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Author Topic: Info on Titanium  (Read 9418 times)

Offline Exodus

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Info on Titanium
« on: 09/03/2003 20:41:24 »
Evening my little pumpkins!!!

Look y'all, i'd be really grateful if there are any buffs out there who know about titanium? i'm after everything you can tell me including economics over the last year... Go on, someone must know something

Any books, web pages or paper suggestions would be very much appreciated.

Cheers,
Richard :D

Thats Economics...


 

Offline Exodus

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #1 on: 11/03/2003 23:40:27 »
It seems nobody knows much about titanium... well let me inform you what i've found out thus far. Its an awesome metal!

Titanium was discovered by William Gregor in 1791 and was subsequently named by Klaproth in 1795. It was a hundred years until the impure form was synthesised by Nison and Petterson. Pure titanium metal was made in 1910 by a man called Hunter by reacting TiCl4 with Sodium. Titanium is often found in igneous rocks and in secondary sedimentary deposits originating from them. It is associated with the minerals Ilmenite, Sphene, Rutile and various iron ores. Biologically it may also be found in coals and plants. It is the 9th most abundant element in the earths crust, in fact, its estimated crustal abundance is 5.65x103 milligrams per Kilo with a further 1.3x103 mg/litre in the oceans.

It wasnít until after the war that a scientists by the name of Kroll discovered a way to produce titanium on a commercial scale by using magnesium to reduce tetrachloride, a process that is still practiced to this day. Titanium was immediately recognised for its high strength to weight ratio   making it perfect for aircraft   and space exploration. Worldwide exploitation of this element has increased ever since with new and innovative uses arising on a yearly basis. Prices on the other hand have continually fallen due to increased mill capacities, efficiency and technology coupled with a vastly expanded market place. Subsequently, titanium alloys are common and able to compete on the global market alongside steel, copper and nickel alloys.

Titanium is associated with the following minerals, these are described below, referring to synthesis and uses.

Ilmenite (FeTiO3)
Ilmenite contains titanium combined with iron as a compound oxide and is named after the location it was discovered in Russia. It occurs in mafic igneous rocks as the crystals form relatively early and hence sink to the base of the magma chamber forming magmatically segregated layers. Such layers mean a higher grade and thus extraction by mining is more efficient and thus more profitable.  Slightly lower grades may also be found in pegmatites and metamorphic rocks alongside secondary deposits in sedimentary lithologies. As well as being plentiful in the Ural Mountains of Russia, minable quantities of Ilmenite are also found in many countries including Germany, Sweden, Canada, India and the USA.

Rutile (TiO2)
Rutile has the formula TiO2 and is a major ore of titanium. It is also mined for its gemstone qualities. It may contain inclusions of rubies and sapphires. These together with quartz can form a semi precious stone called a rutilated quartz, which is used for jewellery or carvings.

Rutile is therefore a useful commodity where good samples of the rutilated quartz can be used for carvings, and the spoil worked for its titanium properties. Such efficiency and good usage of the ore means waste is reduced and money is saved.

Sphene (CaTiSiO5 )
Sphene is a Calcium Titanium Silicate (formula CaTiSiO5). Its name comes from the Greek word for wedge (due to its shape) although it may be known as titanite. It is known for its gem qualities for being incredibly shiny, even more so than diamond, it does however have the disadvantage of being soft which limits its usage in jewellery. It has a hardness of 5-5.5 and a white streak, it may also often be associated with other minerals such as chlorite and calcite. Principal locations to find sphene  are Pakistan, Russia, Canada, and the USA.

Properties and Uses

Probably one of the significant and useful properties of Titanium is its strength to weight ratio. This has allowed the aeronautical industry to advance dramatically in the last 20 years. It plays a key role in the reduction of weight in areas of high stress i.e. the wings and fuselage. In fact, for every tonne saved, the resultant  savings are around 2 tonnes of flight savings.

Titanium has what is known as a high fatigue strength and resistance to fracture, and is thus used in about 9% of commercial air frames. Even with advances in carbon fibres, it is forecast that usage is due to increase rather than the contrary, and with lower prices, it is steadily replacing aluminium. Titanium is actually as strong as steel and twice the strength of aluminium. To add additional strength, titanium in the aerospace industry is alloyed with aluminium, molybdenum, manganese and iron. Molybdenum is a transition element and is not found as a free metal, the main ore being molybdenite (MoS2) and is produced as a by-product of the mining of copper and tungsten. Titanium alloys are also used in the gas turbine engines for components such as the fan blades and hubs/discs. Properties that make titanium preferential for this application are its strength/weight ratio, resistance to fatigue, and its tolerance of extreme temperatures. Currently, titanium alloys are able to withstand constant temperatures of 600 degrees centigrade.

Titanium is almost as corrosion resistant as platinum making it unique, at 60% the density of steel and just as resistant. Both metals are very reactive and rely on an oxide coating that forms in air, to stop corrosion. The metal is protected by a thin oxide layer of TiO2 which is highly adherent and chemically stable, in fact, the metal is able to instantly re-heal itself as long as water and oxygen are present, even in small quantities. The protective layer is successful in environments ranging from highly oxidising (highly acidic) to mildly reducing (partially alkali) environments, even when exposed to high temperatures. Titaniumís resistance to aqueous chlorides such as brine, and strong acids (e.g nitric acid) place it a cut above steels and copper/nickel alloys which suffer greatly in these conditions. Titanium can however suffer in solutions of HCl, HF or HBr, the addition of small amounts of oxygen and oxidising compounds can aid in prolonging the life of the metal by aiding in preserving its protective oxide skin. For extreme conditions brought about by high temperatures, titanium is alloyed with metals such as palladium or molybdenum.

