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Author Topic: A-Z of AVIONICS  (Read 448224 times)

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #700 on: 17/04/2007 21:02:31 »
Vacuum Tubes, electronic devices, consisting of a glass or steel vacuum envelope and two or more electrodes between which electrons can move freely. The vacuum-tube diode was first developed by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. It contains two electrodes: the cathode, a heated filament or a small, heated, metal tube that emits electrons through thermionic emission; and the anode, or plate, which is the electron-collecting element. In diodes, the electrons emitted by the cathode are attracted to the plate only when the latter is positive with respect to the cathode. When the plate is negatively charged, no current flows through the tube. If an alternating potential is applied to the plate, the tube passes current only during the positive halves of the cycle and thus acts as a rectifier. Diodes are used extensively in the rectification of alternating current.

The introduction of a third electrode, called a grid, interposed between the cathode and the anode, forms the triode, which for many years was the basic tube used for amplifying current. (The triode was invented in 1906 by the American engineer Lee De Forest.) The function of the grid is to control the current flow. At a certain negative potential, the grid, because it repels electrons, can impede the flow of electrons between the cathode and the anode. At lower negative potentials, the electron flow depends on the grid potential. The grid usually consists of a network of fine wire surrounding the cathode. The capacity of the triode to amplify depends on the small changes in the voltage between the grid and the cathode causing large changes in the number of electrons reaching the anode.

Through the years more complex tubes with additional grids have been developed to provide greater amplification and to perform specialized functions. Tetrodes have an additional grid, closer to the anode, that forms an electrostatic shield between the anode and the grid to prevent feedback to the grid in high-frequency applications. The pentode has three grids between the cathode and the anode; the third grid, close to the anode, reflects electrons that are emitted by the anode as it is heated by electron impact when the electron current in the tube is high. Tubes with even more grids, called hexodes, heptodes, and octodes, find applications as frequency converters and mixers in radio receivers.

Vacuum tubes have now been almost entirely replaced by transistors, which are cheaper, smaller, and more reliable. Tubes still play an important role in certain applications, however, such as in power stages in radio and television transmitters, and in military equipment that must resist the voltage pulse (which destroys transistors) induced by an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #701 on: 19/04/2007 21:54:23 »
« Last Edit: 19/04/2007 21:58:07 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #702 on: 20/04/2007 15:17:00 »
Xenarthra




The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals (infraclass Eutheria), extant today only in the Americas. The origins of the order can be traced back as far as the early Tertiary (about 60 million years ago, or only a short time after the end of the dinosaur era). The presence of these animals in North America is explained by the Great American Interchange.

It includes the anteaters, sloths, and armadillos. In the past, these families were classified together with the pangolins and Aardvark as the order Edentata (meaning toothless, because the members do not have front incisor teeth or molars, or have poorly-developed molars). It was subsequently realized that Edentata was polyphyletic—that it contained unrelated families and was thus invalid by cladistic standards. Aardvarks and pangolins are now placed in individual orders, and the new order Xenarthra was erected to group the remaining families (which are all related). The name Xenarthra means "strange joints", and was chosen because their vertebral joints are unlike those of any other mammals. Because they lack characteristics believed to be present in the common ancestor of other known Eutherian mammals, morphological evidence suggests that the Xenarthra are outside the Epitheria, which contains all other known Eutherians today.

The morphology of Xenarthrans generally suggests that the anteaters and sloths are closest together within Xenarthra. The order Xenarthra is more and more often divided into two orders: Pilosa, containing the Vermilingua and Folivora (previously Tardigrada), and the separate order Cingulata. Xenarthra now has the rank of cohort or super-order. The Xenarthra are part of the super-cohort Atlantogenata.
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #703 on: 20/04/2007 16:42:47 »
Yangtze river




Chinese (Pinyin)  Chang Jiang  or  (Wade-Giles romanization)  Ch'ang Chiang   longest river in both China and Asia and the third longest river in the world, with a length of 3,915 miles (6,300 kilometres). Its basin, extending for some 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from west to east and for more than 600 miles (1,000 km) from north to south, drains an area of 698,265 square miles (1,808,500 square km). From its source on the Plateau of Tibet to its mouth on the East China Sea, the river traverses or serves as the border…

more from:  http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9110538/Yangtze-River


