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Offline McQueen

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The Gestalt Aether Theory of Electricity:
« on: 09/08/2015 11:00:00 »
Ever since electricity  was discovered a century and a half ago, it has been taken for granted that the electron was the fundamental charge carrier. It is strange that Quantum Mechanics which normally takes great pride in introducing radical new theories has continued to advocate this archaic notion of the electron as the fundamental charge carrier despite being aware of the fact that it is the photon that is the mediator of energy for the electron in every known instance (except in the case of  the propagation of an electric current in a wire). In every known case of electrons and energy exchange it is photons that are the medium of exchange of energy. In atoms the absorption or emission of photons is responsible for  the electron either gaining or losing energy and jumping to a higher or lower orbit, while a  moving electron radiates energy in the form of photons ( electromagnetic radiation). Further the fact that the speed with which;  light travels, at which electromagnetic waves travel and at which electricity travels are all the same and in fact are the only instances in the whole of nature where anything travels at that speed (i.e., the speed of c) shows that all three are intimately related. Quantum Mechanics seems to have completely missed the significance of the fact that while light and electromagnetic radiation are mediated by photons,  an electrical current, which also travels at the speed of light is attributed to electrons; a huge and telling oversight. They still insist that it is electrons that are the fundamental charge carriers when current is flowing in a wire.  Even if one takes for granted that it is not the electrons themselves that are conveying the energy but the electromagnetic waves generated by moving charges (i.e., electrons) is only a little less acceptable than saying that it is electrons themselves that carry electricity. For one thing the drift velocity of electrons in a wire carrying a direct current is something like 10-3 cm/s  or a hundredth of a millimeter every second. Is it possible that such a slow movement can result in electricity that moves at  d8cb9ed26bbe34fca8aad73123b9bdad.gif cm/sec . Further radio waves are thought by Quantum Mechanics to be caused by lattice vibrations and electron spin. ALL VERY UNSATISFACTORY. Read the following and see if you agree:
 A key concept in the Gestalt Aether theory of light is that of limiting the size of the longest wave-length photon that an electron can emit. Present theories hold that low energy electromagnetic radiation like radio waves are emitted by reason of the jiggling or oscillation of atoms and ions within an electrical conductor (lattice vibrations), while high energy electromagnetic radiation such as light and x-rays are directly emitted by electrons due to stimulation. The problem with this theory is that some radio waves, like those due to a 60 Hz ac current are more than 5000km in length. The question is how can the oscillation of an electron with a size of
 d256a3e4c7ead7324c51af66803a727d.gif (classical radius of electron) result in a wave which is
6e8336d7115f0ecf60dc3dc3e035ce16.gif  in length?
Try and work out the mathematics but it doesn’t look too promising. Further this huge 20ceb07bc4046cd4e2336955c43d173e.gif wave length possesses all the properties of a normal photon, it travels at the speed of light, retains its energy etc., how can two such identical phenomena (i.e. high energy light waves and low energy radio waves) be attributed to two different causative factors? High energy photons being directly emitted by excited electrons while low energy photons (like radio waves are attributed to the oscillation of atoms in the conductor. Surely this is bad science? The Gestalt Aether theory states that there is a limit to the longest wave-length photon that an electron can emit and that the size of this wave-length is about
5f85c65c49962eb81eca0e24c7a43468.gif
which is considerably below the longest wave-length of visible light. Since electrons have been seen to emit and absorb photons with a wave-length of
aef8024cb0801bac03331dfc14639a16.gif
this seems to be an acceptable conclusion. So how do large wave lengths form ? The TGestalt Aether theory answer to this is that all electromagnetic waves greater than 49af241a22e24080c775a37738772fd6.gif
in wave length are composite waves , i.e. they are made up of joined or connected photons. This joining up of photons is made possible because of their solenoidal structure and can take place in two orientations ; in series

or in parallel.

