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Author Topic: Any complex chemical reactions system perceives itself as life!!  (Read 3360 times)

minass

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In a paper recently published in “Nature Chemistry”, chemists from UK have found a novel way to create complex organic precursors of the building blocks of life, by using simple initial substrates. Organic macromolecules are commonly found around the universe, as they are found in meteorites, and possibly even in Mars. This experiment, along with others underscores the ease in which these molecules can actually be created. However, these organic macromolecules by themselves cannot create life by themselves. In fact, organics can be created in billions of different ways, through various chemical reactions. So, the question is not how organics were created in the first time on earth, as organics can be created anytime and everywhere.
And once again, the question is:
What is more likely the case?
a)Organic macromolecules were initially created in the form of building blocks that came together and in some way, under unknown conditions and unknows ways, they slowly created life?
b)Complex chemical reactions lead to the prevailance of organics in the system of reactions, due to the latter’s properties, and that’s why organics are the phenotype we see today, in a frame in which life is just the arbitrary reactions that happened through history and we as the ending results, judge the system from an anthropocentric point of view, since we are the results of this. And actually any system of complex chemical arbitrary reactions would perceive the whole process that created it as having the properties we see in life.

minass

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The question is: How can random reactions, no matter how good they were selected through the centuries, can lead from a tiny spore or a zygote to the creation of extremely complex organisms (plants, animals, human) in relatively predictive ways?
Answer: Don’t get confused by the complexity of the grown up organisms. Don’t forget what happens with fractals. Seemingly complex structures emerge as the result of very simple initial conditions (equations). Similarly, complex animals can arise predictively from the flourishing of much simpler entities over time, such as zygotes, spores etc. This is simply perceived by us as embryology.
    And to continue with my thoughts regarding how life as chaotic random chemical reactions can be linked to chaos theory, I think that countless chemical reactions that continue happening can at some point reach some properties of a dissipative system, thus avoiding major structural changes, chemical equilibrium, and thus eventually leading to forms and structures we see now, with the help of chemical reaction natural selection….

minass

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1)And of course if life is a random collection of spontaneous arbitrary chemical reactions perceived as sophisticated only because we are both the observers and the end results, (and we give value to the natural fact that some reactions survived, baptizing the process as energetic survival capacity), then this means that the system maintains the properties of a complex chemical reaction system. And this described system is dependent on environmental conditions because environment and life are inter-connected to each other. This means that the changes in the species properties due to climatic change will occur in a way that will be consistent with the complex chemical reaction way. This means that many changes would occur instantly instead of the time-consuming way of evolution described by the classical evolution theory.
Indeed, I read recently that scientists have found that lobsters are already becoming faster due to climatic change. You can find interesting additional information in a new study published March 30 in PNAS by Francis Pan et al.

2)The random chemical reaction collection model is strongly supported by recent findings that dwarf lemur with exceptional longevity spend most of the time of the year in a hiberniated state compared to the others. It seems that the rate of aging is correlated with the time they spend in suspended animation. Heart rate dramatically slows, breath slows, thermostat shuts down, etc. This leads to longevity. Of course the reason might not be only energy conservation, but also slowdown of chemical reactions…

3)Why in the theory of evolution the survival of the fittest doesn’t always lead to the survival of the most fit tactic? Why different tactics co-exist? A new study published in Current Biology last month has shed some light in this issue. In brief, experiments in amoebas revealed that in difficult conditions, cooperation was what mattered. So we had altruists and cheaters, but in the long term, cheaters had not higher success since they produces higher amounts of inferior quality spores. So the overall number of spores that survive are the same as those that cooperate. In other words, the community can only be seen as a complex system, and as you go in more and more detail, you will find out that it doesn’t differ in anything from an arbitrary chemical reaction system that we described.

minass

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I apologize for the inaccuracy of the information I provided while reporting a previous research finding. Actually climate change makes spiders (Aphonopelma hentzi) faster (according to a research) and the increase in the acidity of oceans decreases lobsters’ size, according to a study that was conducted at the University of Rhode Island.
   