 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #704 on: 20/04/2007 16:52:09 »
Zambales Mountains, mountain range in the north-western Philippines, on western Luzon Island. Lying north to south, the Zambales extend 160 km (100 mi) from Lingayen Gulf and Pangasinan Province in the north, through Zambales Province, and end in Bataan Province in the south. The Zambales are home to Mount Pinatubo, which erupted, causing severe damage, in 1991 and 1992. The mountains reach their highest point at High Peak (2,037 m/6,683 ft) in the north-central part of the range.

The range is a southern extension of the Cordillera Central, that was shifted west of the main range by faulting. Extensions of the Cordillera Central also appear to the south on Mindoro and Palawan islands. The range is a highly tilted block with a high eastern edge facing the Central Plain, a prime sugar- and rice-growing region. Much of the range was formed by the volcanic activity of the Quaternary Period (from 2.5 million years ago to the present). The Zambales include many kinds of volcanic rocks, such as andesites, diorites, and gabbros, all of which are exposed. Many minerals are also found in the range, the most important of which is chromite.

A number of short, rapidly flowing streams, including the Pamatawan, Santo Tomas, Anonang, Jalakak, and Bucao, drain the western slopes and empty into the South China Sea. The slopes of the Zambales are forested with tall hardwood trees and, at higher elevations, pines.
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #705 on: 20/04/2007 22:07:38 »
A-Z of Anything/Anyone
Associated with Anything Science

...Don't we need a list of the previous terms to avoid repeats?
and who should be in charge of this accessing/excelling business?   ;D ;D ;D

Ikon't   [:o)]

apart from the 'oldies' like me and KarenW and Neilepus...yes! SuperSeany!!!
He's as fast as a rocket and will do it in a second!
So pleeeaaaase ShiningSeany help this dummies and let their silly game continue for another few months...   :D

 
« Last Edit: 20/04/2007 22:19:57 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #706 on: 21/04/2007 00:43:41 »
That picture of the Yangtze River is absolutely mesmerising Iko..I've saved it on my pc..I luff it !!

Previous terms ?.who is volunteering to go back 29 pages of ABC stuff ?..not me !!...Karen ?
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #707 on: 24/04/2007 21:24:36 »
Baade, (Wilhelm Heinrich) Walter (1893-1960), German-born American astronomer:


Educated at the University of Göttingen, whose studies of stars in the Andromeda galaxy led him, in the 1950s, to double the common estimate of the size and age of the universe. Begun at Mount Wilson Observatory in 1931, these studies established two major types of stars: the younger, hotter, Population I type and the older, cooler, Population II (see Milky Way). In his career in Germany prior to 1931, Baade discovered the asteroids Icarus and Hidalgo.

 

Offline Batroost

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #708 on: 24/04/2007 21:42:28 »
Cherenkov radiation

...(also spelled Cerenkov, scientific transliteration: Čerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium. The characteristic "blue glow" of nuclear reactors is due to Cherenkov radiation. It is named after Soviet scientist Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, the 1958 Nobel Prize winner who was the first to rigorously characterize it.

« Last Edit: 24/04/2007 21:44:55 by Batroost »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #709 on: 24/04/2007 21:59:06 »
Digital-to-Analogue Converter or DAC,


Device for converting digital data into current or voltage analogues. DACs are now widely used in compact disc (CD) players, in digital audiotape and videotape players, in digital signal processing audio and video equipment, and in digital radio and television receivers. In their simplest form, DACs use some form of resistor network . Digital data is applied to the resistors in groups of bits. The resistances vary in definite ratios; the current flow in each one relates directly to the binary value of the bit received. In the practical form, a more complicated network involving current switching into a net of different resistance networks is used. The brief successive currents occur end to end in time, so giving a continuously varying current that when converted into a voltage reconstructs the original analogue signal voltage that had been converted into digital form. This voltage still has minute quantized steps in it, but these are simply removed by a low-pass frequency filter.