The largest photon wave length which an electron can emit is also, according to the Gestalt Aether theory , the photon which carries electrical energy and hence has been named the “conduction “ photon. Light when it travels through substances such as glass , crystal or water uses a method called “photon conduction” to pass through the substance, photons being rapidly absorbed and emitted during its passage. Yet when it comes to the conduction of electrical energy it is believed that it is electrons that serve to conduct electrical energy. Thus although every other form of energy related to electrons such as radiation and heat is mediated by photons , an exception is at present made in the case ofan electrical current. Photons according to quantum mechanics cannot exist within a conductor due to the classical concept of recoil forces and the conservation of energy. An electron within an atom that emits or absorbs a photon has the massive nucleus to absorb the forces of recoil while a free electron within the electrical conductor would have nothing against which to rebound and absorb the forces of recoil. Thus the Laws of conservation of energy forbid free electrons from absorbing or emitting photons.  Yet there are many facts which mitigate against this theory , electrons in a conductor have a drift velocity of  00f1621a4dbd434144e5fd9d1cf2a29b.gif while the current is seen to be established at approx the speed of light or
e75527d453cdffe817842e62c29d47f0.gif  ( three billion millimeters a second), this is a huge discrepancy , how is it possible to rationalize this inconsistency ? Gestalt Aether theory holds that electric current flows in an electrical conductor when free electrons in the conductor emit and absorb ‘conduction’ photons.
To be contd......
« Last Edit: 09/08/2015 11:33:38 by McQueen »


 

Offline McQueen

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Re: The Gestalt Aether Theory of Electricity:
« Reply #1 on: 09/08/2015 11:16:08 »
The Propagation of Electricity Contd......

The Quantum Mechanics explanation for the fact that free electrons in a wire carrying a current cannot emit or absorb photons is that it is not possible for a free electron to absorb or emit electrons due to the fact that the forces of recoil involved would violate the conservation of energy. If a free electron could absorb a photon, then, according to conservation of energy and momentum:
1910d4b64214001bba521835075b9fc5.gif
 (Eq1 d5f2ff7b86ee3aeee8c9931e3240b167.gif
 (Eq2) where260b57b4fdee8c5a001c09b555ccd28d.gif and  k  are the frequency and wave number of the photon, respectively,   m  the electron’s rest mass,   p the momentum of the electron after absorbing the photon.
Eq2 leads to 859b1acdcb8faa8ad9016c2d901f1c28.gif
(Eq3) Insert Eq3 into Eq2, and square of the left side is
1e3691548da160cfa6e75f1a0ce1b6ba.gifwhen square of the right side is
1e3691548da160cfa6e75f1a0ce1b6ba.gif
So, if Eq1 holds,  aa2dffda7b32a2ae806f162581af8e3f.gif
There is no photon carrying vanishing energy. Hence, absorbing of a photon by a free electron is forbidden. Emitting of a photon is Forbidden Suppose the initial (before photon emitting) and final (after photon emitting) 4-momentum of the electron are separately
c97f704e0f7a679a84d4028c9eac0225.gif,364d2cdc531f706638d426e583d5c541.gif:
9cc8a58a599dbd11bac554b785c39368.gif,    d14702b3dec8f4158e04fd6cf22925e0.gif
 (Eq4) According to conservation of energy and momentum:
4e0e9cdc1c1a7169647b868067208b27.gif   
(Eq5)  858cd6c7f575bb8da9d370632cef1bfe.gif
(Eq6) where  4500e931bbfd370d2a80ebe56618ae49.gif refers to the 4-momentum of the photon.
From Eq5 and Eq6, we recall that
465bdc75501790a6b416eff98aeb4203.gif
 (Eq8)   Insert Eq8 into Eq7, we have
 baaeab912380a0bd126effd061b5ed10.gif
 (Eq9) Yet  f32da71677f595e7c91a4635acaa7441.gif, so, 275aa539b7fece68e4ed667cc499ac7b.gif,
to ensure Eq5 and Eq6 hold. Thus the state of motion of the electron is not disturbed, with no momentum transported to the photon. Hence, emitting of a photon by the free electron is forbidden. Thus a simple inability to cope with conservation of momentum laws forbids free electrons from either absorbing or emitting electrons. But think of the HUP Heisenberg’s Exclusion Principle dealing with energy and time which states that if an interaction takes place fast enough it can elude the conservation laws !
e1834c0fc20b1a65b0dc94cda20606ae.gif.
What does this mean it means simply that if a free electron travelling in a conductor emits a photon and then is able to re-absorb that photon fast enough, then it has avoided the conservation of momentum laws. So the Gestalt Aether Theory states that electricity is conducted not by electrons but by photons. So what happens to these photons, they have been emitted by the electron and have to be reabsorbed as soon as possible, one way to achieve this if an immediate vacnay is unavailable is to exit the conductor, so the conduction photons exit the conductor and the ‘virtual’ photons of the ‘virtual’ photon Aether immediately line up in the direction of their propagation with the result that what we know as electromagnetic fields of force appear around the conductor, that is photons are being emitted and then immediately being re-absorbed. Why ? Because these photons can only be reabsorbed by electrons needing a similar quantum of energy to that which they carry. The nearest source of such electrons is within the conductor, so the photons re-enter the conductor forming what we know of as lines of force. Each line of force has the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon. Now what happens if the flow of the current suddenly stops the photons that are outside the conductor realign themselves in parallel and leave the conductor at the speed of light, in this case each line of force shares the energy of a single ‘conduction’ photon:
PHOTONS IN SERIES:

