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Author Topic: A-Z of AVIONICS  (Read 448670 times)

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #475 on: 15/02/2007 18:11:07 »
Pneumocystis carinii


Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

Background: Pneumocystis jiroveci, previously known as Pneumocystis carinii, is the organism responsible for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP); the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients.
As our understanding of the Pneumocystis genus has grown, the name was changed to specify Pneumocystis, which is isolated in humans. The abbreviation PCP is still used to designate Pneumocystis pneumonia. Pneumocystis is a genus of unicellular fungi found in the respiratory tracts of many mammals and humans. Distinct genomic variability exists between host-specific members of the genus. The organism was first described in 1909 by Chagas then a few years later by Delanöes who ultimately named the organism in honor of Dr. Carini after isolating it from infected rats. Years later, Dr Otto Jirovec and his group isolated the organism from humans, and it is after him that the organism responsible for PCP pneumonia was renamed.

Pneumocystis first came to attention when it was found to cause interstitial pneumonia in Central and Eastern Europe during World War II in severely malnourished and premature infants. Prior to the 1980s, fewer than 100 cases of PCP occurred per year in the United States, occurring in immunosuppressed patients such as cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive agents. In 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the occurrence of PCP in 5 previously healthy homosexual males residing in the Los Angeles area. Pneumocystis jiroveci is now one of several organisms known to cause life-threatening opportunistic infections in patients with advanced HIV infection worldwide.

Microbiology
The taxonomic classification of the Pneumocystis genus was debated for some time. It was initially mistaken as a trypanosome then later as a protozoan. In the 1980s, biochemical analysis of the nucleic acid composition of Pneumocystis rRNA and mitochondrial DNA identified the organism as a unicellular fungus rather than a protozoa. Subsequent genomic sequence analysis of multiple genes including elongation factor 3, a component of fungi protein synthesis not found in protozoa, further supported this notion. The organism is found in 3 distinct morphologic stages. The trophozoite or trophic form, where it often exists in clusters; the sporozoite, which is a precystic form; and finally, the cyst, which contains several intracystic bodies also known as spores.
...

much more from emedicine:     http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic1850.htm

   
 

« Last Edit: 20/02/2007 18:18:35 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #476 on: 15/02/2007 20:54:41 »
Quince



The Quince Cydonia oblonga is the sole member of the genus Cydonia and native to warm-temperate southwest Asia in the Caucasus region. It is a small deciduous tree, growing 5-8 m tall and 4-6 m wide, related to apples and pears, and like them has a pome fruit, which is bright golden yellow when mature, pear-shaped, 7-12 cm long and 6-9 cm broad.

The immature fruit is green, with dense grey-white pubescence which mostly (but not all) rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes colour to yellow with hard flesh that is strongly perfumed. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6-11 cm long, with an entire margin and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. The flowers, produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink, 5 cm across, with five petals.

Quince is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Bucculatrix bechsteinella, Bucculatrix pomifoliella, Coleophora cerasivorella, Coleophora malivorella, Green Pug and Winter Moth.

Four other species previously included in the genus Cydonia are now treated in separate genera. These are the Chinese Quince Pseudocydonia sinensis, a native of China, and the three flowering quinces of eastern Asia in the genus Chaenomeles. Another unrelated fruit, the Bael, is sometimes called the "Bengal Quince".



Cydonia oblonga flowers




 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #477 on: 16/02/2007 06:56:15 »
Radar
 

Offline iko

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Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #479 on: 16/02/2007 18:25:56 »
Thorn or Spine (botany)


Spines are the ends of branches or leafs, that have been modified into rounded, hard structures with sharp ends. They are often also called thorns, which are reduced, sharp pointed stems.

Spines are used by plants to protect themselves from herbivores. Some plants with spines and animals that feed on them, have co-evolved in response to each other, with some plants having very long spines and the animals that feed on those species having long tongues to reach past the spines to feed on the leaves.

The spines of different cactus and Fouquieria are leafs that have been completely transformed. In Black Locust the spines are modified stipules. The sharp Long thorns of the hawthorn, the needles of a cactus, and the prickles of a shrub like the rose are all spines. Although spines generally serve as a passive defense mechanism, in some species they can be hollow and contain poisonous substances that cause lasting pain or even paralysis, and in others, may be barbed and detach readily, sticking to whatever brushes against them.