 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #710 on: 25/04/2007 18:35:34 »
« Last Edit: 29/04/2007 10:58:51 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #711 on: 26/04/2007 00:25:07 »
Fahrenheit, Gabriel Daniel (1686-1736)


 German physicist, born in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland). He settled in the Netherlands and engaged in the manufacture of meteorological instruments. In 1714 he constructed the first thermometer employing mercury instead of alcohol. Using this thermometer, he devised the temperature scale now known by his name. Fahrenheit also invented a hygrometer of improved design. He discovered that other liquids besides water have a fixed boiling point and that these boiling points vary with changes in atmospheric pressure.


 

Offline Seany

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #712 on: 26/04/2007 00:26:10 »
Frankenstein



A VERY scary monster. ;D
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #713 on: 26/04/2007 01:45:13 »
Gadolinium, symbol Gd, silvery-white metallic element with an atomic number of 64. Gadolinium is one of the rare earth elements in the lanthanide series of the periodic table. It is named after the Finnish chemist John Gadolin.

Gadolinium occurs with other rare earth elements in many minerals, such as samarskite, gadolinite, monazite, and some varieties of Norwegian ytterspar. It is the 41st element in order of abundance in the crust of the Earth. Gadolinium melts at about 1313° C (about 2395° F), boils at about 3273° C (about 5923° F), and has a relative density of 7.9. The atomic weight of the element is 157.25.

Gadolinium oxide was first separated from other rare earth elements by the Swiss chemist Jean de Marignac in 1880. The oxide and many salts of gadolinium have been prepared. Gadolinium oxide is white and the salts are colourless.

Because gadolinium has the largest known cross section, or stopping power, for neutrons of any element, it is used as a component of control rods in nuclear reactors (see Nuclear Energy). Like the other rare earth elements, it is used in electronic apparatus such as capacitors and masers; in metal alloys; in high-temperature furnaces; and in apparatus for magnetic cooling.





 

Offline Mjhavok

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #714 on: 26/04/2007 02:08:51 »
Hadron
Hahn, Otto
Half life
Hamilton, William Rowan
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #715 on: 26/04/2007 22:06:46 »
« Last Edit: 29/04/2007 10:57:44 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #716 on: 30/04/2007 06:44:44 »
Joe-pye weed

[The name of an Indian Doctor said to have used the plant as medicine] any of a number of periniel American plants (genus Eupatorium) of the composite family, with whorled leaves and clusters of rayless, pinkish or purple flower heads.

(New World Dictionary of the American Language, second college edition)





« Last Edit: 30/04/2007 06:53:35 by Karen W. »
 

Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #717 on: 01/05/2007 02:54:53 »
Klingon

A humanoid being with ... oh .......

Kaolinite

A type of clay mineral that is the chief component of fine china. It is also used for most pottery when it isn't found in a relative impure clay (lots of other clay mineral in the mix.)

[Assumes refined British accent] It is of the latter that you Brown Betty is made, as well as all and sundry other pottery (Sneers)
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #718 on: 01/05/2007 13:41:37 »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #719 on: 01/05/2007 18:31:02 »
McDonnell Douglas


McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It merged with Boeing in 1997 to form The Boeing Company.

The company was founded from the firms of James Smith McDonnell and Donald Wills Douglas. Both men were of Scottish ancestry, graduates of MIT and had worked for the aircraft manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company. Douglas had been chief engineer at Martin before leaving to establish Davis-Douglas Company in early 1920 in Los Angeles. He bought out his backer and renamed the firm the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921.

McDonnell founded J.S. McDonnell & Associates in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1928. His idea was to produce a personal aircraft for family use. The economic depression from 1929 ruined his ideas and the company collapsed. He went to work for Glenn L. Martin. He left in 1938 to try again with his own firm, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, this time based near St. Louis, Missouri.

World War II was a major earner for Douglas. The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945 and the workforce swelled to 160,000. Both companies suffered at the end of hostilities, facing an end of government orders and a surplus of aircraft. Both heavily cut their work forces.

