I attach a diagram that explains why I think it is possible (I emphasize possible) that particles spinning with a tangential velocity of C within the atom could cause not only relativity with exactly the same mathematics as Einstein's equation but also if the energy spins off at that rate in the photon, would also cause light to travel at C.

In my model, your "spinning particles with tangential velocity of C" are pairs of photons orbiting a common barycenter.

If the diameter of the particle is close to the wavelength of the photons, then the outer portion of each photon must be traveling faster then the inner portion; or maybe the two photons must be spaghettified due to warping space-time around the particle's horizon limit. Quantum weirdness, too.

Obviously, a force is required to hold two photons in orbit around one another. The force that I have described, in some other posts, is a non-linear force, strongly dependent on their wavelengths phase angles and the relative orientation of planes of polarity.

Consider such a particle in which each of its two photons has the same proper energy

**E** and proper momentum

**p = ± E/c**. (I insert the

**±** to call attention to the fact that

**c** is a speed; it only becomes a velocity when coordinate axes are specified. The sign of the momentum is the sign of the velocity. If we choose an x-axis parallel to the path of one of the photons, it will be anti-parallel to the path of the other; so the momenta cancel.) In the particle's own rest frame,

**p = 0**.)

In inertial frame

**F**, The photons are orbiting in the xy-plane.

Their barycenter is moving slowly, along the x-axis with velocity

**v**.

Let's freeze the particle for an instant with photon A moving in the +x direction, photon B in the -x direction.

At that instant, A is more energetic than B, and A has greater momentum than B.

**The sum of the momenta of the two photons is the momentum of the particle. **(Since the momenta are opposite, they nearly cancel.)

**p = p(A) + p(B)** I think it should be easy for a mathematician (which I'm not) to derive E = mc

^{2} from these first principles alone. Whatever force holds a pair of photons in orbit is responsible for converting their energy to the proper mass of a particle. I have no idea whether this is compatible with the concept of a Higgs field or Higgs particle, though.

I'm 70. :-\ My brain's math coprossessor went into retirement decades ago, but I'll give it a try. See if you can get there first. If I'm even partly right, we'll both be famous posthumously, since no one will believe us in this lifetime. Prove me wrong, please! ^