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Author Topic: A-Z of AVIONICS  (Read 448347 times)

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #925 on: 12/01/2008 13:00:42 »
Touch and go






TOUCH-AND-GO
- Landing practice wherein an aircraft does not make a full stop after a landing,
but proceeds immediately to another take-off.
 

Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #926 on: 12/01/2008 13:06:54 »
Ah nice one Iko.

U is for Unbrella

You all know what its used for!
 
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Offline InfraDead

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #927 on: 12/01/2008 15:21:49 »
Vortex: A vortex is a spinning, often turbulent, flow of fluid. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex. The speed and rate of rotation of the fluid are greatest at the center, and decrease progressively with distance from the center.

 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #928 on: 12/01/2008 15:28:52 »
Wind shear



Quote
...
Wind shear is a sudden and drastic change in wind direction or speed over a short distance along the flight path, usually associated with a microburst that often occurs in the vicinity of thunderstorms or typhoons.

more from:  http://www.geocities.com/khlim777_my/aswindshearz.htm


...severe wind shear?


...check this out:   http://www.swapmeetdave.com/Humor/Insurance/Plane.htm     

 ;D ;D ;D
« Last Edit: 12/01/2008 15:38:46 by iko »
 
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Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #929 on: 12/01/2008 16:02:00 »
Wow lol

X is for Xylophone
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #930 on: 12/01/2008 16:43:27 »
YAWN.... Whoops I made myself YAWN)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yawn

Yawn
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A yawn (synonyms chasma, pandiculation[1], oscitation from the Latin verb oscitare, to open the mouth wide [2] ) is a reflex of deep inhalation and exhalation associated with tiredness, stress, over-work, lack of stimulation, or boredom. Pandiculation is the term for the act of stretching and yawning.[1] Yawning is a powerful non-verbal message with several possible meanings, depending on the circumstances. The claim that yawning is caused by lack of oxygen has not been substantiated scientifically. [3] However, the exact causes of yawning are still undetermined. The word "yawn" has evolved from the Middle English word yanen, an alteration of yonen or yenen, which in turn comes from the Old English geonian.[4]
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Hypothesized causes of yawning
    * 2 Yawning as a medical sign
    * 3 Contagiousness
    * 4 Other uses for yawning
    * 5 Superstitions
    * 6 Consequences of Yawning
    * 7 Notes and references
    * 8 External links

[edit] Hypothesized causes of yawning

   1. A means of cooling the brain.[5]
   2. An action used as an unconscious communication of psychological decompression after a state of high alert.
   3. A means of expressing powerful emotions like anger, apathy, apprehension, remorse or boredom.[citation needed]
   4. An excess of carbon dioxide and lack of oxygen in the blood. [1]
   5. A way of displaying (or indicative of) apathy.
   6. Tiredness
   7. A means of equalizing inner ear pressure, which can be triggered by another's yawning

A yawning cat
A yawning cat

A recent hypothesis raised in 2007 by Andrew C. Gallup and Gordon Gallup of the University of Albany states that yawning may be a means to keep the brain cool. Mammalian brains operate best when they are cool. In an experiment, he showed several groups of people videos of other people yawning. When the subjects held heat packs up to their foreheads while viewing the videos, they yawned often. But when they held cold packs up to their foreheads or breathed through their noses (another means of brain cooling), they did not yawn at all. [5] [6] A similar recent hypothesis is that yawning is used for regulation of body temperature.

Another hypothesis is that yawns are caused by the same chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the brain that affect emotions, mood, appetite and other phenomena. These chemicals include serotonin, dopamine, glutamic acid and nitric oxide. As more (or less) of these compounds are activated in the brain, the frequency of yawning increases. Conversely, a greater presence in the brain of opiate neurotransmitters such as endorphins reduces the frequency of yawning. Patients taking the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Paxil (paroxetine HCl) or Celexa (citalopram) have been observed yawning abnormally often. Anecdotal reports by users of psilocybin mushrooms often describe a marked stimulation of yawning while intoxicated, often associated with excess lacrimation and nasal mucosal stimulation, especially while "peaking" (i.e. undergoing the most intense portion of the psilocybin experience). While opioids have been demonstrated to reduce this yawning and lacrimation provoked by psilocybin, it is not clear that the same pathways that induce yawning as a symptom of opioid abstinence in habituated users are the mode of action in psilocybin-induced yawning. While even opioid-dependent users of psilocybin on stable opioid therapy often report yawning and excess lacrimation while undergoing this entheogenic mushroom experience, there are no known reports in the literature that suggest psilocybin acts as any sort of general opioid antagonist. Psilocybin-induced yawning in opioid-habituated users does not appear to produce other typical opioid withdrawal symptoms such as cramping, physical pain, anxiety, gooseflesh etc.