After the war, Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the DC-6 (1946) and the DC-7 (1953). The company moved into jet propulsion, producing their first for the military - the conventional F3D Skyknight in 1948 and then the more 'jet age' F4D Skyray in 1951. Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the Boeing 707. McDonnell was also developing jets, but being smaller they were prepared to be more radical, building on their successful FH-1 Phantom to become a major supplier to the Navy with the F2H Banshee, F3H Demon, and the F-101 Voodoo. The advent of the Korean War helped push McDonnell into a major military fighter supply role, especially with the noted F-4 Phantom II (1958).


Both companies were eager to enter the new missile business, Douglas moving from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike program and becoming the main contractor of the Skybolt ALBM program and the Thor ballistic missile program. McDonnell made a number of missiles, including the unusual ADM-20 Quail, as well as experimenting with hypersonic flight, research that enabled them to gain a substantial share of the NASA projects Mercury and Gemini. Douglas also gained contracts from NASA, notably for part of the enormous Saturn V rocket. Both companies were now major employers, but both were having problems.




Douglas was strained by the cost of the DC-8 and DC-9, and the companies began to sound each other out about a merger. Inquiries began in 1963; Douglas offered bid invitations from December 1966 and accepted that of McDonnell. The two firms were officially merged on April 28, 1967 as the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC).
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #720 on: 01/05/2007 20:03:17 »

Nimbus 4D   



The Nimbus 4D is a high-performance two-seat sailplane, constructed from fiber reinforced plastic, and, with a wing span of 86.94 ft (26,5 m, aspect ratio 39.1), is the largest aircraft so far produced in series by Schempp-Hirth.
With a best L/D of about 1:60 and outstanding abilities at low speed and in circling flight, the Nimbus 4D is a match for the comparable single seaters, but possesses distincly improved flight handling. Both its harmony of controls and maneuverability convey the impression of a considerably smaller two-seater - a result which could only be achieved by the extraordinary aerodynamic design of the wing, combined with an elaborate control system.

Hence the most significant feature of this super two-seat sailpane is - apart from its span - its still unconventional multi-stage swept-back wing leading edge (as also used on the Discus and Ventus 2), the aerodynamic advantages of which are even more enhanced by the dihedral of the wing tips. This wing concept guarantees a perfect utilization of the span and also offers outstanding low speed handling qualities

more from:  http://www.mandhsoaring.com/nimbus4d.html



« Last Edit: 01/05/2007 20:10:49 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #721 on: 01/05/2007 20:26:49 »
Oak, common name for a large genus of hardwood trees that are widespread in the North Temperate Zone. The oak genus contains about 600 species. Oaks are distinguished from the other ten or so genera in the beech family, to which the oak genus belongs, by various technical characteristics of their minute, clustered flowers, but they are easily recognized by their distinctive fruit, the acorn. The related tan oak also produces an acorn but differs from the oak genus in its erect, rather than hanging, male flower clusters.

About 27 species of oak occur in Europe where several are major forest trees. The trees may be deciduous (losing their leaves in the autumn) or evergreen (keeping their leaves in winter). In central and northern Europe, forest species such as sessile oak and pendunculate or English oak are deciduous, but in the Mediterranean region evergreen species, such as kermes oak and holm oak, are dominant in the evergreen forests that formerly occupied much of the region. Oaks grow in a variety of habitats but prefer deep, rich soils, although some species are found in poorer, dry soils. Flowering occurs in the spring, before or just as the new leaves appear, and large quantities of pollen are shed into the wind. Oaks vary considerably in size; some may grow no taller than a shrub while others reach heights of over 30 m (98 ft).

Oaks produce durable, tough wood and are important timber trees. The wood is used in cabinet-making and barrel-making, and for flooring and veneers. Oak wood was long used in the construction of houses and English ships. Corks are made from the thick, spongy bark of the cork oak, which occurs in the Mediterranean region. Several species yield tannins, which are used in the leather-tanning industry, and others yield dyes from their bark. Oaks are of some horticultural importance but, because most grow slowly, they are more often planted in public parks than in private gardens. Scarlet oak and pin oak, however, are moderate- to fast-growing species that are well suited to both purposes.

