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Offline neilep

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Different blood types - What are they ?
« on: 28/12/2006 04:24:18 »
1: I would like to know what all the different human blood types are ?

2: Are there 3 or 4 main ones that are prevalent amongst the species ?

3:
How many blood types  are there ?..

4: What exactly is in the blood that makes it different from another blood type ?.... and 5: why are there different blood types anyway?

6: If someone needs a donated organ...does it have to come from someone with the same blood group ?

7: What happens when the wrong blood is transferred into a person ? (apart from them probably dieing ?)

Sorry...lots of  'bloody ' questions !
« Last Edit: 28/12/2006 04:27:00 by neilep »


 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #1 on: 29/12/2006 22:34:56 »
A, B , RH-, RH+, O,  I don't know if there are more A and B can probably be + or- too! I do belive for an organ transplant you must be same blood type. I believe there may be other factors that must be in place also!
 

Offline Aware

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #2 on: 30/12/2006 04:34:11 »
The major types are A, B, AB, and O.  We inherit our blood types from our biological parents.  Each parent contributes 1 gene: an A, B, or O gene.  So each of us have 2 genes for blood type, we could have AA, AB, AO etc. This is called our genotype.  A and B will always be expressed, O is only expressed if there is no other gene present.  That means that if your genotype is AA or AO, your blood type is A, but only if you have the genotype OO will you have blood type O.  There are other kinds of blood typing, for example Rh + or Rh - , these are controlled by different genes.  Basically, your blood type refers to what proteins are on your cells.  Your immune system will recognize cells that have the wrong proteins on them and attack those cells.  That is why it is so important that blood transfusions and organ donors have matching blood types.  That way, your body, doesn't recognize the newly introduced cells as invaders. 

 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #3 on: 30/12/2006 06:20:11 »
VEry nice explanation.. thankyou aware.. you explained very nicely in a waay I could understand. Thanks!
 

Offline iko

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #4 on: 30/12/2006 08:27:59 »

Note:
Most cells have ABO antigens (Ag).
ONLY erythrocytes -red blood cells-
have so called Rh antigens.
Rh stands for Rhesus monkey
where they were found first.
Rh Ag is also known as D Ag.

iko
« Last Edit: 30/12/2006 08:35:24 by iko »
 

Offline neilep

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #5 on: 30/12/2006 22:00:54 »
The major types are A, B, AB, and O.  We inherit our blood types from our biological parents.  Each parent contributes 1 gene: an A, B, or O gene.  So each of us have 2 genes for blood type, we could have AA, AB, AO etc. This is called our genotype.  A and B will always be expressed, O is only expressed if there is no other gene present.  That means that if your genotype is AA or AO, your blood type is A, but only if you have the genotype OO will you have blood type O.  There are other kinds of blood typing, for example Rh + or Rh - , these are controlled by different genes.  Basically, your blood type refers to what proteins are on your cells.  Your immune system will recognize cells that have the wrong proteins on them and attack those cells.  That is why it is so important that blood transfusions and organ donors have matching blood types.  That way, your body, doesn't recognize the newly introduced cells as invaders. 



This is fantastic...thank you so much and WELCOME to the forum.
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #6 on: 30/12/2006 22:07:39 »
What causes a Rh- or positive parent to give birth to a child with Rh factor that needs treatment... I have two siblings who died because they didn't know that my moms blood had a RH factor.. I can't remember for sure, but kno it was because of that they died. My youngest sister is when they caught it in 1964. they were able to give her injections at the time.. she had them for two weeks after her birth, I think it was once a day for first two weeks. I understand now this can be corrected before birth by treating the mother. Is this correct?
 

Offline Aware

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #7 on: 01/01/2007 16:51:07 »
Karen,

I was hoping that someone else would answer because it has been a long time since I studied this.  I'll give it a try and hopefully if I make a mistake someone else will correct me.  I believe that the problem comes when the mother is Rh - and the baby is Rh +.  In that case, the baby has the Rh proteins (antigens) and the mother doesn't.  The baby is Rh + because it received the gene from the father.  The mother's body recognizes the Rh proteins as foreign to her body and mounts an immune response.  My understanding is that the first Rh + baby will not be affected because it takes a while for the mother's body to recognise the foreign proteins and mount a defence.  When the second baby comes along, the mother's immune system is already  on the look out for Rh proteins and starts to respond more quickly than the first time.  I'm pretty sure that they do now have medication to give the mother instead of having to wait to treat the baby when it is born.   
 

Offline chris

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #8 on: 02/01/2007 22:10:04 »
Aware - You're pretty much there with that explanation of rhesus disease.