Plant spines and thorns

Botanists use several terms somewhat loosely when referring to spine- or needle-like structures on plants; however, the following differences are typically distinguished:

    * Prickle – a sharp outgrowth from the epidermis, also called an emergence and usually involving some subdermal tissue as well; see also hair.
    * Spine – a modified stipule or sharp branchlet found in a leaf axil or on the margin of a leaf.
    * Thorn – Sharp outgrowth from a stem other than at a node; a modified stem.
    * The seta (bristle) is a similar plant structure.

There are a number of different terms used to describe spines and plants with spines:

    * Spinescent - Meaning spiny or tapering like a spine.
    * Spinicarpous - Having spiny fruit.
    * Spiniferous - Bearing thorns.
    * Spiniform - Like a spine or thorn.
    * Spiniger - Producing spines or thorns.
    * Spinose - Spiny.
    * Spinule - A very small spine or prickle.
    * Spinulose - Having small spines or thorns.

Thorns and prickles, most notably those on roses, are common literary symbols for the hidden dangers or woes of something beautiful or pleasant, as in "Every rose has its thorn". Roses lack true thorns since their prickles emerge from the epidermis rather than the pericycle. Growth from the pericycle would make it a modified stem and therefore a thorn. Some roses have been bred not to have prickles.




 

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 16/02/2007 23:04:52 by iko »
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #481 on: 17/02/2007 15:00:52 »
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and twisted. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards (retrograde). Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart. When veins become enlarged, the leaflets of the valves no longer meet properly, and the valves don't work. The blood collects in the veins and they enlarge even more. Varicose veins are common in the superficial veins of the legs, which are subject to high pressure when standing. Besides cosmetic problems, varicose veins are often painful, especially when standing or walking. They often itch, and scratching them can cause ulcers. Serious complications are rare. Non-surgical treatments include elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The standard surgical treatment is vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer surgical treatments are less invasive but have not been tested as thoroughly. Since most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, and the superficial veins only return about 10%, they can be removed without serious harm.[1][2] Varicose veins are distinguished from telangiectasias and spider veins, which have similar symptoms and treatment, but do not involve valvular insufficiency.
 

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 17/02/2007 16:55:03 by iko »
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #483 on: 17/02/2007 17:16:44 »
Xanthoma = A small tumor,esp of the skin,formed by a deposit of lipids, often in a soft rounded, yellowish mass

(new world Dictionary of the american language ,second college Edition, Simon and Shuster) delux color edition
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #484 on: 17/02/2007 18:01:30 »
Yucca
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The yuccas comprise the genus Yucca of 40-50 species of perennials, shrubs, and trees in the agave family Agavaceae, notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large terminal clusters of white or whitish flowers. They are native to the hot and dry parts of North America, Central America, and the West Indies.


Yuccas have a very specialized pollination system, being pollinated by the yucca moth; the insect purposefully transfers the pollen from the stamens of one plant to the stigma of another, and at the same time lays an egg in the flower; the moth larva then eats some of the developing seeds, but far from all.

Yuccas are widely grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Many yuccas also bear edible parts, including fruits, seeds, flowers, flowering stems, and more rarely roots, but use of these is sufficiently limited that references to yucca as food more often than not stem from confusion with the similarly spelled but botanically unrelated yuca.

The "yucca flower" is the state flower of New Mexico. No species name is given in the citation.







 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #485 on: 17/02/2007 18:07:08 »
Zincography = The art or process of engraving or etching on zinc plates for printing
 

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 17/02/2007 20:55:11 by iko »
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #487 on: 18/02/2007 17:54:34 »
Ballpoint pen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A ballpoint pen (also eponymously known in British English as a biro and pronounced bye-row in Britain but sometimes bee-row elsewhere), is a modern writing instrument. A ballpoint pen has an internal chamber filled with a viscous ink that is dispensed at the tip during use by the rolling action of a small metal sphere (0.7 mm to 1.2 mm in diameter); the ink dries almost immediately after contact with paper. Inexpensive, reliable and maintenance-free, the ballpoint has almost completely replaced the fountain pen in everyday



Ballpoint pen, disassembled
(top) and complete (bottom)



An authentic
"birome", made
in Argentina by
 Biro & Meyne



The tip of a common d
isposable ballpoint pen.
 The ball, with blue ink
on it, can be seen. The
white scalebar is 1mm long.