PHOTONS IN PARALLEL:

This orientation of the photons explains the energy difference between near and far fields. Each line of force has the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, these photons are connected in series, each radio wave has an energy calculated by dividing the  wave-length of  the radio wave  by the wave-length of the conduction photon to get the number of conduction photons among which the energy is shared and then dividing the energy 0f9925457a8362dfbd541adaef71e405.gifof the composite radio wave by that number to get the energy  equal to 638d8af16ce2b3f0bc4df79e340a805c.gif :
This orientation of the photons ( in series and in parallel) explains the energy difference between near and far fields. According to Gestalt Aether Theory, the fundamental charge carrier involved in the transmission of electricity is not as has erroneously believed for the past three hundred years the electron, but the photon. The Gestalt Aether Theory hypotheses is that photons are emitted and immediately re-absorbed by free electrons within the conductor (brouillion zone) in keeping with Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle fc1f82feeb292259ff533c8143784c48.gif and are therefore are able to avoid the Laws of conservation which otherwise would prevent such emission and absorption of photons by free electrons present in the conductor.
To be contd….
« Last Edit: 09/08/2015 11:30:44 by McQueen »
 

Offline McQueen

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Re: The Gestalt Aether Theory of Electricity:
« Reply #2 on: 09/08/2015 11:24:37 »
The Propagation of Electricity Contd……. :

 One of the outcomes of this extremely rapid emission and absorption of photons by free electrons within the conductor carrying a current are the lines of force that appear around any current carrying conductor. These lines of force are the manifestation of the ‘virtual’ photon Aether which line themselves up in the line of propagation of the real photon forming the complicated patterns that surround a conductor carrying electricity.  Thus for those who constantly complain, where is this ‘aether’ that you are talking about ? The answer is that it is literally all around you, right out there in the open, surrounding the power line which comes to the house, in the electricity that runs the TV and the computer in and out of the numerous light fittings, in and around the compressor in the fridge and so on. Look at the following picture:

As is demonstrated by the pictures shown above it can be seen that seemingly an almost infinite number of lines of force emerge from and re-enter the electrical conductor. In actual fact these lines of force are not infinite in number and can be very accurately calculated using the fact that 1 coulomb is equal to 1.6 x 10 19electrons approx. These lines of force is where the electrical energy is stored. As has been stated the drift velocity of electrons under the influence of an electrical difference of potential is extremely slow: Drift velocity is expressed in the following equations
ed90e9b4c5e087ff8c0e3a8c989dc283.gif where
 J  is the current density,
d2606be4e0cd2c9a6179c8f2e3547a85.gif is charge density (in units C/m3), and
Similarly the frequency  260b57b4fdee8c5a001c09b555ccd28d.gifthe wave-length c6a6eb61fd9c6c913da73b3642ca147d.gif and the energy  e  of the composite wavelength may be calculated either using  0f9925457a8362dfbd541adaef71e405.gif  planck’s constant  x frequency or by dividing of the quantum energy of the conduction photon by the number of photons comprising the composite wavelength. Now it is possible to see how the energy of the far field and the near field are produced. In the near field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in series and each line of force holds the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, so that in effect each line of force has an energy of  b3a28b9e065dadfd49faf8b80dde4d04.gifThis fits in with well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver  b3a28b9e065dadfd49faf8b80dde4d04.gif  .
As far as the far field goes , here also the results are in line with observed data. In the far field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in parallel thus each photon contains the energy of one conduction photon divided by the composite wave length. For example, given that we have a 0.75 m wave length in the far field then its energy will equal :
d1868262d787701fc7badab075e9161e.gif
 Here  d343e10f72f837e01f31d3136ed8e383.gif
Therefore  4274bece0fdbea8df4cc92b9ddd018f8.gif
Using conventional formula the same result can be reached :
374e301a10c0c81d61bcec907e8fe265.gif
7f1835adee5df02b75bf451900d58ab7.gif
We can also see that if a voltage of one I volt is applied to the conductor and a current of 1 coulomb is made to flow then total current  I = 6.241509324.10^{18}  conduction photons or  e567bd0b0aa9f4f0e5fff050c8047a8b.gif  . Delivered at the speed of light C !
Returning to the subject of the drift velocity of electrons in a conductor carrying an electric current.  The picture that is given for the transmission of electricity in most Institutions goes something like this: ‘ Imagine a tube filled with ping pong balls (the ping pong balls represent electrons) if sufficient ping pong balls are present when one is put in at this end another pops out of the other end.’

v_avg  is the drift velocity, and where is the electron mobility (in units m2/V•s) and
  T  is the electric field (in units V/m) Assume a current
  I  = 3 amperes, and a wire of 1 mm diameter (radius = 0.0005 m). This wire has a cross sectional area of
  ae4cd904c6ab65033b6980492583507f.gif.
The charge of 1 electron is  08cd7e7b8f77aefa26193ddc60f59d86.gif Coulombs.
The drift velocity therefore can be calculated:
cc391ec98d1881017a0cf9597dda1d05.gif
Therefore in this wire the electrons are flowing at the rate of
 626557b096433a97a817b62003b208ac.gif , or very nearly −1.0 m/hour. The photons emitted by free electrons under such conditions are ‘relatively’ low energy photons and have been named ‘conduction’ photons as opposed to optical photons which are normally emitted and absorbed by bound electrons in the atom and generally have larger energies. The following are the properties of a conduction photon: The Quantum charge of the conduction photon
362d8e67d498a8548ea53afd77241dfd.gif
The wavelength of the conduction photon
bbb2fd17209fffd606ee516f6e21dc91.gif
The frequency of the conduction photon Hz.
7846c7dfc7aaf274ef497a29fad4eeb7.gif
Similarly the frequency  260b57b4fdee8c5a001c09b555ccd28d.gif the wave-length c6a6eb61fd9c6c913da73b3642ca147d.gifand the energy  e  of the composite wavelength may be calculated either using  0f9925457a8362dfbd541adaef71e405.gif  planck’s constant  x frequency or by dividing of the quantum energy of the conduction photon by the number of photons comprising the composite wavelength. Now it is possible to see how the energy of the far field and the near field are produced. In the near field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in series and each line of force holds the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, so that in effect each line of force has an energy of  b3a28b9e065dadfd49faf8b80dde4d04.gif This fits in with well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver  b3a28b9e065dadfd49faf8b80dde4d04.gif .
As far as the far field goes , here also the results are in line with observed data. In the far field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in parallel thus each photon contains the energy of one conduction photon divided by the composite wave length. For example, given that we have a 0.75 m wave length in the far field then its energy will equal :
d1868262d787701fc7badab075e9161e.gif
 Here  d343e10f72f837e01f31d3136ed8e383.gif
Therefore  4274bece0fdbea8df4cc92b9ddd018f8.gif
Using conventional formula the same result can be reached :
ccef3ecb3c4e782b893a252204ccf6eb.gif
3b13779f3d1cd53cccf2acebcd30a29f.gif
We can also see that if a voltage of one I volt is applied to the conductor and a current of 1 coulomb is made to flow then total current  I = 5da1d6f48922e3438a0f774ca67993d9.gif conduction photons or  8950a6d94246af0583e60f01fee8ef59.gif  . Delivered at the speed of light C !
Returning to the subject of the drift velocity of electrons in a conductor carrying an electric current.  The picture that is given for the transmission of electricity in most Institutions goes something like this: ‘ Imagine a tube filled with ping pong balls (the ping pong balls represent electrons) if sufficient ping pong balls are present when one is put in at this end another pops out of the other end.’

