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Author Topic: A-Z of AVIONICS  (Read 449213 times)

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #851 on: 08/11/2007 02:10:12 »
HYDROMETER

Hydrometer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrometer




A hydrometer is an instrument used for determining the specific gravity of liquids. It is usually made of glass and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with mercury or shot to make it float upright. The liquid is poured into a tall jar, and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely.

The point where the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer is noted. Hydrometers usually contain a paper scale inside the stem, so that the specific gravity (or density relative to water) can be read directly. Specific gravity is a ratio of one density to that of the density of water. Therefore, specific gravity has no units. See relative density.

In light liquids like kerosene, gasoline, and alcohol, the hydrometer must sink deeper to displace its weight of liquid than in heavy liquids like brine, milk, and acids. In fact, it is usual to have two separate instruments, one for heavy liquids, on which the mark 1.000 for water is near the top, and one for light liquids, on which the mark 1.000 is near the bottom of the stem.

Many industries have more than one set of hydrometers, 1.0-0.95, 0.95-0.9 etc, to provide more precise measurements of density. For measuring density of petroleum products, like fuel oils, the specimen is usually heated in a temperature jacket with a thermometer placed behind it since density is dependent on temperature. Light oils are placed in cooling jackets, typically at 15oC. Very light oils with many volatile components are measured in a variable volume container using a floating piston sampling device to minimize light end losses.

The function of the hydrometer is based on Archimedes principle that a solid suspended in a liquid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. Thus, the lower the density of the substance, the lower the hydrometer will sink. Some historians credit Hypatia of Alexandria with the invention of the hydrometer although there is little evidence to support this.
« Last Edit: 08/11/2007 02:11:45 by Karen W. »
 

Offline Andrew K Fletcher

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #852 on: 08/11/2007 09:02:03 »
« Last Edit: 08/11/2007 09:27:30 by Andrew K Fletcher »
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #853 on: 08/11/2007 18:14:20 »
Joystick (cockpit)



Figure 1. Joystick in a cockpit, 1942.

http://www-sul.stanford.edu/siliconbase/wip/control.html




Joystick in a cockpit, airbus320.

http://www.hansonline.eu/wright100/power.htm
« Last Edit: 08/11/2007 18:17:22 by iko »
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #854 on: 08/11/2007 19:37:39 »
Karen Warvi

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Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #855 on: 10/11/2007 18:28:29 »
Looping



Check out the loop performed by the C-27 Spartan,
 the G222's successor, at the 2006 Czech International Air Fair.

 http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/AirShows/Ciaf2006/Highlights/index.html#C27
 
« Last Edit: 10/11/2007 18:42:34 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #856 on: 10/11/2007 19:26:04 »
Mandelbrot set



The Mandelbrot set is a set of points in the complex plane that forms a fractal. Mathematically, the Mandelbrot set can be defined as the set of complex c-values for which the orbit of 0 under iteration of the complex quadratic polynomial x2 + c remains bounded.[1]

The Mandelbrot set has become popular outside mathematics both for its aesthetic appeal and for being a complicated structure arising from a simple definition. Benoţt Mandelbrot and others worked hard to communicate this area of mathematics to the public.





« Last Edit: 10/11/2007 19:39:08 by neilep »
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #857 on: 10/11/2007 21:11:05 »
Nimbus clouds






Nimbus cloud

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A nimbus cloud is a cloud that produces precipitation. Usually the precipitation reaches the ground as rain, hail or snow, however, that is not a requirement, falling precipitation may evaporate as virga.


Etymology
Nimbus is a Latin word meaning cloud or rain storm. The prefix nimbo- or the suffix -nimbus indicates a precipitating cloud; for example, a nimbostratus cloud is a precipitating stratus cloud, and a cumulonimbus cloud is a precipitating cumulus cloud.














« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 18:28:31 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #858 on: 11/11/2007 19:24:19 »
Owen Willans Richardson


Sir Owen Willans Richardson (April 26, 1879 - February 15, 1959) was a British physicist, a professor at Princeton University from 1906 to 1913, and a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1928 "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him".

[edit] Biography

Richardson was born in Dewsbury, Yorkshire, England, the only son of Joshua Henry and Charlotte Maria Richardson. He was educated at Batley Grammar School, and graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1900 having gained First Class Honours in Natural Science.

In 1914 Richardson became professor of physics at King's College London, where he was later made director of research. He retired in 1944.

He was awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society (of which he was a Fellow) in 1920 for his work in thermionics, which is the basis for the vacuum tube.

He also researched the photoelectric effect, the gyromagnetic effect, the emission of electrons by chemical reactions, soft X-rays, and the spectrum of hydrogen.