The rhesus factor (Rh) is encoded by the so-called D allele. It's only problematic when a mother does not carry this gene. If she does then her body is tolerant of it and her immune system does not respond with the production of anti-D antibodies.

But if a Rh- woman marries a Rh+ man and they have children, then there is a chance that their offspring will be Rh+.

In the first pregnancy this is not a problem unless the mother is exposed to foetal blood at the time of birth. This triggers the mother's immune system to repond and produce anti-D (anti-rhesus) antibodies. These are of the IgG class.

The significance of this is that in subsequent pregnancies, after 30 weeks gestation, the placenta transfers IgG antibodies from the mother into the foetal circulation. This is intended to passively protect the baby against the (environmental) antigens to which the mother has been exposed during her life.
 
But if the mother carries anti-D antibodies, and these are transferred to the foetus, then they will begin to bind onto red blood cells and label them for immune attack. A system called complement, together with other components of the immune reponse, attacks the cells, destroying them. This process is called haemolysis, and it can be severe enough to trigger a fatal condition called hydrops foetalis when a baby becomes highly odematous and has a life-threateningly low haemoglobin. Should this occur the foetus may require intra-uterine blood tranfusions, and emergency delivery by caesarian section.

To prevent this occuring, Rh- mothers with Rh+ babies are given a dose of immunoglobulins (antibodies) at the time of birth. These mop up the foreign epitopes, in a sense disguising them, so the maternal immune system cannot see them and produce antibodies of its own. This ensures that the mother remains Rh-.

But, if anti-D antibodies are transferred across the placenta to attack the "incompatible" blood of the newborn, why don't the anti-A and anti-B antibodies carried by people with A, B and O blood groups do the same thing?

The answer is that these antibodies are referred to as IgM, rather than IgG. They are a different type of antibody which is not transferred across the placenta like anti-D.

Chris
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #9 on: 02/01/2007 23:20:42 »
That is the best explaination I have ever had into what killed my siblings... Thanks chris that was very informative!!
 

Offline iko

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #10 on: 07/01/2007 00:28:02 »

But, if anti-D antibodies are transferred across the placenta to attack the "incompatible" blood of the newborn, why don't the anti-A and anti-B antibodies carried by people with A, B and O blood groups do the same thing?

The answer is that these antibodies are referred to as IgM, rather than IgG. They are a different type of antibody which is not transferred across the placenta like anti-D.

Chris

ABO immunization is possible through the same mechanism as Rh immunization.
Natural anti-A and anti-B antibodies are IgM type, big moleculae that do not cross the placental barrier.
But when a mother O delivers a baby A or B, she may be immunized and start producing IgG anti-A or anti-B.
To protect the newborn, IgG antibodies are actively transferred through the placenta.
So during the following pregnancy immune anti-A or anti-B IgGs cross the barrier but don't bind to red blood cells only, like anti-D antibodies.  ABO antigens are present on most cells of our body, so there is a 'dilution' effect and red cells are less damaged.  ABO immunization may lead to severe hemolysis (destroyed red cells and bilirubin accumulation) in rare cases, mostly in premature newborns.

iko
« Last Edit: 07/01/2007 14:59:54 by iko »
 

Offline iko

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #11 on: 07/01/2007 00:53:26 »
Kernicterus



Jaundice

About 60% of newborn infants in the United States are jaundiced, that is they look yellow. Jaundice is the yellow coloring of the skin and other tissues. Jaundice can often be seen well in the sclera, the "whites" of the eyes, which look yellow. Many many babies look jaundiced (60%), but they are not deeply jaundiced, not jaundiced below the abdomen, and they act OK - they nurse, they aren't too sleepy, they have normal muscle tone, their cry is normal, they don't arch their backs.

Kernicterus

Kernicterus is a form of brain damage caused by excessive jaundice. The substance which causes jaundice, bilirubin, is so high that it can move out of the blood into brain tissue. When babies begin to be affected by excessive jaundice, when they begin to have brain damage, they become excessively lethargic. They are too sleepy, and they are difficult to arouse - either they don't wake up from sleep easily like a normal baby, or they don't wake up fully, or they can't be kept awake. They have a high-pitched cry, and decreased muscle tone, becoming hypotonic or floppy) with episodes of increased muscle tone (hypertonic) and arching of the head and back backwards. As the damage continues, they may develop fever, may arch their heads back into a very contorted position known as opisthotonus or retrocollis.