A new study published recently in Nature claims that probably there might be water in liquid form in Mars. And here is my question: We already know that complex organic molecules are abundant in space, as they can be found even in meteorites. We also know that water in any form is also common too. What if we find out that despite the abundance of organics, water and habitable conditions in space, we still don’t find signs of life? In other words, what if they are not related with the existence of life? What would be our next step?

minass

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1)In a new study published in Science, Yann Hautier et al. found that biologic diversity is the key to keep an ecosystem strong. Specifically they found that human related changes only affected grassland plot productivity when they were related with decreased biodiversity.
Why this happens remains unclear. However, a good explanation can be given under the chemical reaction perspective, as diversity in a chemical reaction pool can sustain the system more efficiently and longer. In a chemical reaction only system, if you completely take away a part of reactions, then the system itself will be affected as a whole, because it loses some of its components.
However, under any other perspective (apart from chemical reaction only), there will be a problem in explaining the scientists finding, because in other scenarios, theoretically every member or group of the ecosystem can sustain itself if there is enough food around….! Even will less diversity, the survivors can find ways to cope with problem and continue…


2)In a new study published in PNAS, researchers from MIT and WHOI have provided some new insights regarding the deep ocean carbon reservoir and how it fuels carbon cycle. They found that deep oceans play a crucial role in global carbon cycle. They found that the youngest source of organic carbon originated from the surface and this carbon was cycling much faster than what was expected by the fact that deep ocean water come in the surface every 1000 years. Carbon was cycled due to the action of deep ocean bacteria. On the contrary, older carbon coming from ocean sediment, hydrothermal vectors etc, cycled much slower, every 30.000 years, which means 30 times slower that the ocean needs to cycle itself.
These finding actually support the arbitrary chemical reaction theory because if you think of any complex chemical reaction system that happens near the surface of earth, this is what you will get. Younger carbon that is a part of the complex system of reactions will have a fast turnover rate because they belong to the global system of reactions. Despite the fact it is facing hostile conditions, its turnover is affected by the other reactions that are happening elsewhere. So despite having slow reactions, they have faster reactions than what was expected to happen only due to the water cycle of the oceans.
On the other hand, carbon from hydrothermal soils, ocean sediment etc are not initially a part of the chemical reaction system, but they are isolated chemicals that are slowly intergrated into the global chemical reaction system.

minass

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Complex chemical reactions differ from functional organized systems such as automobiles, tv, electronics, etc in this: All the above mentioned systems are composed from different structural and functional units that have specialized functions and each part contributes in a specific way to the function of the whole entity (e.g. brakes, wheels, lights etc). On the contrary, complex chemical reactions don’t have separate functional units, but there is a complex overlapping instead. In fact, although while someone investigates a chemical reaction system discovers some units with discrete and specific role in the system, a further study reveals that there is a huge overlapping between pathways. For instance, molecular pathways are found to pose a role in multiple different jobs that a cell performs. For instance, some molecular signaling pathways are involved in all replication, apoptosis, adhesion, metastasis, angiogenesis, etc. There is a tremendous functional overlapping in biological cells and a huge number of molecular cross-talks, that more and more resembles that of a complex chemical reaction system.
Recently, Balestra et al have found that biological information across generations can also be carried by centrioles, apart from the nucleic acids.

If biological systems are actually complex random arbitrary chemical reactions, what would one expect to see while studying the function of their genetic material (sequencing, pcr etc??) Answer: Something like the finding of Walworth et al published in PNAS, that the bacterium trichodesmium’s (an organism that live in extremely nutrient-poor regions of the ocean) DNA defies a dogma of evolution. The researchers found that only 63% of its genome is expressed as protein. This is usually found only in higher organisms.
What are complex chemical reaction systems as we described them that survived and thrived in the long term? Reactions with repeatability. As such, different systems pose different turnover paces in which they periodically repeat themselves. This means that in chemical systems with fast repeatability, when someone studies the function of its nucleic acids, he will find a big proportion of DNA expressed in proteins. The opposite is happening in systems with slow repeatability, such as individual cells of a higher multicellular organism, or an organism such as trichodesmium that is an oligotroph that lives in incredibly nutrient poor areas of the oceans and have a slow metabolic and functional rate.

minass

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Complex chemical reactions and news from cancer research.

