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On the Lighter Side => New Theories => Topic started by: Soul Surfer on 21/03/2021 15:33:51

Title: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: Soul Surfer on 21/03/2021 15:33:51
Are we in a Recycled Universe?
A new approach to solving "the antimatter problem" in our big bang cosmology opens the gate to the possibility of an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology

Introducing Antimatter
Let us first look at antimatter.  Every matter particle has its antimatter partner some neutral particles like photons can be their own antimatter partners .  When an antimatter particle meets and interacts with its matter particle the only thing that comes out if the interaction is pure energy in the form of a pair of photons, that is, no massive particles all the mass has been concerted back to energy. 
The most familiar particle is the electron. This is a light negatively charged particle.   Its antimatter partner is the positron a positively charged particle with exactly the same mass,  it also has exactly the opposite spin and one more important feature.  The electron is travelling normally through time, depending on its velocity, but the positron is moving backwards through time.  This is the result of strict   Charge Parity Time (CPT)  symmetry. This is the most fundamental and as yet unbroken symmetry in the universe.
The reverse process is also possible.  When a high energy particle interacts violently with another particle new massive particles can be created.  This happens in the earth's atmosphere when high energy cosmic rays produce intense showers of electrons and positrons. it is also the process used to investigate particles using high energy physics experiments like the Large Hadron Collider and its precursor,  the Large Electron Positron Collider which produced intense showers of particles and their antiparticles of all types by simply colliding an electron and a positron head on at an extremely high energy.    The important factor is that every particle is always created together with its antiparticle.
The Serious Antimatter problem in Cosmology
The antimatter problem in our current well accepted "big bang" cosmology is the fact that when energy is converted into matter by particle interactions at high energy, the matter is always created in matter-antimatter particle pairs, that is there are always equal quantities of matter and antimatter created during the initial stages of particle creation from the pure energy of the initial state. 
This is usually "explained away" by saying there must be some sort of broken symmetry between matter and antimatter under the initial conditions. However no hint of this  exists at the limit of current high energy physics. It is also true in theoretical physics the currently highly precise equations of quantum electrodynamics, which proved the existence of antimatter in the first place back in 1928, tell us that this broken symmetry does not exist.
This symmetry breaking idea is in some way understandable because of the success of Theoretical Physics in explaining the current standard model of particle theory in terms of gauge symmetries and symmetry breaking in the strong and weak interaction fields all the way up to thew most recently discovered Higgs Boson which gives the particles their masses and links togerther the strong and weak interactions with the electromagnetic interaction
The Two part universe proposed
In 2020 Neil Turock of the Perimeter Institute in Canada a highly respected area of fundamental theoretical Physics studies suggested that the problem could be solved without breaking the CPT symmetry if, when our big bang expansion of a matter universe happened, at the same time it created a collapsing antimatter universe containing this unwanted antimatter to be bound up in a singularity and hidden from us.  That is our expanding universe of matter also contains a collapsing universe of antimatter hidden within itself.  It is again useful to note that the converse with an expanding universe of antimatter and a collapsing universe of matter might also be true.
  here is a youtube video of the presentation note it is more than one hour long.
The extension of the concept to form a cyclic cosmology
Let us look again at this "two part universe" and consider what happens when matter collapses under its self gravity.
Several important facts are known and accepted.
We have therefore created a physical reason for the start of a big bang universe and also the possibility of a cyclic process for the origin and development of universes whereby part of an older universe during its life creates new universes. 
I will call this process an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology (ECC) alternatively you could include the concept of the big bang cosmology with in the name by calling it an Episodic Cyclic Big Bang Cosmology  (ECBBC). However I personally prefer the former because of its greater simplicity and also because the concept of an explosion in this model is completely denied because the process may take place very quickly but it is one of cooling by the creation of a vast quantity of new matter together with cooling by the expansion of a new universe and avoids the need for arbitrary cosmic inflation processes.
Looking further at the collapse inside the event horizon of a rotating black hole
It is known and accepted that inside an event horizon space becomes "time like"  and time becomes multidimensional and "space like"  a good reference for this is the work of Roger Penrose  a good well established reference book is his book "The Road To Reality" tis book also covers several other aspects of this paper.
The probability that a collapsing black hole has absolutely no angular momentum is vanishingly small so all black holes are in fact Kerr black holes.  It has been proved that these collapse to form a ring singularity 
This is therefore a universe with a single ring dimension of space and three slightly extended dimensions of time during the collapse so it fits the requirement  Max Tegmark's chart for a universe with one dimensions of space and three dimensions of time where space and time have been exchanged.
I would now like to quote from a paper published in 1997 by Max Tegmark  He is another well respected and innovative thinker in the field of cosmology. 
“On the dimensionality of space-time”      By Max Tegmark