He was knighted in 1939. He died in 1959 aged 79.

Richardson's nephew was physicist Richard Davisson whose father Clinton Davisson was also a Nobel Prize in Physics laureate.

 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #859 on: 11/11/2007 19:38:21 »
Pyrotechnics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Pyrotechnics are used in the entertainment industry






The band Rammstein's stage acts center largely around pyrotechnics

Pyrotechnics can also be used for Fireworks events.

Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. Items such as safety matches, oxygen candles, explosive bolts and fasteners and the automobile safety airbag all fall under the purview of pyrotechnics. Without pyrotechnics, modern aviation and spaceflight would be impracticable;[citation needed] this is because pyrotechnic devices combine high reliabilty with very compact and efficient energy storage: essentially in the form chemical energy which is converted via expanding hot gases often propagated by a shock wave as in bolt and cable cutters. The controlled action of a pyrotechnic device (initiated by any of several means, including an electrical signal, optical signal or mechanical impetus) makes possible a wide range of automated and/or remote mechanical actions; for example, deployment of safety equipment and services, precisely timed release sequences, etc. The majority of the technical pyrotechnic devices use propellants in their function, a minority use materials that are classified as primary or secondary explosives to obtain very fast and powerful mechanical (mostly cutting) actions; for example, Jet Axe.

The use of explosions, flashes, smoke, flames or other propellant driven effects on-stage is known as Proximate Pyrotechnics. Proximate because it's near an audience. Special licencing must be obtained from local authorities to legally prepare and use proximate pyrotechnics.

Many musical groups use pyrotechnics to enhance the quality of their live shows. Some of the earliest bands to use pyrotechnics were Queen, Pink Floyd, and KISS. The band Rammstein uses a large variety of pyrotechnics, from flaming costumes to face-mounted flamethrowers. Also Lordi is known for its vivid pyrotechnics. Many professional wrestlers have also used pyrotechnics as part of their entrances to the ring. One example would be Bill Goldberg, who would use pyrotechnics during his in ring entrance in both WCW and WWE .

Pyrotechnics is, in general, divided into categories based on the main effect produced. The range of effects include: light flashes of various colour, intensity and duration; sounds of many types, like thumps, bangs, pops, hums and whistles, all loud or soft as needed; flames of different colours, sizes, shapes and durations; smoke of any colour or amount; ejected active pyrotechnics, like various short-lived sparks (mostly produced by small metal particles of titanium, magnalium, steel or zirconium; which, being ignited by the primary device, continue to burn while moving through the air) and microstars, including glitter, strobe, colour and comet tailed effects, even coloured matrix comets invented by Myke Stanbridge. The use of ejected passive effects is common, they include: confetti, streamers, tokens, toys, etc.

A basic pyrotechnic device consists of a sufficiently strong and non-flammable container to hold its active contents, which comprise either flammable compositions, like nitrocellouse and/or blackpowder or a mixture of a fuel and oxidiser blended in situ. Various ingredients may be added to provide colour, smoke or sparks. Special additives are used to modify the character of the effect produced, either to enhance or subdue the effect; for example, the production of an effects-wave that changes as the effect progresses from several similar devices - to make the similar effect rise or fall towards or away from a cresendo, etc. In general, such pyrotechnic devices are initiated by a remotely controlled electrical signal that causes an electric match, or e-match, to produce ignition. The remote control may be manual, via a switch console, or computer controlled according to a pre-programmed sequence and/or a sequence that tracks the live performance via stage cues.

If not handled and/or used properly pyrotechnics can be dangerous. In 2003, improper use of pyrotechnic devices caused a fire in a Rhode Island nightclub called The Station. The Station nightclub fire was started when the fireworks the band Great White was using accidentally ignited flammable soundproofing foam, which was not appropriate and/or not installed properly. The foam caused the fire to spread rapidly and the resulting fire led to 100 deaths, ostensibly because their quick escape was blocked by ineffective exit doors.

Indoor and/or proximate pyrotechnics is a sub-specialty that requires additional training beyond that of other professional pyrotechnics areas and additionally requires the use of devices especially made for indoor and/or close proximity use. While the type of foam used and the lack of a required sprinkler system were important factors in the fire, the Great White tragedy could have been prevented had those involved paid even minimal attention to standard safety practices around the use of pyrotechnics.
« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 19:45:26 by Karen W. »
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #860 on: 11/11/2007 22:46:24 »
Que sera sera  (Naval Aircraft)





...

 October 31, 1956: The U.S. Navy R4D (Douglas DC-3) aircraft "Que Sera Sera" became the first airplane to land and take off at the South Pole. Rear Admiral George Dufek and six others ventured out of the plane in -58 degree weather to plant the American flag.