Ballpoint pen rolling
 over a paper surface,
 leaving behind a trail
 of ink.


« Last Edit: 18/02/2007 17:58:19 by neilep »
 

Offline iko

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paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #489 on: 18/02/2007 19:33:53 »
Diode

Semiconductor electronic component. Ideally, a diode conducts electricity in one direction and does not allow the current to flow in the opposite direction. Thanks to this property diodes are used to rectify alternating currents, i.e., to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).




« Last Edit: 18/02/2007 19:36:21 by paul.fr »
 

paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #490 on: 18/02/2007 19:42:26 »
Electromagnetic radiation



Electromagnetic radiation, or light, can be considered to be composed of particles (photons) or waves. Its properties depend on its wavelength: longer waves are less energetic than shorter waves - photons with long wavelength have less energy than short-wavelength photons. Electromagnetic radiation is usually described as bands of radiation of similar wavelength, e.g., infrared, radio waves, microwaves, gamma rays, X-rays... (These bands of radiation roughly correspond to the range of wavelengths which can be detected by different instruments.) Only a small fraction of the entire range of electromagnetic radiation can be detected by the human eye: visible light, or what in everyday-life is referred to simply as light. The human eye cannot detect wavelengths longer than those of the visible light, such as those of infrared light, microwaves (wavelengths of centimetres), or radio waves (wavelengths of metres). Wavelengths shorter than visible light cannot be seen either: ultraviolet light, X-rays, gamma rays (the most energetic). Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of wavelength (L), measured in metres (m), or frequency (f), measured in hertz (Hz). The relationship between these two is given by: f = L/c where c= speed of light.

 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #491 on: 18/02/2007 21:06:47 »
FET  (Field Effect Transistor)


Field effect transistor


Large power N-channel field effect transistorThe field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a 'channel' in a semiconductor material. FETs are sometimes used as voltage-controlled resistors. The concepts related to the field effect transistor predated those of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT). Nevertheless, FETs were implemented only after BJTs due to the simplicity of manufacturing BJTs over FETs at the time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_effect_transistor 



« Last Edit: 18/02/2007 21:19:00 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #492 on: 18/02/2007 21:37:31 »
Gram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The gram or gramme (Greek/Latin root grámma); symbol g, is a unit of mass.

Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice"[1] (later 4 °C), a gram is now defined as one one-thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is defined as being equal to the mass of a physical prototype preserved by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.




BIC pen cap, about 1 gram.
 

paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #493 on: 19/02/2007 19:19:15 »
Hubble

From the Europen Space Agencys' Website

About Hubble
History: How Hubble Came About
The Earth's atmosphere is the bane of astronomers. The idea of sending a telescope into space to avoid it was first proposed long before the first satellites were launched, long before anyone even dreamt of sending astronauts to space.


German rocket scientist Herman Oberth was a pioneering thinker of his time and suggested a space bound telescope as early as 1923 in his book "Die Rakete zu den Planeträumen". A space telescope avoids frustrating problems such as cloudy and misty observing nights, the twinkling of stars even on clear nights and absorption of the ultraviolet and infrared parts of the spectrum.

It took many years before technology caught up with Oberth's idea. The American Lyman Spitzer proposed a more realistic plan for a space telescope in 1946 and lobbied for his idea for almost 30 years. In the 1970s NASA and the European Space Agency took up the idea and proposed a 3 metre space telescope. Funding began to flow in 1977 and it was decided to name the telescope after Edwin Powell Hubble who had discovered the expansion of the Universe in the 1920s. Although the Hubble Space Telescope was down-sized to 2.4 metres the project started to attract significant attention from astronomers.

