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Offline McQueen

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Gestalt Aether Theory: An Introduction
« on: 17/07/2015 09:31:53 »
A DISCUSSION ON PHOTONS:
One of the serious shortcomings of modern day theories of physics is the inadequate attention paid to the methodology of the physical phenomena involved. In most instances such oversight is not significant, and has not resulted in noticeable imbalances in the theory of physics. Nevertheless in one critical area, oversights in the methodology involved in collating data has resulted in glaring inconsistencies in every important branch of physics. By methodology is meant not only the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study, comprising the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge but also the sequential timelines of observed facts and properties that are associated with such a study.

The possibility of the existence of photon like particles had existed since Newton’s publication of his Hypothesis of Light in 1675. The assertion in this paper that light had particle like properties came into direct confrontation with the theories of Hugyens who favoured the wave theory of light. The controversy raged until Thomas Young seemed to settle the problem with the Double Slit Experiment which showed that light underwent interference and diffraction which would not have been possible if it had been particle like in nature. At the turn of the century in 1900 Max Planck came out with his startling theory of the quantization of electromagnetic radiation. The photon is known as the quantum of electromagnetic radiation. In physics, a quantum is a basic indivisible unit or state that may be present or absent but never stronger or weaker.

In 1905, Albert Einstein published a paper describing his discovery of the photoelectric effect where a photon ( the term photon had yet to be coined, Einstein referred to these particles as quanta or wave packets) acts like a particle. Einstein proposed that for some purposes light can be regarded as made up of photon particles. In 1905, Einstein was the first to propose that energy quantization was a property of electromagnetic radiation itself. Although he accepted the validity of Maxwell's theory, Einstein pointed out that many anomalous experiments could be explained if the energy of a Maxwellian light wave were localized into point-like quanta that move independently of one another, even if the wave itself is spread continuously over space.
In 1909 and 1916, Einstein showed that, if Planck's law of black-body radiation is accepted, the energy quanta must also carry momentum , making them full-fledged particles.

Considering the fact that light and electromagnetic radiation form such a crucial component of modern day physics it is surprising that it took almost thirty years after Max Planck’s hypotheses of the quantization of electromagnetic radiation for the term photon to be adopted. What could be the reason for this delay. After all, light is one of the most seriously discussed topics in physics.  Yet even thirty years after definitive proof of its existence was available, the phenomenon had no name ! The name photon derives from the Greek word for light. The American physicist Arthur Compton used the term photon in 1928, referring to Gilbert N. Lewis who had used the term "photon" to denote the smallest unit of radiant energy. It was only with Compton’s use of the term in 1928 that the term photon gained widespread acceptance. Since the term photon gained currency at such a late date it is reasonable to assume that the properties possessed by the photon were equally shrouded in ambiguity till such a late date.

Thus apart from the actual nomenclature involved, there is also the question of the physical properties of the photon that were virtually unknown or vague to the majority of physicists till the term photon came into wide-spread use in 1928. Most of the properties of the photon were proven beyond reasonable doubt through empirical experiments. The photon was known to have particle like properties but was a particle without measurable mass, this is the first great departure from accepted rationality. How can a particle exist without possessing mass? How can a particle that has no mass possess momentum ? How can a particle, which implies an object with physical attributes, move at the speed of light ? The photon was known to possess discrete amounts of energy. The photon has its origin in the electron it serves as the mediator of energies in electron interactions. The photon is known to possess both frequency and wave-length, these are wave like properties while the ability to possess momentum is a particle like property. photons are present in trillions of frequencies and wave-lengths, how is it possible for an electron to contain such a huge number of discrete particles within itself. This idea of wave/particle duality added to the confusion since the photon seemed to possess both wave like and particle like properties simultaneously.

A major factor in the long time it took for the existence of the photon and its implication of quantized energy in the form of packets of energy to gain widespread acceptance was undoubtedly James Clerk Maxwell’s theory on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Physicists were loath to accept the fact that such a well put forward explanation as that proposed by Maxwell on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, could be incomplete or even wrong. Maxwell’s theory of light was a wave theory while Einstein and Planck seemed to support a particle theory. Max Planck himself was at first unwilling to relinquish Maxwell’s theory in favour of Einstein’s photoelectric theory. The photoelectric effect, was initially rejected by Planck. He was unwilling to discard completely Maxwell's theory of electrodynamics. "The theory of light would be thrown back not by decades, but by centuries, into the age when Christian Huygens dared to fight against the mighty emission theory of Isaac Newton ..." Yet Planck was equally unwilling to give ground over his findings on the quantization of electromagnetic radiation, which stated that light was made up of discrete energy packets or quanta and not of a continuous wave as had hitherto been thought to be true. He struggled against his own findings: "My unavailing attempts to somehow reintegrate the action quantum into classical theory extended over several years and caused me much trouble." Even several years later, other physicists like Rayleigh, Jeans, and Lorentz set Planck's constant to zero in order to align with classical physics, but Planck knew well that this constant had a precise nonzero value. "I am unable to understand Jeans' stubbornness — he is an example of a theoretician as should never be existing, the same as Hegel was for philosophy. So much the worse for the facts if they don't fit."