a)Scientists from the Universtiy of San Diego California in a study recently published in PNAS have found that in order to reprogram a diseased cell due to problems driven by abnormal signaling in multiple upstream molecular pathways such as cancer, it is not enough to target a single receptor or a single pathway. Instead, the most effective strategy by far to manipulate a hub of signaling networks. This is consistent with the complex chemical reaction scenario, because it indicates that if a network of reaction are in the wrong pathway, then the only solution is to provide some time and some good initial signals and substrates with the hope to manipulate the cells in a favorable manner.

b)One of the hallmarks of cancer is this: Most cells don’t divide unless there is enough oxygen around, or the conditions are favorable for the offspring. However, cancer cells can override the warning signals and divide anyway, even if there is not a good blood supply, and in general, even if the conditions are not ideal. Cancer cell under hypoxic conditions uses different metabolic pathways to sustain its functions. On the other hand, cancer cells are cells and as such, they have intrinsic information for the basic cellular functions, such as replication, vessel formation, motion, etc. However, their altered metabolic pathways make them function not in coordination with the rest of the system, and that’s why things go wrong with an uncontrollable division and invasion of these cells. In a chemical reaction perspective, the reactions of cancer cells create novel independent networks inside the original network. This causes problems to the functionality of the latter when these independent new networks proliferate.

c)Scientists have focused their interest lately in cancer immunotherapy. This was fueled by recent findings that immune checkpoint inhibitors can achieve durable responses in subsets of cancer patients, especially melanoma, renal cell and non small cell lung cancer patients. This caused an unprecedented interest of researchers in mechanisms of cancer immunity with the hope to develop strategies so that more and more patients can benefit. But what does this mean under a chemical reaction perspective? In my opinion, immune cells can attack tumor cells and a lot of people can benefit. However, this will have a cost of a high amount of unwanted symptoms. Additionally, as scientists go deeper to the secrets of immunity, they will find an extremely complex system of pathways and with time the picture will become more and more complex. So with time, oncology books will become bigger, and more subspecialists will be needed to handle this level of information.

d)Recent findings indicate that cancer cells pose Darwinian evolution patterns while spreading. Clonal expansion, genetic diversification, clonal selections in the adaptive landscapes of tissues are a major cause of treatment failures. However, if cancer cells are chemical reaction systems, and we showed that complex chemical reaction systems can undergo a process which can be called “evolution of systems of complex chemical reactions”, what does this mean in our effort to manipulate cancer cells in order to achieve a favorable outcome? I think this is an interesting field for thinking… to be continued..

Lamarck2014

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This topic is absolutely fascinating, I will read everything more in detail now but I feel that we are missing a key point which is the non-reversibility of some reactions.

The emergence of new chemical structures that require tremendous amounts of energy to go back to their previous state will make the system move forward given that these new stable chemical structures have the potential to actively interact with other reactions, like enzymes do. The emergence of these structures may cause the system to achieve new reactions that would take too much time or energy and potentially move away from a thermodynamic equilibrium, potentially forming dissipative structures that will exchange matter and energy with the rest of the system, which in turn will potentially achieve new stable chemical structures with an active function.

I recently posted a link on this forum to a paper that tackles this kind of protein behavior among others like the storage of information, the emergence of protein clusters with substrate channeling etc. I think you will find some of it pretty interesting.

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmolb.2015.00016/abstract#

thanks a lot for this discussion!

minass

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Thnaks for the read. This is quite interesting and i will think about this non-reversibilty key point under a chemical reaction perspective, to see if can be integrated.

Below are some more insights from novel publications

1)In a recent study from researchers at the Scripps Institute and Johns Hopkins that was reported in “Cell Metabolism”, molecular evidence that came from sophisticated metabolomics techniques suggested that there is metabolic link between bacterial conglomerations (biofilm) in the intestine and colorectal cancer. Additionally, biofilms  were influenced by precancerous lesions, creating a vicious cycle. This finding, apart from the fact that it further enhances the idea that in fact, underneath, everything is chains of chemical reactions, it also offers novel opportunities for the creation of more efficient screening and preventional techniques in the future.

