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Offline RTCPhysics

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A Theory of Quantum Magnetism.
« on: 09/01/2016 10:56:03 »
A Theory of Quantum Magnetism.

Although the functionality of magnetism is widely exploited, with applications ranging from fridge magnets to MRI image scanners and the Large Hadron Collider, there are shortcomings in our understanding of how the basic mechanisms of magnetism actually work.
 
We are aware that protons, neutrons, electrons and quarks, all have a magnetic moment. But these magnetic moments are usually referred to as ‘anomalous’ dipole magnetic moments, ‘anomalous’ being added, because it can’t be easily explained with current theories, why these particles have a magnetic property at all!
 
The current model of the atom using the concepts of electrostatics has worked very well in explaining how the atom is structured and how it functions. But the fact that these four particle types are fundamental to the construction of the atom, suggests that magnetism must really have a significant role to play. It is certainly a fact that these magnetised particles are collectively able to work together and by doing so, create the earth’s magnetic field, the magnetic fields that exist within the sun’s plasma and those that exist in the vastness of the space between galaxies. This is not a trivial role and this article aims to explain the mechanisms that lie behind the forces of  ‘static magnetism’, more formally referred to as ‘magnetostatics’.

Magnetostatics is a distinct field of study from dynamic magnetism. Dynamic magnetism is the study of electron currents moving through a conducting wire and is more formally referred to as ‘magnetodynamics’.

Static magnetism is currently explained by ‘domain theory’, coupled with the role of the unpaired or ‘free’ electrons that are located in the outer shell of atoms. The static or permanent magnetic fields that these electrons create are most evident in the ferromagnetic elements of iron, cobalt and nickel. But key questions remain as to how the basic forces of static magnetism actually work.
 
Consider a magnetically saturated iron bar magnet. If all the free electrons of every atom are lined up in the same direction within the regular lattice structure of iron, then you would expect that their magnetic field lines would all exit via the northern end of the bar magnet and re-enter via the southern end of the bar. But in fact, the bar magnet produces a spherically shaped magnetic field around itself with the lines of force emerging from all the surfaces of one half of the bar (the northern half) and re-entering via all the surfaces of the other half (the southern half) of the bar. So how does this occur?

To explain this spherical field pattern, we need to introduce some new concepts, four precisely and can start with concept number one, which considers the ‘free electrons’ in an iron bar as behaving like ‘tiny magnets’. Once these free electrons are lined up under the influence of an external magnetic field, the electrons will attract each other and being ‘free’, will move towards congregating permanently in the middle of the bar magnet, aloof from its atomic lattice. To explain this process, imagine in your mind, three magnets of equal strength that are lined up precisely in a frictionless environment, such as that experienced by ‘free electrons’. The middle magnet will be held in place by the equalising attractive pull from both the other two magnets, but the two outer magnets will be drawn towards the centre magnet, as they have no other restraining force upon them.
 
As all electrons are indistinguishable from each other and have equal strengths in their magnetic moments, then this internal ‘magnetic attraction process’ will cause all the free electrons throughout a magnetised iron bar to congregate together in a plane that is vertical to the direction of magnetisation and located at the centre of the bar magnet. The field lines of electrons in the outer locations of this plane will reach the surfaces of the iron bar first, whereas the field lines from the more centrally located electrons are forced to the surface further down the bar and the rest, being the greatest numbers, exit through the ‘northern’ end of the bar, before they all loop around to return to their home electron via the surfaces of the ‘southern’ half of the iron bar. This congregation of the free electrons at the centre of the bar magnet is the outcome of the concept number one that electrons behave like tiny magnets that are free to move in a frictionless environment.

The rules of magnetism are well known, specifically: lines of force travelling in the same direction repel each other, those travelling in opposite directions attract, those travelling towards each other deflect and magnetic lines of force can break and re-connect to each other. But although these rules describe magnetic field behaviour, they do not explain the mechanism by which the magnetic fields of two separate magnets actually exert an attracting or repelling force upon each other.