With the coming of Quantum Mechanics the departure from accepted rationality gathered pace almost exponentially. According to Quantum Mechanics the photon is thought to posses the ability to undergo disembodiment, in order to lend clarity to this statement it should be explained that the Quantum Mechanics explanation of light propagation is that, once emitted at a certain point the photon would experience something akin to disembodiment and would exist at every point in between its point of origin and its destination, until it was detected. Once detected the photon would in effect reassemble itself, or gather to itself all its disembodied components and be present only in that particular location. Although the implication might be that Quantum Mechanics might suggest that the process of the disembodiment of light is theoretical, the disembodiment existing solely in the form of a probability wave, yet if the statement is followed to its logical conclusion it follows that the theory refers to the actual physical disembodiment of light as otherwise such disembodiment would serve little or no purpose. Equivalent to this theory of the physical disembodiment of light is the Quantum Mechanics theory that a photon can be in two places simultaneously. The Double Slit Experiment as conducted with single photons is offered as physical proof in support of this statement since it shows that even single photons experience interference when both slits are open and undergo diffraction when only a single slit is open. This behaviour seems to imply either that the photons possess some sixth sense that tells them when both slits in the Double Slit Experiment are open or that the photon can exist in two places simultaneously and that when both slits are open a single photon has the ability to pass through both slits simultaneously. Both of these explanations, namely that individual photons are aware that both slits are open and that individual photons can pass through both slits simultaneously, are held to be valid in Quantum Mechanics. With hindsight it seems obvious that such arcane theories should at least have met with a degree of opposition or scepticism, yet in practice the reverse was true. For the first time in the history of modern science, arcane theories analogous to theories of supernatural phenomena having no basis but in hypotheses exercised a bizarre enchantment over the minds of scientists and gained ascendancy over empirical evidence. No longer was it necessary to question, how such a phenomenon could take place it was necessary only to accept the arcane explanation, put forward an explanation that was supported by equally arcane and suspect mathematics. Escalating the differences between empirically based sciences and those based on hypothetical premises that in themselves were based on a questionable physical basis, was Neils Bohr’s ¬complementarity Theory which is today accepted as a fundamental principle of Quantum Mechanics. The complementarity Theory states that light can possess either particle or wave like properties but can never possess both properties simultaneously. The question is why was not this fundamental principle questioned? Why can’t light possess both properties simultaneously? Consider also the connotation of what exactly a fundamental principle especially as associated with physics actually means. It means a FACT that cannot be questioned. The proof of its existence is so overwhelming that it is impossible to deny the force of its argument. Yet the complementarity Principle is sadly lacking in such attributes. It can be questioned ,more acceptable and rational explanations are readily available. As a fundamental principle when judged by this criteria the complementarity Principle is little more than wishful raving.

Today the question of whether an object can possess both wave like and particle like properties simultaneously is a non sequitur the answer would be an outright positive. Yes ! The concept of ultrasound used in medical procedures to shatter kidney stones is so well known that any other answer would be considered obtuse. Yet in 1900 and even as late as 1926 such a concept would have been considered the most far-fetched science fiction possible. It would be reminiscent of a cave man trying to break a rock by shouting at it, not possible ! An intangible concept such as a sound wave suddenly has the force or energy to break a stone. The question that remains is, why when such an obvious and apposite explanation exists for wave/particle duality, is it possible that the explanation is dismissed out of hand without even being considered ? Even taking as a starting point the trillions of wave-lengths and frequencies that an electron can emit, a form of energy that is simultaneously both particle and wave is a far more acceptable explanation than a spectral photon that is sometimes wave and sometime particle. In order to understand how it is possible for the photon to possess the properties of both wave and particle as well as being without mass and being neutral in charge, it is necessary to consider the physical form that a photon might take.
To be contd.......


 

Offline McQueen

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Re: Gestalt Aether Theory: An Introduction
« Reply #1 on: 17/07/2015 10:03:17 »
A DISCUSSION ON PHOTONS CONTD…..
Elaborating on this hypotheses that a photon can be part particle and part wave. Let us examine the facts ( and not hypotheses) as they arise: It is established beyond reasonable doubt, through empirical observation and experiment that the electron is a charged particle. As such it has been observed that the electron is constantly undergoing changes in its energy, as for instance when jumping from an inner to an outer orbit within the atom and vice- versa and also when atoms are irradiated or imparted with energy in some other manner. This has been painstakingly and exactly established by formulation of the Rydberg, Lymer and Balmer series of spectra. Thus it is proven beyond reasonable doubt that when an electron experiences a change in its energy it has been observed that the change of energy takes place through the emission or absorption of a photon. In other words the photon is the mediator of energy for the electron. Having established that it is the photon that mediates all changes of energy in the state of the electron the next step would be to establish the physical composition of a photon. What physical composition might the photon possess that would give to it all the attributes that have been observed ?