2)In an interesting new study published recently in “American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry” scientists have found that post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is not associated with a genetic disorder, can have a biologic effect in aging. This shows that this mental disorder can lead to molecular and metabolic alterations with a huge systemic effect with biological impact. From the chemical reaction perspective this is something that was expected. This happens because the basis of our thinking and higher cognitive functions rely on chemical reactions, that are connected with the rest of the reactions of the body. So mental damages are in fact chemical damages and any alterations are transmitted in a chain reaction way to the rest of the reactions of the body. For sure, this new finding offers a great chance to push scientists to increase their efforts to understand the inter-reactions between the brain and the body in terms of metabolism, so as to understand some phenomena and to exploit some possible findings in order to promote health and longevity.

minass

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1)If life is just some chemical reactions, then in fact it will behave as a chemical automaton underneath it all, because it’s a series of chemical reactions. Foods and microbes of the gut are the first substrates and excretions are the last products. If living beings really are chemical automatons, then the outcome of the resulting reactions and the phentype can be influenced by specific combinations of food and microbes. For everyone there will be a certain diet able to make the reactions of its body to remain unchanged, or even better to shift to a previous condition. To me, this is the ultimate fate of scientific progress. To map each persons list of chemical reactions and intervene accordingly. Either directly r from the beginning of the chain, ie the food.
Although not exactly at this direction, a new initiative is approaching this concept already. It is called Longevity cookbook. It is more about scientific research than gastronomy. You can check this out and you can even contribute to this project that is a run by a group of California- based scientists I think.

2) And in a theory of life as a system of complex chemical reactions near the surface of earth, it is obvious that life in the land and life in the sea is the same system, with reciprocal interactions, as they theoretically both belong in the same system of reactions. However, most of the communication (if there exists one), must be carried out by bacteria, phytoplangton and other small organisms in general. Recently a new way of interaction was found, that wasn’t expected. Scientists demonstrated that microbes in seawater controls the chemistry of sea spray that is ejected into the atmosphere. The study was published recently in ACS Central Science.

minass

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1)If life is a sum of complex chemical reactions, then life can be found everywhere on earth, without gaps. The specific environmental and other conditions of each place alters the reactions accordingly. Everytime, the resulting reactions, when viewed from the results point of view, they seem to pose surviving capacities for the place it is found. This is because they are the resulting reactions. Recently scientists identified organisms living in Atacama desert, which is known as the driest place on earth.

2)If living beings are truly a sum of chaotic complex chemical reactions, that are meaningless for an outside observer (i.e. one not participating in the system of reactions), then the reactions of the organism constitute its phenotype. If we isolate its DNA, we will in fact isolate a small proportion of these reactions. By analyzing its structure, we can get a hint into the phenotype, but its role in determining phenotype should be less decisive than thought, because its like taking a picture of a small subset of reactions.
Some examples in real life that underscores this facts are:
Whole genome sequencing became a routine, but still we don’t understand much about diseases.
This week a study published in Science revealed a surprisingly high burden of cancer associated mutations in normal functioning skin that is exposed to the sun. There were more than 100 of them in a square centimeter of skin. However, there was no cancerous phenotype. They were still waiting for the driver mutation, or carcinogenesis is much more complex than previously thought, and DNA is not everything? Remember the role of microenvironment,…
Another study in Science showed that yeasts can incorporate human DNA and live normally.

minass

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Chemical reactions and aging.
The chemical reaction system of life that we refer to, simply says that living beings are just a system of chemical reactions. This system of chemical reactions naturally changes over time naturaly, as any system of chemical reactions naturally change. Thus, the organism changes over time, creating the phenotype of aging. So under this perspective, aging is the result of the change in the systems of complex chemical reactions that constitute an organism.
If true, this has some concequenses:
 a)This means that the effect of dietary restriction on prolonging survival relies on the fact that fewer initial substrates slow down the whole system of reactions and thus causes a lifespan prolongation. However, current efforts of scientists rather focuses on identifying the effect of dietary restriction on specific proteins, or single genes, molecular pathways etc, that can cause life prolongation. And the struggle goes on…on the wrong direction.

b)Aging is not an effect of single pathways, proteins, genes, etc and this is suggested by recent research that found that there is a surprisingly wide variety of genetic systems influence aging across species.

c)Studying a genetic defect that causes premature aging or else aging-like defects, cannot be a model for studying normal aging.

d)Studying how respiration of mitochondria is reduced is not a way to identify how we age, only because older counterparts are found to have lower mitochondrial respiration rate. Even if we manage to reverse this decline in lab cultures it doesn’t mean that we found a way to reverse aging. Moreover, even if we manage to rejuvenate some cells in vitro, doesn’t mean that this will be succesfull in real multi-cellular organisms.