Recent research carried out by Catriona Morrison, a lecturer in psychology at the University of Leeds, involving monitoring the yawning behaviour of students kept waiting in a reception area, indicates a connection (supported by neuro-imaging research) between empathic ability and yawning. "We believe that contagious yawning indicates empathy. It indicates an appreciation of other people's behavioural and physiological state," said Morrison.[7]

Another theory is that yawning is similar to stretching. Stretching, like yawning, increases blood pressure and heart rate while also flexing many muscles and joints. It is also theorized that yawning helps redistribute surfactant, an oil-like substance which coats the lungs and aids breathing. Some have observed that if one tries to stifle or prevent a yawn by clenching one's jaws shut, the yawn is unsatisfying. As such, the stretching of jaw and face muscles seems to be necessary for a satisfactory yawn.

Yet another theory is that yawning occurs to stabilize pressure on either side of the ear drums. The deep intake of air can sometimes cause a popping sound that only the yawner can hear; this is the pressure on the inner ear stabilizing. This commonly occurs in environments where pressure is changing relatively rapidly, such as inside an airplane and when travelling up and down hills, which cause the eardrums to be bent instead of flat. Some people yawn when storms approach, which is a sure sign that changes in pressure affect them.

Some movements in psychotherapy, such as Re-evaluation Counseling or co-counselling treatments, believe that yawning, along with laughter and crying, are means of "discharging" painful emotion, and therefore can be encouraged in order to promote physical and emotional healing.

[edit] Yawning as a medical sign

Excessive yawning has been associated with several medical conditions and may be considered as a medical sign for some diseases. These conditions include:[8]

    * Multiple sclerosis
    * Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    * Migraine headache (rare)
    * Radiation poisoning, including radiation therapy

Yawning may occur less frequently in persons with schizophrenia.

Certain medications may also induce yawning. These include:[9]

    * Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    * Levodopa
    * Dopamine agonists
    * Monoamine oxidase inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform (such as selegiline)
    * Ayahuasca, the psychoactive Amazonian tea that contains MAO-inhibiting harmala alkaloids
    * Opioids, such as morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, dextromethorphan
    * Benzodiazepines
    * Lidocaine
    * Flecainide
    * Psilocybin
    * Nemfomercen

[edit] Contagiousness

The yawn reflex is often described as contagious: if one person yawns, this will cause another person to "sympathetically" yawn.[3][10] Observing another person's yawning face (especially his/her eyes), or even reading about or thinking about yawning, can cause a person to yawn. You could possibly be yawning from reading this section or looking at these pictures.[3][11] However, only about 55% of people in a given audience will respond to such a stimulus; fewer if only the mouth is shown in a visual stimulus.[12]The proximate cause for contagious yawning may lie with mirror neurons, i.e. neurons in the frontal cortex of certain vertebrates, which upon being exposed to a stimulus from conspecific (same species) and occasionally interspecific organisms, activates the same regions in the brain.[13] Mirror neurons have been proposed as a driving force for imitation which lies at the root of much human learning, e.g. language acquisition. Yawning may be an offshoot of the same imitative impulse. A 2007 study found that children with autism spectrum disorders, unlike typical children, did not yawn after seeing videos of other people yawning; this supports the claim that contagious yawning is based on the capacity for empathy.[14]

To look at the issue in terms of evolutionary advantage, if there is one at all, yawning might be a herd instinct.[15] Other theories suggest that the yawn serves to synchronize mood behavior among gregarious animals, similar to the howling of the wolf pack. It signals tiredness to other members of the group in order to synchronize sleeping patterns and periods of activity. This phenomenon has been observed among various primates. The threat gesture is a way of maintaining order in the primates' social structure. Specific studies were conducted on chimpanzees[16] and stumptail macaques[17]. A group of these animals was shown a video of other conspecifics yawning, and both chimpanzees and stumptail macaques yawned also. This helps to partly confirm a yawn's "contagiousness".