Image: The aircraft Que Sera Sera lands at the South Pole. Navy photo taken by reporter Maurice Cutler.









« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 22:50:22 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #861 on: 11/11/2007 22:52:05 »
Rain Gauges (barometers)

« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 22:57:11 by Karen W. »
 

Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #862 on: 11/11/2007 22:54:40 »
S for sun. (ya'll know what it looks like. haha)
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #863 on: 11/11/2007 22:56:25 »
Robert Rosen (27 June 1934, - 28 December 1998, Rochester, New York) was an American theoretical biologist and professor of Biophysics at Dalhousie University.

Robert Rosen was born in 1934 in Brooklyn, New York. He studied physics and theoretical biology, and was a student of physicist and theoretical biologist Nicholas Rashevsky. He received his PhD in mathematical biology from the University of Chicago in 1959 and remained there until 1967.

In 1967 Rosen then went to the State University of New York at Buffalo, holding a joint appointment at the Center for Theoretical Biology. He came to Dalhousie University in 1975 as a Killam Research Professor in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics, and stayed here until his retirement in 1994.[1]

He was president of the Society for General Systems Research in 1980

[edit] Work

Rosen's research was concerned with the most fundamental aspects of biology. Major themes in the work of Robert Rosen were:

    * developing a specific definition of complexity
    * ensuing theoretical framework, now called "Rosennean Complexity". His main focus was the question: "what is life?" ("why are organisms alive?")

Rosen came to realize that the Newtonian model of physics - the world of mechanisms - was inadequate to describe biological systems; that is, one could not properly answer the question "what is life?" in a Newtonian formalism. Rather than biology being a mere subset of already-known physics, it turned out that biology had profound lessons for physics, and science in general.[2].






 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #864 on: 11/11/2007 23:00:56 »
[size=07pt](Neily what comes after "S"...T.....HEE HEE HEE...)[/size]
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #865 on: 11/11/2007 23:01:09 »
Grrrrrrrrrrr !!!!

 

Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #866 on: 11/11/2007 23:01:47 »
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #867 on: 11/11/2007 23:02:43 »
Thunder  (sound barrier)


A friend of mine sent me an email containing images similar to the ones below.

Is this for real or is someone having a really good time with photoshop?











...more supersonic pics here!

« Last Edit: 11/11/2007 23:10:51 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #868 on: 11/11/2007 23:10:06 »
Universe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. Based on observations of the portion of the Universe that is observable, physicists attempt to describe the whole of space-time, including all matter and energy and events which occur, as a single system corresponding to a mathematical model.

The generally accepted scientific theory which describes the origin and evolution of the Universe is Big Bang cosmology, which describes the expansion of space from an extremely hot and dense state of unknown characteristics. The Universe underwent a rapid period of cosmic inflation that flattened out nearly all initial irregularities in the energy density; thereafter the universe expanded and became steadily cooler and less dense. Minor variations in the distribution of mass resulted in hierarchical segregation of the features that are found in the current universe; such as clusters and superclusters of galaxies. There are more than one hundred billion (1011) galaxies in the Universe,[1] each containing hundreds of billions of stars, with each star containing about 1057 atoms of hydrogen.

Other ways of exploring and describing the origin and evolution of the universe include religious cosmology and philosophical cosmology.
 


Offline Karen W.

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #870 on: 11/11/2007 23:23:19 »
Wind velocity (apparent wind)

From Wiped, the free encyclopedia




Apparent wind is the wind experienced by a moving object.



In sailing, the apparent wind is the actual flow of air acting upon a sail, or the wind as it appears to the sailor. It differs from the true or prevailing wind seen by a stationary observer in velocity and direction. In nautical terminology, these properties of the apparent wind are expressed in knots and degrees.

[edit] Definition of apparent wind

The Apparent wind is the wind experienced by an observer in motion and is the relative velocity of the wind with respect to the observer, who is moving.

Apparent wind is the vector sum of the True Wind Velocity and the air stream generated by an "object's Velocity over ground"[1] This is the Inverse (mathematics) of the objects actual velocity or more succinctly the apparent wind is defined as the Velocity of the wind minus the Velocity of the object.

[edit] Calculating velocity and angle

A = \sqrt{((H+W*cos(a))^2 + (W*sin(a))^2)}

Where:

    * H = head wind
    * W = true wind velocity
    * a = true pointing angle in degrees (0 = upwind, 180 = downwind)
    * A = apparent wind velocity

The angle of apparent wind (b) can be deducted from the measured boat and wind speeds using the inverse cosine in degrees (AcosD)

b = AcosD((H+(W*cos(a))/\sqrt{((H+W*cos(a))^2 + (W*sin(a))^2)})

[edit] Instruments

The apparent wind on-board is often quoted as a speed measured by a masthead transducer containing an anemometer and wind vane that measures wind speed in knots and wind direction in degrees relative to the heading of the boat. Modern instrumentation can calculate the true wind velocity when the apparent wind and boat velocity are input.