We know from the iconic ‘iron filings’ experiment, that the filings all line up along the magnetic field lines created by the free electrons of the bar magnet. As there are many millions of electrons in the iron bar, these lines of force appear to be a continuum. But this is only a perception. Magnetic rings are ‘quantum’ in their nature, which simply means that they are discrete entities and in this case, finite in their circular length. No magnetic lines of force travel to infinity. They always circle back to their home electron.

Concept number two is that each and every ‘free electron’ has a single magnetic field ring and hence each free electron plays its part in the attraction and repulsion process that occurs between two magnets brought into the sensing range of their magnetic fields. But exactly what is a magnetic field ring?

It is evident that each electron field line must possess energy in order to attract and repel other magnetic field lines and they can usefully be viewed as an ‘energy pulse’, which circulates around the electron without any loss of energy. Within the ferromagnetic elements: iron, nickel and cobalt, the centralised free electrons are able to despatch their magnetic field rings out into the space around the magnet, maintaining each field line by this constantly circulating pulse of magnetic energy. This concept of a circulating pulse of magnetic energy around an electron is concept number three.

There is one other aspect of the iron bar’s magnetic field to consider, which leads to concept number four, the ‘figure of eight’. You may have noticed that the field lines leaving the ‘right hand side’ of the northern half of the bar magnet circulate clockwise, whereas the field lines leaving the ‘left hand side’ of the northern half, circulate anti-clockwise. This is relevant when considering the interaction between the magnetic fields of two separate magnets.

When the circular field lines of two magnets are brought together with their field lines travelling in opposite directions, clockwise and anti-clockwise, any two field lines of equal strength are able to connect together using their magnetic field ‘connectivity’ capability. They connect by linking their two field rings together to form a ‘figure of eight’. One pulse travels clockwise through one half of the figure eight, circling around the electron in the first magnet and the other travels anti-clockwise through the other half of the figure eight, circling around the electron in the second magnet. They cross at the junction of the figure eight to exchange their orbits, but avoid collisions by being out of phase by half the field ring’s diameter.

The consequence of this ‘connectivity’ is that the two generating electrons become ‘paired’, in a similar manner to the way that electrons pair up in the orbits of the atom. This pairing of the electrons between the magnets, causes their lines of force to be strengthened and hence shortened, pulling the two bar magnets physically together. This cumulative ‘figure of eight’ force is emanating from millions of electrons that ‘pair-up’ between the two magnets by their common ring diameters. This results in the attracting force that we observe between magnets getting stronger as the two magnets come closer together, allowing the shorter but stronger magnetic rings to link up, creating more newly paired electrons.

Magnetic repulsion and deflection arise from the opposite effect, whereby multiple lines of force from two separate magnets travelling in the same direction, are compressed together to create an equal and opposite reaction and, like two rubber balls being squeezed together, they repel.

The key concept here is that of the electron has a quantum magnetic field ring associated with it. The magnetic field ring explains the electron’s ‘magnetic moment’ functionality and the ability of these rings to expand in a conducive atomic environment, as presented by the transition elements of iron, cobalt and nickel and is the essence of the phenomenon of static magnetism.

This model of the electron with a particle core and magnetic field ring, equally applies to dynamic magnetism, explaining the quantum magnetic field rings that are created around a current carrying wire and the subsequent transmission of radiant energy that occurs with alternating currents. But the application of this concept to the field of ‘magnetodynamics’ has too much content to be dealt with in this article. 


 

Offline jeffreyH

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Re: A Theory of Quantum Magnetism.
« Reply #1 on: 09/01/2016 14:29:05 »
What if all the electrons in a north pole are spin up and all the electrons in a south pole are spin down. Would this account for the interaction of the fields of the poles and be a result of the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
 

Offline GoC

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Re: A Theory of Quantum Magnetism.
« Reply #2 on: 09/01/2016 15:41:06 »
What if all the electrons in a north pole are spin up and all the electrons in a south pole are spin down. Would this account for the interaction of the fields of the poles and be a result of the Pauli Exclusion Principle?