from:   http://www.kernicterus.org/



Phototherapy is routinely used
to treat moderate hyperbilirubinemia

Emergency treatment to lower bilirubin
and prevent kernicterus and its sequelae
in very severe cases of newborn jaundice
is a simple transfusion procedure called
blood-exchange or exchange transfusion.

ikod



 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #12 on: 07/01/2007 01:26:53 »
My Daughter was born with Jaundice, but they just said her liver was not funtioning like it should no explanation of why.. she was stationed under the ultraviolet lights for 3 and 1/2 days.. Her skin was very yellow.. almost looked dark complected but in reality was a very fair skinned complection hiding beneath the jaundice.  I believe I have blood type A. It is weird that they gave me no explaination about that. I was confident when he said it was perfectly normal  and she would be fine. He said she had a higher level then normal but the light therapy should correct the problem. It would get better as her liver developed better also..
 

Offline iko

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #13 on: 07/01/2007 14:55:48 »
Hi Karen,
mild jaundice in a newborn is a common problem caused by many factors (mainly a mild liver failure to process bilirubin due to immaturity).
It is a self-limiting condition and phototherapy helps to eliminate bilirubin dissolved into the skin (the dangerous type of bilirubin is fat-soluble).
10-12mg/dL of circulating bilirubin is the accepted level to start phototherapy.
Nothing compared to the bilirubin at 20-30mg/dL frequently measured in Rh-related hemolytic disease of the newborn (rarely in ABO-incompatibility), when phototherapy, albumin and i.v. immunoglobulin in many cases are not enough to lower those dangerous bilirubin levels.
Then E.T. (exchange transfusion) is urgently needed...and all this surprisingly tends to happen on a Friday night (!!!)

ikod  [^]

« Last Edit: 15/01/2007 19:25:59 by iko »
 

Offline Karen W.

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Re: Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #14 on: 07/01/2007 20:55:56 »
My Sarah's newborn picture was odd as I had brought her a little white dress with cute little yellow roses all over it! When I got the pictures back, I could see how jaundiced she really was.. at the third day home we had to go back to the hospital as she was getting more yellow.. They put her back under the lamps for a bit every day for about another week. we took her home everynight. the doctor seemed to treat is a routine so I felt pretty safe in the fact that he seemed very knowledgeable and was keeping good count of her Bilirubin levels.. THat babys coloring was the same as me girls.. even the same hair color at birth.. She is a toehead now.. don't figure!
 

Offline Gaia

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Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #15 on: 03/02/2007 16:46:03 »
Just a quick add on re blood groups A, B and 0. The 0 actually stands for 'zero' (ie neither A nor B antigens are present) although we all tend to call it 'OW' Someone with blood group 0 is known as a universal donor because people with the other blood types (A, B or AB) can receive transfusions from blood group 0 (providing the rhesus factor is compatible).

For  other organ transplants (ie solid organs rather than blood) there needs to be a much tighter compatibility, not just the A,B,0 blood groups. We all thave markers on our cells that identify them as ours, not foreign. This is known as the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). For organ transplants these must match as closely as possible or the recipient's immune system will identify the different MHC as foreign and attack it. This is what organ rejection is and is why close relatives usually make the best donors (similar genetic makeup). This is also why recipients often take immunosupressor drugs to help prevent rejection. 

It's also important to 'wash out' donor blood from the organ before the transplant, particularly a type of white blood cell called T cells.
« Last Edit: 04/02/2007 11:57:28 by Gaia »
 

Offline profnick

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Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #16 on: 04/02/2007 22:32:03 »
Some good explanations in these posts. However, Gaia's point is also true for blood, so that when transfusions are needed in surgical situations, the cross matching has to be done for a wider range of blood groups than ABO and Rh. There are quite a lot of other red cell surface antigens that could cause problems if incompatible blood is used during an operation. It's over 30 years since I worked in a haematology lab so my memory of these "minor" groups is a bit hazy. For some good general background try: newbielink:http://www.blood.co.uk/pages/e13basic.html [nonactive]
and for those minor groups try : newbielink:http://www.bloodbook.com/rare.html [nonactive]
 

Offline Karen W.

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Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #17 on: 04/02/2007 23:23:41 »
I am blood type A with a RH factor: positive D
 

Offline DrN

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Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #18 on: 05/02/2007 21:35:27 »
This is really interesting stuff. I'd heard of mothers bodies 'rejecting' their babies in the womb, but didn't know how that could happen.

maybe people should start asking potential dates for their blood group before they ask for their phone number!

I'm A+ too! (and so is my husband. phew)
 

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Different blood types - What are they ?
« Reply #18 on: 05/02/2007 21:35:27 »

 

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