[edit] Implications on sailing speeds

In sailboat racing, and especially in speed sailing, apparent wind is a vitally important factor, when determining the points of sail a sail-boat can effectively travel in. A vessel travelling at increasing speed relative to the prevailing wind will encounter the wind driving the sail at a decreasing angle and increasing velocity. Eventually, the increased drag and diminished degree of efficiency of a sail at extremely low angles will cause a loss of accelerating force. This constitutes the main limitation to the speed of wind-driven vessels and vehicles.

Windsurfers and certain types of boats are able to sail faster than the true wind. These include fast multihulls and some planing monohulls. Ice-sailors and land-sailors also usually fall into this category, because of their relatively low amount of drag or friction.

[edit] Other areas of relevance

In fixed-wing aircraft, apparent wind is what is experienced on-board and it determines the necessary speeds for take-off and landing. Aircraft carriers generally steam directly upwind at maximum speed, in order to increase apparent wind and reduce the necessary take-off velocity. Land-based airport traffic generally take off and land facing upwind for the same reason.
 

Offline iko

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« Last Edit: 12/11/2007 18:45:48 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #872 on: 12/11/2007 19:20:27 »
Zefram Cochrane



Dr. Zefram Cochrane was a Human scientist in the 21st century, an eccentric genius, and the inventor of warp drive on Earth.

Cochrane was born in 2032. During the 2060s, he lived in Bozeman, Montana in North America, where he and his team of engineers began developing warp drive and finally built Earth's first warp ship, the Phoenix. After Cochrane's historic first warp flight on April 5, 2063, the Vulcans established first contact with Humanity, thereby ushering in a new era of prosperity for mankind.





 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #873 on: 12/11/2007 19:30:29 »
Algorithm
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithm


In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a definite list of well-defined instructions for completing a task; that given an initial state, will proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state.

The concept of an algorithm originated as a means of recording procedures for solving mathematical problems such as finding the common divisor of two numbers or multiplying two numbers. A partial formalization of the concept began with attempts to solve the Entscheidungsproblem (the "decision problem") that David
Hilbert posed in 1928. Subsequent formalizations were framed as attempts to define "effective calculability" (cf Kleene 1943:274) or "effective method" (cf Rosser 1939:225); those formalizations included the G÷del-Herbrand-Kleene recursive functions of 1930, 1934 and 1935, Alonzo Church's lambda calculus of 1936, Emil Post's "Formulation I" of 1936, and Alan Turing's Turing machines of 1936-7 and 1939.
« Last Edit: 12/11/2007 19:32:03 by Karen W. »
 

Offline Alandriel

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #874 on: 12/11/2007 20:06:17 »
What happened to the X ?? You know, the one between W - Y.....  ;D

Bo÷tes / Bootes    or  BOO for short  ;D / The Bear Driver ~ The Boatsman



Some say that Bo÷tes is the most ancient constellation in the sky. Indeed, it has been reconized by numerous cultures in slightly different forms. Even the Greeks were not clear on its history. The first reference to the name Bo÷tes comes from "The Odyssey" by Homer almost three millenia ago.
In one of his most popular incarnations, he is called the Hunter and, with his Hounds (Canes Venatici), he eternally circles the Bears, Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, around the North Pole. In fact, the brightest star in Bo÷tes is Arcturus, which can be loosely translated as "Bear Guard."

He is also called the Herdsman and his journey around the pole represents his task of keeping the celestial beasts together.

Another legend says that Bootes was the son of Zeus and Callisto. Hera changed Callisto into a bear who was almost killed by Bo÷tes when he was out hunting. Luckily, she was rescued by Zeus and he took her into the sky where she is now Ursa Major, the Great Bear.

Yet another myth says that he was the son of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture. Supposedly he was given a place in the sky for inventing the plow.

Named Stars
ARCTURUS (Alpha Boo)
Nekkar (Beta Boo)
Seginus (Gamma Boo)
IZAR (Epsilon Boo)
Mufrid (Eta Boo)
Asellus Primus (Theta Boo)
Asellus Secondus (Iota Boo)
Asellus Tertius (Kappa 2 Boo)
Alkalurops (Mu 1 Boo)
Merga (38 Boo)


I mean....really........ mu Boo  ::) whoever......  ;D ;D







« Last Edit: 12/11/2007 20:07:56 by Alandriel »
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #874 on: 12/11/2007 20:06:17 »

 

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