* Stable Spacetime_dimensionality.jpg (90.24 kB . 600x600 - viewed 2516 times)

Abstract. Some superstring theories have more than one effective low-energy limit corresponding to classical spacetimes with different dimensionalities. We argue that all but the (3 + 1)-dimensional one might correspond to ‘dead worlds’, devoid of observers, in which case all such ensemble theories would actually predict that we should find ourselves inhabiting a (3 + 1)-dimensional spacetime. With more or less than one time dimension, the partial differential equations of nature would lack the hyperbolicity property that enables observers to make predictions. In a space with more than three dimensions, there can be no traditional atoms and perhaps no stable structures. A space with less than three dimensions allows no gravitational force and may be too simple and barren to contain observers.

Additional notes
The "We are here" box in the space time dimensionality diagram shows our normal three dimensions of space and one of time 
The chart also shows a second area for a long lived predictable universe.   One with three dimensions of Time and one of space!  This universe is populated only by what he calls Tachyons. 

Now Tachyons are particles that always travel faster than light or backwards in time.  This could be seen as another way of describing antimatter.  So what we have is an antimatter dominated universe that has a single dimension of space and three complex dimensions of time. 

This is a specification of the later stages of a Kerr black hole containing a single dimensional ring singularity space dimension and three complex time dimensions opened up by the gravitational gradients.  This would be formed form the collapsing inside a black hole in an antimatter dominated large universe,
Confirming evidence of this going back nearly one century
In 1928  the creation and solution of the Dirac equation of the electron and the start of quantum electrodynamics required the existence of antimatter.  This equation is the most accurately known and accepted in all of physics.  Dirac said that this antimatter universe must be (virtually) fully populated with particles or our matter particles would be continually collapsing into it because of the requirements of Fermi Dirac Statistics.  The existence of antimatter in the form of the positron was proved experimentally around the same time.
This is also seen in the mathematics. It has been known for some time that the mathematics of the vast number of possible string theories allows for the concept of tachyons and other so called "ghost" particles that are essentially undetectable and but the possible link with antimatter has not been proposed to my knowledge.  This problem has again been largely swept under the carpet.
This gives very clear support going back many years for Neil Turok's proposal for a "balancing" collapsing antimatter universe. hidden in our own universe.
Where is this collapsing half universe of antimatter?
True Einsteinian relativity only applies to situations of infinite time and space.   Our universe is not infinite in time or space because it started at a particular instant in time (I will call this instant Now!) and our horizons are limited by the velocity of light.  We cannot define a location for the instant Now! because this is the origin of our space but we can know our velocity with respect to the cosmic Microwave Background because of its extreme uniformity of temperature and by virtue of the  the true velocity of all radiating objects in the universe could in theory be measured.
It follows that the multidimensional aspects of time are locked in this instant Now!  in the form of its compactified tiny ring singularity.   This instant is totally unobservable because the moment you move away from it, the limited velocity of light hides it from you.  This instant that is held in common by every particle within the universe wherever it is and however it is moving. 
In effect it contains as much mass (or mass energy) as our whole universe because every matter particle existing at any instant in the universe has its antimatter counterpart in this instant.  Conversely the few antimatter particles in our universe have matter particles in the instant Now! There is one interesting exception to this.  Most of the neutrinos in our universe are called antineutrinos to balance the weak interaction process so most of the neutrinos in Now! will be neutrinos.
Interesting Results in other areas if this concept is valid
Our universe has been measured to contain  5% Normal Matter  27%  Dark (gravitational interactions only) matter and 68% Dark energy
Firstly it explains most of the dark energy that must be in the universe because the moment Now! contains 50% of total mass and energy of the universe this leaves around 18% dark energy in our part of the universe.