This anti corrosion property at an affordable cost makes titanium attractive to many parties. The food, brewing and pharmaceutical industries have all introduced it into their processing plants whether it be to deal with corrosive foodstuffs such as citrus juice or even just cleaning materials. On a marine scale, titanium is now being used for many components on submarines, seawater does not corrode the metal making its lifespan considerably longer, other uses have included water jet propulsion systems, shipboard cooling systems and hull materials. Alongside this, titanium has also been used in desalination plants and has been able to compete competitively with copper-nickel for this purpose. Offshore petroleum piping has been gradually converted over the past 30 years allowing diameter to be reduced, and subsequently, the bend radii to become tighter. Petrological refineries on land have also benefited from the increased availability of titanium. Some lower quality crudes are higher in hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide which would attack pipes and lower their lifespan, the anti corrosion qualities of titanium have saved money by increasing lifespans. Closer to the shore, titanium piping is now also a common feature in power plants where it is used in the steam condenser systems.

Medically, titanium is the most biocompatible of all metals, its corrosion resistivity keeps it protected from body fluids and its strength to weight ratio ensures limbs donít get weighted down. Hip and other joint replacements have been in regular use for the last 30 years although prices have fallen recently. Titaniam is also used in dentistry for teeth and jaws, as bone naturally adheres to the surface oxide.

Environmental Issues Associated with Titanium

Titanium is one of the most environmentally friendly metals, its natural resistance reduces pollution to water and air from corrosion failures at chemical plants. Also rainwater is not polluted when running off the roofs and cladding of buildings. Its light weight reduces fuel consumption in planes, trains and cars meaning less harmful gases are emitted. The fact that it is biocompatible means it can be safely used in conjunction with human tissue, this also means that it is harmless to flora and fauna as well as micro-organisms.


So thats it so far, anyone care to add any snippets of information?


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Offline chris

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #2 on: 13/03/2003 00:49:42 »
That's an amazing amount of information, well written too. Must have taken you ages to dredge that lot up.

Chris
 

Offline Exodus

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #3 on: 13/03/2003 17:26:23 »
It is an essay, needs tweaking but coming on nicely. Didn't take too long to get the info. I'll add in extra info as i do more of the report.

Take Care Y'All
Ex.

TITANIUM!

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Offline Exodus

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #4 on: 18/04/2003 13:43:05 »
i was watching a program last night concerning a cancer drug that uses titanium... can't remember its name is titanium used a lot for cancer drugs, can you give me some info on it because it sounds really interesting!

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Offline NakedScientist

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #5 on: 18/04/2003 18:28:05 »
Are you sure it was titanium that they were using. Platinum is used in a number of anti-cancer agents.

Titanium has multiple uses in medicine, but mainly as the base metal, including clips for cerebral aneurysms, and orthopaedic 'appliances' including replacement joints.

If you do hear of a titanium-based drug, let me know, I'd be interested to hear about it.

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Offline Donnah

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #6 on: 19/04/2003 17:42:18 »
What are the similarities and differences of titanium and titanium (IV) oxide (used in dental materials)?
 

Offline Exodus

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #7 on: 20/04/2003 16:02:40 »
naked scientist - visit http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2797141.stm

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Offline NakedScientist

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #8 on: 20/04/2003 23:50:06 »
Wow - thanks for the link, that sounds really interesting, I wonder how it works ?

TNS
 

Offline daveshorts

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #9 on: 06/05/2005 16:31:20 »
On a vaguely related note, I found these guys who have worked out how to make titanium without using scary chemistry.
http://www.metalysis.com
I think titanium is about to get a whole lot cheaper in the next 5-6 years...
 

Offline chimera

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #10 on: 06/05/2005 16:50:49 »
quote:
Originally posted by NakedScientist

Are you sure it was titanium that they were using.
If you do hear of a titanium-based drug, let me know, I'd be interested to hear about it.

TNS



Knew I'd seen it too, surprised me somewhat as well:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2797141.stm

Cool page on use of metallic alloys in medicine:
http://www.emedicine.com/orthoped/topic610.htm

Also saw it was used as a nanocarrier in certain cosmetics, and in the manufacture of polyester.

The living are the dead on holiday.  -- Maurice de Maeterlinck (1862-1949)
 

Offline ed

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #11 on: 11/05/2005 20:25:09 »
anyone heard of that metallic glass stuff?
you get molten metal alloy an you cool it super fast, an you get a weird metal substance with no grains or crystals, cos that's what makes normal metal structures weak. if you get the mix of metals in the alloy just right, you get a metallic glass, an it's about 5-6 times as strong as strongest alloys available atm. kinda cool huh?

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Offline l_kryptonite

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #12 on: 12/05/2005 00:08:17 »
I know that if more men's wedding rings were made of titanium, they would be worn more often.  Lightweight and highly durable; I know one man who's finger was saved by his titanium ring.
Jewellers despise the material because they generally do not have the equipment to mill it, but many places in industrialareas will work it for you.
A beautiful metal, it changes colour when you run an oxy over it.
 

Offline Deanwinfield

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #13 on: 12/05/2005 19:50:00 »
I can't say i've ever thought out Titanium that much. Would I use it daily? What is it in? apart from life saving rings *_*

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Re: Info on Titanium
« Reply #13 on: 12/05/2005 19:50:00 »

 

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