Gordon Gallup, who hypothesizes that yawning may be a means of keeping the brain cool, also hypothesizes that "contagious" yawning may be a survival instinct inherited from our evolutionary past. "During human evolutionary history when we were subject to predation and attacks by other groups, if everybody yawns in response to seeing someone yawn, the whole group becomes much more vigilant, and much better at being able to detect danger."[5]

[edit] Other uses for yawning

In non-human animals, yawning can serve as a warning signal. For example, Charles Darwin, in his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, mentioned that baboons use yawn to threaten their enemies, possibly by displaying large, canine teeth. Similarly, Siamese Fighting Fish yawn only when they see a conspecific (same species) or their own mirror-image, and their yawn often accompanies aggressive attack. [18] Guinea Pigs also yawn in a display of dominance or anger, displaying their impressive incisor teeth, this is often accompanied by teeth chattering, purring and scent marking.

Adelie Penguins employ yawning as part of their courtship ritual. Penguin couples face off and the males engage in what is described as an "ecstatic display," their beaks open wide and their faces pointed skyward. This trait has also been seen among Emperor Penguins. Researchers have been attempting to discover why these two different species share this trait, despite not sharing a habitat.[citation needed].

[edit] Superstitions

Certain superstitions surround the act of yawning. The most common of these is the belief that it is necessary to cover one's mouth when one is yawning in order to prevent one's soul from escaping the body. The Ancient Greeks believed that yawning was not a sign of boredom, but that a person's soul was trying to escape from its body, so that it may rest with the gods in the skies. This belief was also shared by the Maya.[citation needed]

Other superstitions include:

    * A yawn is a sign that danger is near.
    * Counting a person's teeth robs them of one year of life for every tooth counted. This is why some people cover their mouths when they laugh, smile, or yawn.
    * If two persons are seen to yawn one after the other, it is said that the one who yawned last bears no malice towards the one who yawned first.
    * The one who yawns first shows no malice towards those he or she yawns around.
    * If you don't cover your mouth while yawning, then the devil will come and steal your soul (Estonia).
    * In Ancient Mayan civilization, yawning was thought to indicate subconscious sexual desires.
    * In some Latin American, East Asian and Central African countries yawning is said to be caused by someone else talking about you.
    * A yawn may be a sign that one is afflicted by the evil eye (Greece).
    * When one person yawns, it is said that anybody watching will instantly yawn as well

These superstitions may not only have arisen to prevent people from committing the faux pas of yawning loudly in another's presence — one of Mason Cooley's aphorisms is "A yawn is more disconcerting than a contradiction" — but may also have arisen from concerns over public health. Polydore Vergil (c. 1470–1555), in his De Rerum Inventoribus, writes that it was customary to make the sign of the cross over one's mouth, since "alike deadly plague was sometime in yawning, wherefore men used to fence themselves with the sign of the cross...which custom we retain at this day."[19]

[edit] Consequences of Yawning

In November 2007 a Surrey man nearly lost his life through yawning: his jaw dislocated and he began to choke on his own saliva, only prompt action by his wife in summoning an ambulance saved his life.[20]
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #931 on: 12/01/2008 19:09:33 »
Zeta Airplane (Miller Aircraft, 1937)




Quote
...
Mark Granville and "Pete" Miller
found twenty people to invest $100 dollars each and formed the Miller Aircraft Corporation. In 1936 they built a side-by-side sport plane (X1331) with a 125 HP Menasco engine. It was named "Zeta" because Miller's fraternity at NYU was Zeta Psi. The plane's first flight was made on DEC 11, 1937. No market was found, so Mark and his wife used it for short pleasure trips until W.W.II restrictions on private aircraft forced the plane into retirement with only 200 hours logged. The dismantled plane was found in a barn, refurbished and donated to the Springfield Science Museum in 1978. Thanks to Romaine Lambert
...


« Last Edit: 12/01/2008 19:12:24 by iko »
 

Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #932 on: 12/01/2008 22:04:42 »
Hey Iko what's up with ya and aeroplanes?
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #933 on: 12/01/2008 22:07:45 »
Hey Iko what's up with ya and aeroplanes?