However, all the above statements are wrong in the case that life is not a sum of chemical reactions.

minass

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In the chaotic chemistry theory of life that we introduced the main novelty is that actually all the features of life, such as metabolism, reproduction etc are only meaningless spontaneous chaotic chemistry, that is perceived as something special by us because they leads to us. In a similar manner, in any other long term system of chaotic chemistry, some natural processes will occur (evolution of reactions, advantage of repeatable reactions, etc) and the resulting reactions, if used as observers, they will perceive the whole system exactly the same way that we perceive our own system. Additionally, this means that all features of life for a non participating object (ie a stone)are only meaningless chemistry. Including our actions, our intelligence and our organized societies. But, what do the latter serve? Answer: Our survival mainly. It’s a weapon for survival exactly like strength, speed, etc.
 If you study any chaotic chemical reaction system, the resulting reactions over time prevail over other reactions due to some reasons. If you study the patterns in which they do this, you will find common patterns. You can call them strategies. Depends on who is the observer.

But what are the data supporting this theory?

a)For an external observer, our survival has no meaning. Its only chemistry instead of other chemistry. We are not special things for them that should be sustained and reserved.

b)You don’t find anywhere else in the Universe the “effort to survive”. Only here in life. I wonder why. Maybe because its only a term created by us to describe the patterns in which our reactions have prevailed over time.

c)Intelligent actions, strategies and intelligent organization is found everywhere in the animal kingdom and its pretty much not dependent to the existence of a higher organ such as the brain. Everybody knows that many animals survived for centuries without even having a brain. Recently scientists have found that fish actually dispay a much greater behavioral and intelligence sophistication than previously thought or explained by the structure of their brain.

minass

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Chemical reactions and Aging -Part 2:

If the phenotype of an organism is the sum of its chemical reactions, one thing is obvious. That these reactions become different as we age. However, we don’t know whether the initial reactions are programmed to change and lead to the latter ones, or the transition is a result of other events. In other words, is it possible to maintain the same composition of reactions for a long time, thus preventing changes in phenotype, thus preventing further aging?

Answer:  In the case our reactions are programmed to change, then things are more complicated. However, in the case that the reactions can be maintained as they are, then it can happen. And below is a possible way to achieve it.
The most important thing is to prevent changes. This can be achieved by providing a certain amount, composition and pace of initial substrates to the reacting system in the form of food. We are only interested in maintaining the system unchanged. We don’t care about the composition of this system, as long as it remains unchanged. This means that any diet that repeats itself every day,( that is providing everyday the same nutrients, in the same manner without any deviations in the routine) can cause the maximum of phenotype preserving in an organism, providing that the diet is viable and supplies all essential elements for life.
Question: Is there any existing evidence that this theory can work in reality?

Answer: A possible evidence can be the fact that the long term maintenance of the same weight (which is achieved by relatively stable food habits) pose an anti-aging effect. On the contrary, frequent changes in body weight accelerate aging.
Additionaly, anyone that tries to lose weight with the help of a specific nutrition, knows that even if he is very compliant to the perfect diet, he must periodically eat something else so as to further make changes in his body, because the body gets used to the diet and resists to further loss. It seems that eating the same food both in quality and quantity tend to cause stabilization of our body’s composition.

minass

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Life as chemical reactions and cancer part2
If a living organism is a sum of chemical reactions, then tumor cells are also a group of chemical reactions with specific by largely unknown properties. What is known however is that the reactions of the tumor have deviated from normal metabolism. Tumors are characterized by cells that are rapidly replicating. Hence, chemical reactions of the tumors are turned into “fast forward” mode. The rapid use of glucose in cancer is the basis of a powerful diagnostic test called PET scan, as tumor cells selectively uptake the tracer.
What causes the shift into unusual metabolisms is a hot topic in cancer research nowadays.
Over the last decades, scientists have found a lot with respect to molecular pathways linked to cancer. They have also managed to analyze cancer genomes rapidly and in great detail, with the help of next generation sequencing. However, results from targeting these pathways with drugs has proven to be relatively disappointing, mainly due to a significant amount of cross-talks between pathways.
Currently there is enthusiasm for immunotherapies (that can extend life for some months in some selected cases), but the next best thing is the study of cancer metabolomics. More and more scientists discover metabolic disruptions that are oncogenic. Metabolic disruptions and the speed of tumor chemical reactions can be exploited from scientists to develop novel treatments.
Additionally, complex metabolic disruptions are found also in other multi-cause chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases etc. Most of these conditions are age related. Seems that metabolic disruptions due to aging are hidden behind these age related diseases. It is something like a whack a mole game.