The electron changes its energy state through emission or absorption of a photon, could it be that what the electron is emitting and absorbing is nothing less than bursts of electrical energy. What could be more natural than for such a thing to take place. When the electron wishes to lose energy it emits a series of bursts of electrical energy and when it needs to gain energy it absorbs a burst or packet of electrical energy. Think for a moment of what an efficacious method this would be for the electron to change the state of its electrical energy, through using such a method extremely accurate amounts of energy might be dispensed or absorbed. This accuracy in the dispensation and collection of energy would account for the trillions and trillions of photon energies available. Note that polarisation of the emitted energies would automatically take place since the energies emitted by the electron would be naturally  more negative at first and more positive later, resulting in a bi-polar structure. What might happen when the electron emits such bursts of electrical energy, it might take the form shown in the diagram below:


The electron emits bursts of energy, it cannot emit a single fixed burst of energy because that would not account for observed phenomenon that photons have trillions upon trillions of (if electromagnetic radiation is included ) different energies, while bursts of emitted energy would imply the extremely accurate dispensation of energy in a controlled manner and could therefore handle the trillions of frequencies that an electron is seen to emit. Since the time lapse between these emissions of individual bursts of energy is extremely small, the physical gaps between the different emitted bands of energy is equally small and would exclude the inclusion of any atoms or molecules, hence the gaps between the emitted bands of energy contain a vacuum which is an excellent di-electric.  The existence of bands of energy separated by a dielectric gives the energy emitted by the electron the structure of a capacitor, this capacitor like structure means that the energy can be maintained intact almost indefinitely. The capacitor like structure also results in the electrical energy of the bands of emitted energy forming a solenoidal field around itself. The capacitor like structure means that the energy of the photon can be stored practically forever without undergoing change, while its solenoid like structure,  in turn gives the photon two of its most important properties, namely that it is electrically neutral and that it also can link up with other photons to possess wave like properties. Hence a bi-polar wave/particle possessing the properties of both wave and particle:



An examination of this model of the photon given below shows clearly both the solenoidal field surrounding the photon structure as well as the bands of energy separated by a dielectric.



The existence of the solenoidal field around the photon, gives it wave like characteristics, it can link up with other photons either end to end or side by side (i.e., serially or in parallel).
PHOTONS CONNECTED IN SERIES:

PHOTONS CONNECTED IN PARALLEL:


The frequency of the photon would depend on the time interval at which it is emitted by the electron, if the colour green is seen it means that each electron is oscillating at the rate of 550 THz a second and emitting photons with a wavelength of 550 nm at a similar rate.. For instance since blue light is emitted at a rate of 650 THz the wavelength of the photon can then be calculated by dividing the speed of light by the frequency : . Thus the picture of the photon that emerges is of a bi-polar particle.
It can now be easily verified that this model of the photon accounts for all of the properties of the photon:
1. The photon has no mass.
2. The photon is never at rest.
3. The photon is electrically neutral
4. The photon always travels at the speed of light c. in a vacuum.
5. The photon retains its energy intact over huge distances until it is absorbed by another atom.
6. The photon possesses both wave like and particle like properties.
7. The photon can manifest in trillions of different frequencies energies and wavelengths.
Put forward here for the physical composition of the photon is in keeping with the fundamental principles of physics that state that any conclusion that is made from observation and experiment should be unequivocal and not susceptible to multiple explanations. In this instance it is so obviously the only explanation that fits all facts and observations that even Isaac Newton would not have found fault with it ! The force of its logic is overwhelming, there can be no other answer as to what the physical composition of the photon might be! Further it puts in its proper place such esoteric theories that are at present accepted as gospel as those that believe that a photon can be disembodied or be in two places at the same time ! or that the photon has some kind of pre-cognitive sense as to when certain conditions exist! The logic is overwhelming, the electron emits bursts of energy that form small packet or quanta of energy, that travel at the speed of light, that have no mass, that deliver or take away energy and thus act as mediators of the electron energy, that such a mechanism allows for the existence of trillions of wave-lengths and associated frequencies and so on. There is NOTHING esoteric about the Gestalt Aether Theory on the nature of light and related phenomena, whatsoever, further there is absolutely no need whatsoever of anything even approaching the esoteric.  Still to come in subsequent posts will be the Gestalt Aether take on Gravity, Magnetism, propagation of electricity in a wire , super conductivity and more.

Apart from the arguments advanced above against Quantum Mechanics are several others:
Schrodinger's Equation on which the probability wave is based requires the use, mathematically, of 276 dimensions. In the renormalisation procedure used by quantum electrodynamics infinities amounting to 1012 are routinely brought back to zero and written off.
Have you ever heard of division by zero; Quantum Mechanics routinely uses such methods.
Given such circumstances and being absolutely honest with oneself, which explanation is more acceptable and more important, likely , the extremely confused convoluted and esoteric Quantum Mechanics view of the photon or the one outlined here as the Gestalt Aether Theory model of the photon.


 

The Naked Scientists Forum

Re: Gestalt Aether Theory: An Introduction
« Reply #1 on: 17/07/2015 10:03:17 »

 

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