Hi Simulated!
We have been playing this for such a long time,
so I decided to restrict it to just 1 subject:
it's more challanging!
Take care.

ikod   [^]

« Last Edit: 12/01/2008 22:13:33 by iko »
 

Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #934 on: 13/01/2008 14:39:59 »
Haha that's a good one! (Why do you think my name is Simulated? lol)

A is for Aeroplane!



A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. The term is used to distinguish from rotary-wing aircraft or ornithopters, where the movement of the wing surfaces relative to the aircraft generates lift. Fixed-wing aircraft are called airplanes in North America (the U.S. and Canada), and aeroplanes in Commonwealth countries and Ireland (excluding Canada). These terms are derived from Greek αέρας (aéras-) ("air") and -plane.[1]. The current British word is the older of the two terms, dating back to the mid-late 19th century.
« Last Edit: 13/01/2008 14:50:28 by Simulated »
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #935 on: 13/01/2008 16:57:22 »
 

Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #936 on: 17/01/2008 00:05:34 »
C is for Communications


Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Communication requires that all parties understand a common language that is exchanged with each other. Exchange requires feedback. The word communication is also used in the context where little or no feedback is expected such as broadcasting, or where the feedback may be delayed as the sender or receiver use different methods, technologies, timing and means for feedback.

There are auditory means, such as speaking,singing and sometimes tone of voice, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, or the use of writing.

Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the parameters of human symbolic interaction.

Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:

Content (what type of things are communicated)
Source/Emisor/Sender/Encoder (by whom)
Form (in which form)
Channel (through which medium)
Destination/Receiver/Target/Decoder (to whom)
Purpose/Pragmatic aspect

Between parties, communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice and commands, and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in one of the various manners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating. Together, communication content and form make messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be oneself, another person or being , another entity (such as a corporation or group of beings).

Depending on the focus (who, what, in which form, to whom, to which effect), there exist various classifications. Some of those systematical questions are elaborated in Communication theory.
 

Offline JimBob

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #937 on: 17/01/2008 03:24:03 »
Drag

When things stick out from the air frame and/or foils they cause the laminar flow of air over an airplane to eddy and create resistance to forward movement. This is a DRAG. It slows the airplane down.
« Last Edit: 17/01/2008 03:26:50 by JimBob »
 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #939 on: 18/01/2008 21:34:19 »
F is for Flight Simulator.

 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #940 on: 18/01/2008 22:15:43 »
Gotta that pic only?  ;D


Gyroscope  (Gyro)




Quote
...
Gyrocompasses are basically navigation aids. Gyroscopes don't like to change direction, so if they are mounted into a device that allows them to move freely (low friction gimbal). Then when the device is moved in different directions the gyroscope will still point in the same direction. This can then be measured and the results can be used in similar ways to a normal compass. But unlike a standard magnetic compass is not magnetic environmental changes and readings are move accurate. Gyrocompasses are commonly used in ships and aircraft.

 

Offline Simulated

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #941 on: 19/01/2008 02:29:43 »
H is for Helicopter



A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each rotor consisting of two or more rotor blades. Helicopters are classified as rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from fixed-wing aircraft because the helicopter derives its source of lift from the rotor blades rotating around a mast. The word 'helicopter' is adapted from the French hélicoptère, coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amecourt in 1861. It is linked to the Greek words helix/helik- (ἕλικ-) = "spiral" or "turning" and pteron (πτερόν) = "wing".[1][2]

As an aircraft, the primary advantages of the helicopter are due to the rotor blades that revolve through the air, providing lift without requiring the aircraft to move forward the way an airplane does. This creates the ability for the helicopter to take off and land vertically without the need for runways. For this reason, helicopters are often used to operate in congested or isolated areas where airplanes are generally not able to take off or land. The lift from the rotor also allows the helicopter to hover in one area for extended periods of time, and to do so more efficiently than other forms of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft, allowing it to accomplish tasks that airplanes are unable to perform.

Although helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, some even reaching limited production, it wasn't until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky became the first helicopter to enter full-scale production,[3] with 131 aircraft built.[4] Even though most previous designs utilized more than one main rotor, it was the single main rotor with antitorque tail rotor configuration of this design that would come to be recognized worldwide as the helicopter.