This is the picture of the transmission of electricity that has been passed on for at least as long as electricity has been known. In actual fact electrons within the atom itself are separated by huge distances and the distance between one electron and another in the interstitial spaces of the conductor is almost too huge to imagine. It would be like trying to hit one billiard ball with another from a distance of 250,000 Kms, which says it all. The above  explanation for the conduction of electricity in a conductor is hardly satisfying. A little less satisfying is the Quantum Mechanics explanation for the propagation of an electric current. The reasoning is as flows.  Once the direct physical contact to contact of electrons is eliminated there are few alternatives left. The alternatives that are left are electric and magnetic fields, could the electricity be passed along by these fields ? This would be acceptable if not for the fact that it is the electron that is the fundamental charge carrier, what part would it have to play in this scenario? How would electrical energy travel in these fields ? Are there electrons present in electromagnetic waves ? If a fluctuating electric and magnetic field alone is enough to convey electrical energy without any electrons at all present, what part do electrons play in all this, how do electrons, if it is electrons that have imparted the initial energy to the field, in turn receive energy from the field. These are difficult questions to answer even leaving out the fact that it completely ignores the particle aspect of the photon, since a field is exclusively wave-like at least in this particular instance, it is impossible to introduce the particle like behavior represented by planck’s constant. Most important is the fact that it is not electric and magnetic fields that are seen to mediate between electrons but photons. It is photons that are the mediators of energy between electrons.  Gestalt Aether Theory submits that it is not electrons that are the fundamental charge carriers but photons. The observable evidence in support of this conclusion is considerable and answers all questions without leaving any unanswered lacunae whatsoever. This is in sharp contrast to any other theory which all leave huge unsatisfactory gaps in their theories of electrical conduction. Quantum Mechanics for instance or QED to be more exact, has no reasonable explanation for electromagnetic fields and certainly cannot differentiate these fields on the basis of frequency. It is in the renormalistaion process that infinities amounting to  1012 are routinely brought back to zero !  Gestalt Aether Theory can accurately predict the near field energies for any given flow of current as well as the energies of the far field for that same current. Returning to the question of the drift velocity of electrons under the influence of a difference of potential, this has been observed to be very slow on the order of a thousandth of a centimeter a second. As explained in the last post, the main argument against free electrons in an electric conductor are the conservation of momentum laws, if a bound electron emits an electron the forces of recoil can be absorbed by the atom, but if a free electron emits an electron it has nowhere to absorb the recoil. It has been explained that this circumstance has been overcome by a free electron emitting an electron and instantaneously absorbing another so that the conservation laws are not violated according to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. The electrons are under the influence of a difference of potential which gradually forces them towards the positive end of the conductor, thus although in a very large percentage of instances, the forces of recoil are cancelled out by the opposing forces of emission and absorption, there is still enough discrepancy to account for the ‘drift velocity’. This applies to electrons moving under the influence of a direct current. What happens to electrons when they are in an alternating current The answer when viewed from any other view=point but that of the photon as  charge carrier put forward by  Gestalt Aether Theory, is surprising. The electrons stop moving, there is no movement at all it is as if the electrons are frozen in place. From the point of view of  Gestalt Aether Theory this is perfectly logical because once the influence of the difference of potential going in one direction only has been neutralized, the emission and absorption of photons cancels out all forces of recoil and the electrons stay in one place. Compare the explanation given above to the answer given by present day physics. The Quantum Mechanics explanation for the flow of current in a conductor is as follows: For Direct Current: It is well established that a moving electric charge gives rise to electromagnetic waves which are alternating magnetic and electric fields, thus when a difference of potential is established across the ends of the conductor and a direct current is established, even though the electrons are moving very slowly due to the drift velocity ( about  10-3 cms/sec  they are moving and this gives rise to an electromagnetic field which nudges the next electron in line along and so on. Since electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light the electric current is established very fast. Thus as can be seen the Quantum Mechanics explanation for current is little better than the ping pong ball explanation given earlier. But the picture gets worse ! Look at the explanation for the flow of current in a conductor carrying an Alternating current ! Here since it has been verified that there is no drift movement at all of electrons in a conductor carrying an Alternating current, in fact the electrons are almost frozen in place, it is assumed that the electrons are oscillating in place and that it is this oscillation of the electrons which gives rise to an electromagnetic field and the transmission of electric current and so on.
The thing about the   Gestalt Aether  theory on the propagation of electricity is that no longer are the lines of force around a conductor carrying an electric current infinite in number, we KNOW that in a wire carrying 1 ampere of current there will be
 1016 lines of force present.