minass

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1)Two scientists have recently developed a new model to explain how could early replicating molecules could have worked. I cannot explain it because I found it rather crazy, complex, and highly unlikely to represent a real scenario. However, it was published in a respectable journal and for anyone interested it can be found here:
http://phys.org/news/2015-07-life-emergence-self-replication-early-earth.html
At this point I would to point out at the origin of the self replicating molecules that the chemical-reaction-only scenario offers. Everytime a system of chemical reactions became repeatable, this helped it to sustain itself in the long term. Gradual complexity could be built and sustained in this way. Organic molecules  (as multiple experiments show), and particularly nucleic acids can be created later from this increasing complexity and finally prevail due to its properties. That simple!!!!

2)At this point, one might have a question. If life is actually chemical chaos, why does living beings  avoid spatial chaos? The answer is simple. The chemical reactions of entire life as a whole phenomenon, poses spatial chaos. Individuals organisms are focal fluctuations that are a part of a larger system. So the answer to the question of what prevents chemical reactions of an organisms from spatial chaos, the answer is “the other chemical reactions that exists on earth and belong to living beings”.

3)Life viewed as a sum of complex chemical reactions suggests that acquired intrinsic chronic diseases such as cancer are more likely a result of complex metabolic imbalances (in which genetic alterations are a small fraction) that forces cells to obtain a cancer phenotype, rather than being a result of mainly genetic alterations. The latter was the predominant idea for decades. However, recently scientists have initially discovered that cancer is a complex interplay between cancer cells and its surrounding stroma. In addition, very recently scientists have found that cancer can be initiated due to non-genetic causes as protein imbalances inside a cell can be the sole cause of cancer. Specifically, two proteins that compete for binding to FGFR2 are plc-gamma-1 and grab-2. If the relative concentration of the former prevails, then there is constant activation of akt pathways that leads to cell proliferation and cancer formation.)

minass

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The concept that caloric restriction without malnutrition can increase longevity is known for many decades. As a result, numerous studies had been performed, in order to study the effect of nutrition in healthy lifespan. A thorough analysis of all the studies strongly supports the concept of living beings as complex systems of chemical reactions. I will explain:

First of all, what happens in a complex system of chemical reactions? Without providing initial substrates for reactions (food), then the existing system will reach an equilibrium state and die. If insufficient amount of food is provided (malnutrition), then equilibrium will be eventually be reached at some point, as well. If sufficient amount of initial substrates are provided, then the reactions will happen normally. If you provide some additional substrates, this will neither be of a benefit for the system, but it will be an extra stress, nor the pace of the reactions will increase. On the contrary, it will have a negative impact on the chemical reactions.

Now, why existing evidence support this is the case?

a)The fact that nutrition affects longevity points to a mechanistic system .

b)The differential effects of caloric restriction on different organisms are dependent on the composition of the reactions of each organism. Caloric restriction effect is not universal.

c)Everytime there is a lowering in metabolic rate, there is an increase in lifespan…Slower reactions last for more…simple as that.

d)This cannot be satisfactorily explained by a reduction in the production of reactive oxygen molecules as the culprit of this phenomenon per se, as some studies provide contradictory results.

e)Some studies in insects has shown that the relative proportion of nutrients (e.g. proteins/carbohydrates) is what plays the most decisive role, not caloric restriction.

f)Caloric restriction(CR) only produces longevity if it counteracts a significant metabolic imbalance. Animals under CR were compared to ad-libitum controls, that usually become overweight and obese. CR increases lifespan only in animals that become obese while on ad libitum diet. On the contrary, weight stability was an indicator that animals were receiving an optimal diet, so as to reach the longest lifespan possible.