Scientific classification: Oaks make up the genus Quercus of the family Fagaceae. The sessile oak is classified as Quercus petraea; the pendunculate or English oak as Quercus robur; the holm oak as Quercus ilex; the kermes oak as Quercus coccifera; the cork oak as Quercus suber; the scarlet oak as Quercus coccinea, and the pin oak as Quercus palustris. The tan oak is classified in the genus Lithocarpus.

 

Offline Ben6789

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #722 on: 02/05/2007 16:56:26 »
Photosynthesis. The thing plants do to keep the earth running.
 

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 02/05/2007 18:29:46 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #724 on: 02/05/2007 22:21:27 »
Robot, self-governing, programmable electromechanical device used in industry and in scientific research to perform a task or a limited repertoire of tasks. Robots are a subcategory of automated devices (see Automation). Although no generally recognized criteria exists that distinguishes them from other automated systems, robots tend to be more versatile and adaptable (or reprogrammable) than less sophisticated devices. They offer the advantages of being able to perform more quickly, cheaply, and accurately than humans in conducting set routines. They are capable of operating in locations or under conditions hazardous to human health, ranging from areas of the factory floor to the ocean depths and outer space.

The concept of robots dates back to ancient times, when some myths told of mechanical beings brought to life. Such automata also appeared in the clockwork figures of medieval churches, and in the 18th century some clockmakers gained fame for the intricately clever mechanical figures that they constructed. Today the term automaton is usually applied to these handcrafted, mechanical (rather than electromechanical) devices that are restricted merely to imitating the motions of living creatures. Some of the “robots” used in advertising and entertainment are actually automata, even with the addition of remote radio control.

The term robot itself is derived from the Czech word robota, meaning “compulsory labour”. It was first used in the 1921 play R.U.R. (which stands for “Rossum's Universal Robots”) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Čapek, to describe a mechanical device that looks like a human but, lacking human sensibility, can perform only automatic, mechanical operations. In the play, however, the robots proved much more capable than that, eventually conquering and destroying their makers—a recurrent theme in science fiction since that time. The term androids is now generally reserved for human-like figures of this sort, ranging from electromechanical robots in human form to human-like creatures made entirely of biological materials.

Robots as they are known today are not really imitative of human or other living forms except in the limited aspect of digital dexterity. The roots of their development lie in the effort to automate some or all of the operations required on the factory floor. This effort began in the 18th century in the textile industry, when some looms were designed to perform under the control of punched paper tapes. With the burgeoning of the Industrial Revolution, factories sought to bring a greater degree of automation to the repeated processes of the assembly line. True robots did not become possible, however, until the invention of the computer in the 1940s and the progressive miniaturization of computer parts. One of the first true robots was an experimental model called SHAKEY, designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute in the late 1960s. It was capable of arranging blocks into stacks through the use of a television camera as a visual sensor, processing this information in a small computer.

Thereafter engineers tried to adapt robot-like devices to useful tasks. In the mid-1970s, General Motors financed a development programme in which Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher Victor Scheinman improved upon a motor-driven “arm” he had invented to produce a so-called “programmable universal manipulator for assembly”, or PUMA. The PUMAs that resulted mark the beginning of the age of robots.

Computers today are equipped with a small microprocessor or microprocessors that can handle the data being fed to them by various sensors of the surrounding environment. Making use of the principle of feedback (see Cybernetics), robots can then change their operations to some degree in response to changes in that environment. The commercial use of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have long since become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is in the forefront of nations exploring robot technology. Whether the androids of science fiction will ever become a reality is not yet possible to predict, because duplication of even such seemingly simple acts as bipedal walking has proved enormously difficult. The question of “intelligent” androids must similarly be left to the future of artificial intelligence as a whole. In the meantime, however, robots should continue to expand their applications; the home-made-robot kits available today may be one sign of the future



An Advanced Robot !!




A Robot Fish !!...........which is nice !!
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #724 on: 02/05/2007 22:21:27 »

 

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