And that in a wire carrying 10 amperes of current there will be  1017  lines of force surrounding the conductor and so on.
Further Gestalt Aether theory also states that once the photons in these lines of force change their orientation from being connected in series to being connected in parallel they can no longer take part in the conduction process. Therefore in AC current Gestalt Aether theory states that each time the current reverses polarity there is a chance of  a large  percentage of the current being  lost since only those lines of force closest to the conductor can be re-absorbed when polarity changes, the lines of force that have re-oriented into parallel orientation are lost.  In a wire carrying DC current, since there is no change in the direction of current the lines of force are almost totally connected in series. This means that an electrical conductor moving through these lines of force will result in a flow of current being generated within the conductor. Moving of the conductor causes free electrons to move, giving them the correct energy to attract photons from the lines of force surrounding the DC current carrying wire. And that in a wire carrying 10 amperes of current there will be  1017  lines of force surrounding the conductor and so on.

Further  Gestalt Aether theory also states that once the photons in these lines of force change their orientation from being connected in series to being connected in parallel they can no longer take part in the electrical conduction process. Therefore in AC current  Gestalt Aether theory states that each time the current reverses polarity there is a chance of  a large  percentage of the current being  lost since only those lines of force closest to the conductor can be re-absorbed when polarity changes, the lines of force that have re-oriented into parallel orientation are lost.  In a wire carrying DC current, since there is no change in the direction of current the lines of force are almost totally connected in series. This means that an electrical conductor moving through these lines of force will result in a flow of current being generated within the conductor. Moving of the conductor causes free electrons to move, giving them the correct energy to attract photons from the lines of force surrounding the DC current carrying wire.
« Last Edit: 14/08/2015 14:15:54 by McQueen »
 

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Re: The Gestalt Aether Theory of Electricity:
« Reply #2 on: 09/08/2015 11:24:37 »

 

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