How does a single speaker play many simultaneous frequencies?

05 June 2011



I've been an avid listener for only the past month or so when I've been listening to the podcasts on my walk to and from the library everyday to revise, and am absolutely loving it so far and have managed to get through a good 30 or 40 of the latest podcasts in this short period of time... Anyway just a few things I was wondering if you could help me with:

As an amateur musician and DJ I have forever struggled to work out how it is that, particular in cheaper more basic speakers, a single speaker cone/diaphragm is able to vibrate at so many different frequencies at any one time in order to produce the full tonal frequencies of a piece of music? So essentially: how is it that it is able to recreate a kick drum at say 70Hz whilst still producing a clear strings note of 1700Hz undisturbed. Thanks very much for your time

Dom Parker


Dave - If the speaker was to produce a single frequency, think what that actually means - it means that the speaker is moving backwards and forwards, and causing the air to move backwards and forwards in a sine wave pattern.

You've probably seen a sine wave: it's basically just a very specific "zigzaggy / wiggly" line.

Now, if the speaker moves in any other pattern than that - you could imagine it's moving slowly with a big wiggle and then on top of that superimposed, there's a little wiggle - then it would be outputting sound with the low frequency, the big slow wiggle, and also a much higher frequency (the small superimposed wiggle) as well, at the same time. It's just moving the air to make sound waves corresponding to the movements of the speaker.

The way that sound works is you can superimpose the motion of the speaker - meaning lots and lots of different vibrations - and that will produce sounds of lots and lots of different frequencies all at the same time, by just making the right pattern for the speaker to move back and forwards.

It's not moving in a smooth wiggle, it's making more complicated movements that are a mixture of lots of different frequencies superimposed on top of one another.


bro I've been wondering about this for along time thanks for answering this for me

How does a speaker produce different sounds?

The answer to your question about speakers producing different sounds is written above. Was there something specifically that you did not follow?

Just to agree with Gus, what a great answer! Thanks, I was wondering the same question.

Ive also always wondered about this - what a clear concise and brilliant answer :)

So how does it work if there’s say a long bass note and simultaneously a violin over the top. Does the speaker alternate between each note in slices of time or does t move along a compromise curve derived from both frequencies

Anthony, it's explained very well above, but the answer is that the driver moves at the frequency of the bass note, say 60Hz, but superimposed on that movement is a higher frequency of the violin, say 3000Hz. Like a rolling sea that also has smaller wavelets within the large waves. It's hard for a single driver with a fixed mass to move slowly and in large excursions for bass and also very rapidly for treble, which is why good quality speakers almost always use large drivers (move lots of air) for bass and progressively smaller and lighter (=faster accelerating) for mid and treble. These are separated by an electronic crossover which assigns the drivers frequencies they can handle comfortably.

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