For further study, I propose this article as well as some of its cited references …
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584914002317

minass

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And if life on earth is just chemical chaos caused by arbitrary reactions, that we perceive as something special due to our viewpoint,  how did life was created in the first place? In other words how can some initial reactions lead to a system of billions of others instead of leading to equilibrium?
Here is a logical scenario:
At the primordial earth we had many geological phenomena, such as volcanos etc, etc. Temperature was higher, sun energy was stronger and the atmosphere was different. Many chemical reactions were happening at the atmosphere, so a variety of chemicals were created. Eventually all these different chemical molecules fell on the ground due to gravity. So the surface of earth and the floor of the oceans and seas were the place were many different chemicals were concentrated. In fact, an inch of this carpet collects everything that comes from above i.e atmosphere and underlying water. So at every tiny inch of the surface, a huge variety of chemical molecules were collected. All these chemicals, with the help of strong external energy (e.g. solar energy, heat etc), started to react with each other. (Probably that would have been invisible our eye). Many different substrates were produced, so they started to react with each other, plus with all the previously occurring chemicals and so, equilibrium was avoided and further complexity was created.
However, terrestrial reactions, athough gaining significant complexity, equilibrium would have eventually occurred everytime. On the contrary, marine reactions were buoyed by water and so reactions and chemicals were stuck together for more, and so complexity was promoted, as well as the creation of hydrophobic membranes that made the process multilocal rather than diffuse. Eventually, increasing complexity created the first tiny organisms. This complexity was constantly increasing creating multi-cellular organisms. Functions such as eating, swimming, walking, killing etc were not present on the first multicellular organisms.
Ok!! This is the scenario.
And lets see what scientific evidence from fossils found tells us about the istory of life on earth. The story in general goes something like…
Life on earth was first evolved 3,5 billion years ago. The first organisms with structure to create fossils were marine prokaryotes. First bacteria performing photosynthesis appered 3,4 billion years ago. 2 billion years ago appeared cmplex cells, and 1,2 billion years appeared sexual reproduction. Around 1 billion years appeared some bizarre multicelluar organisms such as skolithos, diplocraterion, cruzianna, ichnotaxon, spriggina, sinotubulites, namacalathus, etc, with elusive properties. Until 500 million years ago, all life was marine. Around that period the first terrestrial life-forms appeared. Soon after, Cambrian explosion happened and the rest is history….

minass

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If life as a whole is a system of chemical reactions, then from the beginning it was a system of reactions with increasing complexity. Thus, every époque was characterized by a particular level of chemical reaction complexity. If this is the case, it means that fossils from the same period must have had the same level of complexity, as they were all parts of the same system of life at a particular time.

 But how do you measure complexity of chemical reactions in an organism? A good way is to see an organism’s embryology. How complicated can it become? In other words, how much of its DNA can be regulated? Or else, what is the ratio between coding DNA/ non coding regulatory DNA? Or what is the ratio between methylated/ non methylated DNA? In any particular period in a system of interconnected chemical reactions, the ratios in all the organisms must follow a normal distribution, as the chemical complexity must have been nearly the same. In any other case, then the distribution will be far different from normal. Any ideas?

minass

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A chemical-reaction-only theory of life indicates that life is a sum of chemical reactions that are happening arbitrarily and spontaneously. This means that we would expect that the entropy of the system of reactions both as a whole and for particular organisms to be increasing constantly, albeit the external sun energy that this open system receives.
But this is in contrast with our long held belief that living beings are characterized by order, and thus a lowering entropy state (see ideas of Schrodiger). But is this really the case?

For instance, for a nonliving object, such as a stone, all the reactions of living beings are meaningless. A stone only perceives a chemical unordered chaos. On the other hand, weare what we are because of some properties of these reactions. Hence, through our perspective, there is a lot of order there.
For this reason, if we want to re-examine if entropy of living beings during evolution is actually increasing or decreasing, we must abandon human-created terms such as “order”, and instead check-out for entropy changes using more objective tools such as “heat release”, etc etc.
For instance, I am not sure if life as a totality is characterized by an entropy decrease during , or what happens to an isolated leaf or a baby during its lifetime as it is getting older.

 

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