 

Offline iko

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #942 on: 19/01/2008 08:54:54 »
Ils

   
Instrument Landing System




Quote
...
The Instrument Landing System adds glide-slope, or elevation information. Commonly called the ILS, it is the granddaddy of them all when it comes to getting down close to the ground. In every sense it is a precision approach system and with the most sophisticated equipment it can guide you right down to the runway—zero Decision-Height and zero visibility.

If you jumped to this point of the website without proceeding through the earlier sections, I strongly recommend that you return to the Air Navigation section and review the sections on VFR Sectional Charts, IFR enroute low altitude charts, and the basics of plotting a course. Further, you should go to the NDB Approaches/Approach Plates section and read the basics of Instrument Approach Plates, now called Terminal Procedures.
...
 

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Re: A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #943 on: 19/01/2008 14:11:34 »
Ah that's sweet never heard of it! Thanks.

J is for Jauguar (airplane)

 

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« Reply #944 on: 19/01/2008 18:34:31 »
Knot




Quote
KNOT

(Nautical Mile per Hour) Most common measure of aircraft speed equaling 6,080 feet or about 1.15 miles. (For mph, multiply knots by 1.15.)
 

Offline opus

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« Reply #945 on: 19/01/2008 22:31:28 »
M is for Manston- small Brit airfield- sorry no amazing picture!
 

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« Reply #946 on: 20/01/2008 00:53:42 »
N is for No planes over Washington :P
 

Offline iko

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« Reply #947 on: 20/01/2008 19:14:34 »
O-rings

 
(booster rockets - Challanger, Jan. 28 1986)




(foto ufficiale dell’equipaggio del Challenger: da sinistra, Ellison S. Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Greg Jarvis e Judy Resnik. Davanti, da sinistra, Mike Smith, Dick Scobee, e Ron McNair. Fonte Nasa)

 

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A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #948 on: 20/01/2008 21:39:17 »
P is for Pilot (Aviator)

An aviator is a person who flies aircraft for pleasure or as a profession. The word is normally applied to pilots, but it can be applied more broadly, for example to include people such as wing-walkers who regularly take part in an aerobatic display sequence. The word aviatrix is sometimes used of women flyers, reflecting the word's Latin root.

The term was more used in the early days of aviation and has connotations of bravery and adventure. Anyone can fly an aircraft, with or without a certificate. However, at all times the aircraft must be under the operational control of a properly certified and current pilot, who is responsible for the safe and legal completion of the flight. The first certificate was delivered by the Aero Club de France to Louis Blériot in 1908, followed by Glenn Curtiss, Leon Delagrange and Robert Esnault-Pelterie. The absolute authority given to the Pilot in Command is derived from that of a ship’s captain.[citation needed]

In the United Kingdom there were (in 2000) 31,885 private pilots and 16,449 airline and commercial pilots (ATPL and CPL) registered with the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Among private pilots, 6% are female (approximately 1800). In the commercial sector this percentage drops to 2%.

The United States Federal Aviation Administration estimates there are 609,737 active pilots with US Airmen certificates as of December 31, 2005. [1] Of these, about 6% (36,584) are female.

The U.S. state of Alaska has the highest number of pilots per capita: out of an estimated 663,661 residents, 8,550 are pilots, or about one in every 78.



 

Offline iko

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« Reply #949 on: 24/01/2008 16:19:50 »
Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier



Quote
...
HMS Queen Elizabeth will be the first of the Royal Navy's two new Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers and is scheduled to enter service in 2014.[1]

Queen Elizabeth and her sister ship (Prince of Wales) will be the largest warships ever built in the United Kingdom. They are multi-purpose carriers that can adapt to complete multiple roles. It will be capable of carrying 40 aircraft (the F-35B Lightning II) or 25 Chinook helicopters, a major capability upgrade from the current Invincible class carriers.

The ships will be built in four sections, at Portsmouth, Rosyth, Barrow-in-Furness, and on the Clyde, by BAE Systems and VT Group before being assembled on the Clyde.[2]



from:  http://www.answers.com/topic/hms-queen-elizabeth-cvf
 

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A-Z of AVIONICS
« Reply #949 on: 24/01/2008 16:19:50 »

 

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