Unlikely your scenario would make north and south be attracted to themselves. The spin is clockwise going in and clockwise going out. When you bring them together (mirror image) they have opposite spins and repel. It is not a positive and negative issue it is a spin direction issue. Magnetic material is open faced while non magnetic material is body faced. Open faced allows alignment of spin direction of the electrons same as electro magnetics using windings.

Eventually maim stream will have to understand there is a sea of energy outside of mass spinning at c. This is what the fields are made from. They can be manipulated with mass. Dilation of space by mass causes the weak attraction (gravity). Spin alignment of c energy causes magnetism. Two different processes of the same energy that moves the electrons in the first place.

RTC  This is your lattice but with spin energy actually moving the electrons in a rotation between the points that make up the lattice. The MMX did not disprove an Aether that was energy of motion itself. Your lattice with point spin would appear as electrons rotating around a string. Each 2d sheet having complimentary spin direction with the next 2d sheet having complimentary spin direction but 45 degrees off and perpendicular. This design would move electrons in a rotating forward motion. Moving electrons would expand the lattice we observe as dilation and the cause of gravity. The rotating spin alignment would be magnetism. Dilation of space with a single atom is enough to return an electron by restriction going into less dilated energy. To try and comprehend the whole of relativity at one time is a daunting task but without explaining all we will follow a branch while climbing the tree of knowledge. 
 

Offline RTCPhysics

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Re: A Theory of Quantum Magnetism.
« Reply #3 on: 09/01/2016 16:47:20 »
What if all the electrons in a north pole are spin up and all the electrons in a south pole are spin down. Would this account for the interaction of the fields of the poles and be a result of the Pauli Exclusion Principle?

If all the electrons, both free and paired, are affected by the applied magnetic field, then the effect could be to split the paired electrons apart, attracting the spin-up electrons one way and the spin-down electrons the other way. This results in the state that you suggested. My first thought is that I’m not sure what is left to keep the atomic nuclei in place, once the electrons have all congregated at opposite ends of the iron bar!

If this situation could exist, then both sets of electrons will send out magnetic field lines, say in a clockwise direction from the ‘north’ end of the bar magnet and anticlockwise from the ‘south’ end of the bar magnet. When they meet up, travelling in opposite directions all around the bar magnet, they will attract each other, which does not happen with the field lines of a bar magnet.

To my mind, Pauli’s exclusion principle is more of an observation than a principle, because it does not offer an explanation as to why two electrons cannot be in the same state, just states that they can’t. If the phenomenon described as electron ‘spin’ is the characteristic that creates the electron’s magnetic moment, then two electrons will repel each other if both their ‘spins’ are rotating in the same direction. They can only attract each other if the direction of spin of one electron is reversed. This enables them to ‘pair up’ being attracted by the magnetic nature of their opposing spins.

What is also interesting to me is that this magnetic spin attraction between two paired electrons, must overpower the repelling force of their respective negative electrostatic charges. But that is wandering off the subject of magnetostatics.
« Last Edit: 22/01/2016 09:33:27 by RTCPhysics »
 

Offline GoC

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Re: A Theory of Quantum Magnetism.
« Reply #4 on: 09/01/2016 18:34:27 »
What carries the magnetic field lines?

They only attract when the spin is going in the same direction.
Clockwise in and clockwise out. In repels in and out repels out.
In and out with the same direction spin aligns the spin state of in and out of another bar magnet.

Those electrons are rocking the lattice points circularly transferring the circular motion through space. Believe in your own system I do. 
« Last Edit: 09/01/2016 18:42:39 by GoC »
 

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Re: A Theory of Quantum Magnetism.
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