.[2]





The Clifton Suspension
Bridge spans the Avon Gorge,
 linking Clifton in Bristol
to Leigh Woods in North Somerset.





The Maidenhead Railway
 Bridge, at the time the
 largest span for a brick
 arch bridge.



The Royal Albert
Bridge, seen from
Saltash railway station.







« Last Edit: 26/12/2006 22:30:39 by neilep »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #332 on: 27/12/2006 04:54:08 »
Julian Day: A count of the days, starting from 12 noon on Jan. 1rst 4713 BC. Julian days are used by variable star observers, and for the reckonings of phenomena which extend over very long periods of time.
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #333 on: 27/12/2006 14:53:05 »
Kernicterus




Jaundice

About 60% of newborn infants in the United States are jaundiced, that is they look yellow. Jaundice is the yellow coloring of the skin and other tissues. Jaundice can often be seen well in the sclera, the "whites" of the eyes, which look yellow. Many many babies look jaundiced (60%), but they are not deeply jaundiced, not jaundiced below the abdomen, and they act OK - they nurse, they aren't too sleepy, they have normal muscle tone, their cry is normal, they don't arch their backs.

Kernicterus

Kernicterus is a form of brain damage caused by excessive jaundice. The substance which causes jaundice, bilirubin, is so high that it can move out of the blood into brain tissue. When babies begin to be affected by excessive jaundice, when they begin to have brain damage, they become excessively lethargic. They are too sleepy, and they are difficult to arouse - either they don't wake up from sleep easily like a normal baby, or they don't wake up fully, or they can't be kept awake. They have a high-pitched cry, and decreased muscle tone, becoming hypotonic or floppy) with episodes of increased muscle tone (hypertonic) and arching of the head and back backwards. As the damage continues, they may develop fever, may arch their heads back into a very contorted position known as opisthotonus or retrocollis.

from:   http://www.kernicterus.org/



Phototherapy is routinely used
to treat moderate hyperbilirubinemia

Emergency treatment to lower bilirubin
and prevent kernicterus and its sequelae
in very severe cases of newborn jaundice
is a simple transfusion procedure called
blood-exchange or exchange transfusion.

ikod



« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:26:32 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #334 on: 27/12/2006 19:43:01 »
 Lovell , Sir Alfred Charles Bernard         OBE PhD FRS (born 31 August 1913, Oldland Common, Bristol) is a British physicist and radio astronomer. He was the first Director of Jodrell Bank Observatory, from 1945 to 1980.


Born in Oldland Common, Bristol, he studied physics at the University of Bristol, obtaining a Ph.D. in 1936. He worked in the cosmic ray research team at the University of Manchester until the outbreak of World War II, during which he worked for the TRE developing radar systems to be installed in aircraft, for which he received an OBE in 1946.

He attempted to continue cosmic ray work with an ex-military radar unit and following interference from trams on Manchester's Oxford Road moved to Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Goostrey in Cheshire, an outpost of the university's botany department. He was able to show that radar echoes could be obtained from daytime meteor showers. With university funding he constructed the then-largest steerable radio telescope in the world, which now bears his name - the Lovell Telescope. Nearly 50 years later, it remains one of the foremost radio telescopes in the world.

He was knighted in 1961 for his important contributions to the development of radio astronomy, and has a secondary school named after him in his home village of Oldland Common Bristol.[1] A building on the QinetiQ site in Malvern is also named after him.




 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #335 on: 28/12/2006 09:23:44 »
Meiosis = The type of cell division that creates reproductive cells, in which genetic material is shuffled by recombination.
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #336 on: 28/12/2006 19:32:10 »
Narcolepsy is a neurological condition most characterized by Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), episodes of sleep and disorder of REM or rapid eye movement sleep. It is a type of dyssomnia.
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #337 on: 28/12/2006 19:38:39 »
Organic Chemistry = The chemistry of carbon compounds.
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #338 on: 28/12/2006 22:06:38 »
« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:26:58 by iko »
 

Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #339 on: 29/12/2006 04:19:32 »
Quar - a Welch word for sandstone
 


Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #341 on: 29/12/2006 20:33:13 »
Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge humans have gained by such research. This article focuses on the latter sense of the word.

Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:

    * Natural sciences, which study natural phenomena
    * Social sciences, which study human behavior and societies

Whether mathematics is a science is a matter of perspective. It is similar to other sciences in that it is a careful, systematic study of an area of knowledge specifically, it focuses on a priori knowledge. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences indeed, major advances in mathematics have often led to major advances in other sciences. Certain aspects of mathematics are indispensable for the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).

