# The Naked Scientists Forum

#### RTCPhysics

• Full Member
• Posts: 62
• Thanked: 2 times
« on: 17/01/2016 11:17:16 »
Firstly, the basics. Magnetodynamics is a ‘field of study’ arising from the largely unexplained but widely exploited phenomenon, that a wire carrying a direct or alternating current creates a magnetic field around itself. The field is referred to as dynamic because, unlike the permanent magnet, the field only exists when the current is flowing.

The field displays itself as a concentric series of magnetic rings of different radii clustered around the wire. These rings are generated at each location along the length of the wire and result in a magnetic field shaped like a series of nested cylinders.

The presence of this magnetic field around the current carrying wire can be observed by scattering iron filings upon a horizontal surface through which a vertical current carrying wire is passing. As with the field of a permanent magnet, the magnetic lines are differentiated from each other, being both discrete and finite in their circumference, which classifies each ring as a quantum entity.

The generating source of the magnetic field is the energy directed through the wire from a battery or a dynamo and the ‘free electrons’ in the metal wire play their role in transmitting this energy around the circuit, whilst generating infra-red radiant energy as heat within the wire and creating the magnetic field externally around the wire.

But the question that first needs to be answered before progressing this topic further is this:

“Are the magnetic field lines that form around a current carrying wire, exactly the same entities, as the magnetic field lines that form around a permanent magnet?”.

If you think ‘Yes’, then read on to follow through the implications of this assumption. If you think ‘No’, then please reply explaining the case for the differentiation of the two magnetic fields.

The ‘dynamic properties’ of the magnetic field around a current carrying wire appear with the use of an alternating current. In the same manner as the start-up of a ‘direct current’ flow in a circuit, the growing magnitude of the alternating current generates a series of magnetic rings with different radii around the wire, the density of the rings being governed by the magnitude of the alternating current.

Once the alternating current peaks and starts to decline, the magnetic rings cease to grow in diameter and fold back into the wire in an orderly manner, smallest diameter ring first and largest diameter ring last, finally disappearing as the current falls to zero. Reversing the current flow through the circuit, results in the magnetic rings starting to grow again, although importantly, their ‘polarity’ or more specifically, the direction of energy flow around each magnetic ring is reversed from ‘clockwise’ to ‘anti-clockwise’, when viewed in the same direction along the wire.

If these magnetic rings around a current carrying wire were uniform in their nature having an even spread of energy around their ring, then the rings would not have the dynamic capability to rotate clockwise and anti-clockwise. In order to explain how a magnetic ring can have different polarities, the assumption is made that the magnetic ring is being traced out by a ‘pulse’ of magnetic energy and the pulse will circulate clockwise or anti-clockwise around its field ring without loss of energy. This pulsing nature of magnetism gives the effect of a uniformly distributed ring of energy and explains the apparently static nature of the magnetic rings that are observed in the 'iron filings' experiment.

By increasing the frequency at which the current alternates around the conducting circuit, a critical frequency is reached, at which the circuit generates radiant energy in the ‘radio-wave’ sector of the ‘radiant energy spectrum’.

The explanation of this phenomenon lies in the lag between the creation of the magnetic rings with the current flowing through its circuit in one direction and the creation of the new set of rings of opposite polarity, when the current flows in the opposite direction. At low alternating current frequencies, the opposite polarity of the newly created rings is not a problem, as they do not interfere with each other. One set of rings grow and die, then the other set of rings grow and die in their place.

But as the frequency of the alternating current is increased, a critical frequency is reached at which the outermost ring of the established magnetic field has not had time to return to the wire, before the next set of magnetic rings of ‘opposite polarity’ have grown to replace it. The outer magnetic rings having equal diameter compete for the same space and as the new ring has an opposite polarity and is part of a growing magnetic field, the outermost established magnetic ring is displaced and repelled from the circuit as a single quantum of ‘radiant energy’.

The next cycle of the alternating current produces the next quantum of radiant energy and it is found that the frequency of the generated radio-waves is the same as the frequency of the alternating current. Looked at another way, the outer magnetic ring grows to such a size, that the time it takes for its magnetic energy to pulse around its ring is equal to the time interval elapsing between each cycle of the alternating current in the circuit.

Once despatched, the ‘radiated’ magnetic energy travels at the ‘speed of light’ in the medium through which it is passing. The magnetic ring itself travels forwards in a plane perpendicular to its direction of travel and as such, its magnetic pulse traces out a sinusoidal curve, creating the wavelike characteristic of radiant energy. The first cycle of the alternating current transmits a clockwise rotating ring, which we can now refer to as a ‘photon’ and the second cycle transmits an anti-clockwise rotating photon. This alternating process then repeats itself upon the next cycle of the alternating current.

Every set of magnetic rings located along the length of the circuit radiates a photon, although there is a delay between each location, caused by the finite time it takes the alternating current to grow around the circuit. The location of the circulating magnetic pulse at the moment of radiation, determines the direction in which each photon is transmitted and the sequential delay in the growth of the current along the wire, means that photons are radiated in all directions around the wire.

The consequences of this analysis of magnetic field rings and radiant energy are twofold. The first is that the radiant energy generated by an alternating current is ‘magnetic’ in its nature and secondly, that the radiated magnetic pulse travels around its ring at the ‘speed of light’, which is a characteristic of the photon.

The structural implications for the electron from these two conclusions are that the electron has a magnetic core which creates the magnetic field ring around itself and gives the electron both its ‘magnetic moment’ and its ‘wave’ characteristics.

The magnetic wave can circulate clockwise or anti-clockwise around the core, which explains the presence of the electron’s ‘spin characteristic’ and why electrons can pair-up in an attracting mode when their spins are of opposite polarity, often referred to as their ‘up’ and ‘down’ states.

The electron core itself is protected by its magnetic field ring and is therefore not directly detectable without the displacement or removal of this magnetic ring by external means. But the consequence of targeting an electron with an external source of radiant energy is that it will impinge upon the electron’s own magnetic field ring, creating an exchange of energy that alters the electron’s direction of movement. So one can never be sure of both of an electron’s location in space and its direction of movement, at the same time.

But if successful with the displacement of the electron’s magnetic field ring from its core, then the electron will exhibit the behaviour of a ‘particle’, such as is observed in the iconic ‘twin slit’ experiment and this forms the basis of the observed ‘wave-particle’ nature of the electron.
« Last Edit: 18/01/2016 10:11:11 by RTCPhysics »