The precision-ground mirror was finished in 1981 and the assembly of the entire spacecraft was completed in 1985. The plan called for a launch on NASA's Space Shuttle in 1986, but just months before the scheduled launch the Challenger disaster caused a year long delay of the entire Shuttle programme. Hubble was finally launched in 1990 and the tension built up as astronomers examined the first images through Hubble's eyes.

As in all good adventures, success does not come easily: it did not take more than two months to realise that Hubble's mirror had a serious flaw. A focusing defect prevented Hubble from taking sharp images - the mirror edge was too flat by a mere fiftieth of the width of a human hair. Over the next months scientists and engineers from NASA and ESA worked together and came up with a superb corrective optics package that would restore Hubble's eyesight completely.

A crew of astronauts carried out the repairs necessary to restore the telescope to its intended level of performance during the first Hubble Servicing Mission (SM1) in December 1993. Although the two subsequent servicing missions were at least as demanding in terms of complexity and workload, SM1 captured the attention of both astronomers and the public at large to a degree that no other Shuttle mission since has achieved. Meticulously planned and brilliantly executed, the mission succeeded on all counts. It will go down in history as one of the highlights of human spaceflight. Hubble was back in business.

Since SM1 three other Servicing Missions have been carried out: during SM2 in 1997 two new instruments were installed, in SM3A, 1999, many of Hubble's crucial technical systems were exchanged, and in 2002 came SM3B when Hubble again got new science instruments.

The final planned Servicing Mission will be in 2008, when Servicing Mission 4 is scheduled to upgrade Hubble's scientific capabilities again.
 

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 20/02/2007 18:17:33 by iko »
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #495 on: 19/02/2007 22:31:37 »
Robert Jarvik
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Jarvik was born in Midland, Michigan to Dr. Norman Eugene Jarvik and Edythe Koffler Jarvik and raised in Stamford, Connecticut. [1]

Jarvik is a graduate of Syracuse University. He later worked at the University of Utah.

Jarvik is married to Parade magazine columnist Marilyn vos Savant, who was long regarded as having the world's highest IQ. They live together in New York.

Starting in 2006, Jarvik has been appearing as a spokesman for Pfizer Pharmaceutical's cholesterol medication Lipitor.

Artificial heart

Jarvik worked jointly with William J. Kolff of Stamford, Connecticut on the Jarvik-7.

Ultimately, what came to be known as the Jarvik-7, the name associated with this development, was in fact the final product of the collaboration of many researchers who came before him, and their contributions to this project. One area of research was conducted at the Cleveland Clinic, which was later upgraded to the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, a new, independent arm of the hospital, where crucial elements of the fully implantable organ were produced. [citation needed]

The first implanting of the Jarvik-7, into retired dentist Barney Clark, took place at the University of Utah. The next several implantations of the Jarvik 7 heart were conducted by Humana, a national hospital chain. The second patient, Bill Schroeder, survived 620 days.

Later, Jarvik formed Symbion, Inc. to manufacture the heart, but he lost the company in a hostile takeover. He then founded Jarvik Heart, Inc., and began work to create the Jarvik 2000, a lifetime ventricular assist device.
 

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 19/02/2007 22:57:24 by iko »
 

paul.fr

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #497 on: 23/02/2007 01:52:24 »
Leonardo da Vinci



Perhaps even more impressive than his artistic work are his studies in science and engineering, recorded in notebooks comprising some 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and science. He was left-handed and used mirror writing throughout his life. Explainable by fact that it is easier to pull a quill pen than to push it; by using mirror-writing, the left-handed writer is able to pull the pen from right to left.

His approach to science was an observatory one: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail, and did not emphasize experiments or theoretical explanations. Throughout his life, he planned a grand encyclopedia based on detailed drawings of everything. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, Leonardo the scientist was mostly ignored by contemporary scholars.

He participated in autopsies and produced many extremely detailed anatomical drawings, planning a comprehensive work of human and comparative anatomy. Around the year 1490, he produced a study in his sketchbook of the Canon of Proportions as described in recently rediscovered writings of the Roman architect Vitruvius. The study, called the Vitruvian Man, is one of his most well-known works.
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #498 on: 23/02/2007 09:26:31 »
 

jolly

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #499 on: 24/02/2007 20:09:44 »
neodymium.lol
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
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