Science as defined above is sometimes termed pure science in order to differentiate it from applied science, the latter being the application of scientific research to human needs.
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #342 on: 29/12/2006 20:44:13 »
Tectonic Plates
« Last Edit: 04/01/2007 14:07:31 by Karen W. »
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #343 on: 29/12/2006 21:59:48 »
Urokinase

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Urokinase
Urokinase (Abbokinase), also called urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA), is a serine protease (EC 3.4.21.73). Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, but is present in several physiological locations, such as blood stream and the extracellular matrix. The primary physiological substrate is plasminogen, which is an inactive zymogen form of the serine protease plasmin.
Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolysis cascade which, depending on the physiological environment participate in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation.
This links urokinase to vascular diseases and cancer.

Clinical applications
Urokinase is used clinically as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of severe or massive deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and occluded intravenous or dialysis cannulas. Recently, Alteplase has replaced urokinase as a thrombolytic drug in infarction.

« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:27:41 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #344 on: 02/01/2007 08:50:55 »
Valency = A figure that describes the number of hydrogen atoms that an atom of any element may combine with.
 

Offline eric l

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #345 on: 02/01/2007 10:17:21 »
Tetonic Plates
I suppose you mean "tectonic plates" - unless you mean "Teutonic plates" which would be something like "German dishes" (such as "Sauerkraut mit Eisbein").
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #346 on: 02/01/2007 18:25:49 »
Wheatstone bridge


Wheatstone Bridge


Curiously enough, the Wheatstone Bridge was not invented by Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), but by Hunter Christie.
However, Wheatstone was responsible for popularizing the arrangement of four resistors, a battery and a galvanometer, and gave Christie full credit in his 1843 Bakerian Lecture. Wheatstone called the circuit a "Differential Resistance Measurer." 
   And how to draw Wheatstone's Bridge? Wheatstone himself used the familiar diamond pattern in his Needle Telegraph; it has been suggested that his set of Blue Willow pattern china, with the cross-hatching on the arched bridge forming part of its decorations, suggested the shape to him. 

for further reading click here:


http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Electrical_Measurements/Wheatstone_Bridge/Wheatstone_Bridge.html


« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:28:03 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #347 on: 21/01/2007 06:42:31 »
X -Ray telescopes
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #348 on: 21/01/2007 17:50:55 »
Y protein

Changes in neuropeptide Y protein expression
following photothrombotic brain infarction and epileptogenesis

Kharlamov EA, Kharlamov A, Kelly KM.
Department of Neurology, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

This study characterized morphological changes in the cortex and hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats following photothrombotic infarction and epileptogenesis with emphasis on the distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. Animals were lesioned in the left sensorimotor cortex and compared with age-matched naive and sham-operated controls by immunohistochemical techniques at 1, 3, 7, and 180 days post-lesioning (DPL). NPY immunostaining was assessed by light microscopy and quantified by the optical fractionator technique using unbiased stereological methods. At 1, 3, and 7 DPL, the number of NPY-positive somata in the lesioned cortex was increased significantly compared to controls and the contralateral cortex. At 180 DPL, lesioned epileptic animals with frequent seizure activity demonstrated significant increases of NPY expression in the cortex, CA1, CA3, hilar interneurons, and granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition to NPY immunostaining, neuronal degeneration, cell death/cell loss, and astroglial response were assessed with cell-specific markers. Nissl and NeuN staining showed reproducible infarctions at each investigated time point. FJB-positive somata were most abundant in the infarct core at 1 DPL, decreased markedly at 3 DPL, and virtually absent by 7 DPL. Activated astroglia were detected in the cortex and hippocampus following lesioning and the development of seizure activity.
In summary, NPY protein expression and morphological changes following cortical photothrombosis were time-, region-, and pathologic state-dependent. Alterations in NPY expression may reflect reactive or compensatory responses of the rat brain to acute infarction and to the development and expression of epileptic seizures.

Brain Res. 2007 Jan 5;1127(1):151-62.



« Last Edit: 09/04/2007 16:28:39 by iko »
 

Offline Bass

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #349 on: 22/01/2007 01:42:12 »
Zeolite
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #349 on: 22/01/2007 01:42:12 »

 

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