The possibility of having all particle properties linked via the moment Now! in a common multidimensional time goes a long way towards providing a simple and understandable explanations of some of the mysteries of entanglement an superposition in quantum particles and may even open new doors into quantum computing approaches.
The favoured Symmetries of string theory  called E8xE8 also suffer from undetectable "ghost" particles like the Dirac electron quoted earlier they also require large numbers of dimensions
Quantum theory and cyclic processes like waves and orbits are best treated using complex numbers which splits each number into an amplitude and a phase in the repetitive cycle of the orbital or wave the total dimensionality is therefore twice the number of dimensions less on for a uniform real episodic time dimension the three dimensions of space give six complex dimensions and the two free complex dimensions of time in the moment Now! give another four making a total of eleven.  The remaining time dimension is the episodic causal and reversible time dimension that is defined by the common moment Now!
This reversal of the effective direction of time as we switch between the matter dominated large universe and the antimatter dominated large universe resolves the thermodynamic and information related problems of cyclic universes.
This recycling matter/antimatter alternate universe model offers the possibility of defining what the cosmological constant is and how it develops over time.
One important factor must not be forgotten whilst the  black hole implies a collapse to the limit singularity in a finite time.  The Kerr collapse is different. The initial collapse under an inverse square law releases energy at a rate equal to the reciprocal of the radius of the gravitating mass as in the Scwartschild case but as the temperature cools by matter creation and the gradual reduction in particle interactions by the establishment of the ring (or toroidal surface singularity) the dominating dimensionality of the energy release will reduce initially towards a two dimensional gravitational field which releases energy at a logarithmic rate but still tends to infinity in extremis. and finally will reach a limit in the planar approximation of a toroidal surface where the interactions become linear and there is no further release of energy.
By way of additional explanation,  the inverse square law of gravity and electrostatic fields is due to them being three dimensional.  This is because the energy spreading ion three dimensions is as the area of the surface of a sphere on its radius.  That is one less than its number of spatial dimensions.  For other cases:-
If we had a true four dimensional space the field would fall off as an inverse cube law
An "infinite" cylindrical field falls of as the inverse first power of the distance
That of an infinite plane is constant.
note particle antiparticle production at high energies will cause the mass to increase and the diameter of the singularity to shrink but will not affect the angular momentum limits of the originating event horizon.  This will drive the initial inflationary stage of the new universe.  it seems likely that the final size of the ring will approach the Planck dimensions or may even go smaller than that.  It may also be associated with the definition of the Planck constant itself.

A serious request for Peer Review
I honestly believe that this suggestion could be proved and completely change the direction of a lot of theoretical and practical physics and astronomy and am asknig for someone with a real understanding of the subject to take these fully referenced ideas apart and show me where I am wrong.

There is a great deal more evidence and references to be looked at on my website   Go through to the main workspace via the "Evolutionary Cosmology" button to see work in progress and contact me directly.   

This work represents the first big step in my attempts to prove that like life on earth even our universe has evolved fro simple beginnings in the form of pure energy in the form of what we call the quantum mechanical vacuum trying to find a way to extend itself through time.
Title: Re: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: Kryptid on 21/03/2021 17:51:55
At the moment of the Big Bang, the Universe wouldn't have contained either matter or antimatter. As I best understand it, it would have contained a collection of massless bosons that made up the original, grand unified field. After symmetry breaking events, those bosons would have changed into the various bosons we are familiar with today, such as photons and W and Z bosons. Due to particle decay and various particle interactions, equal amounts of matter and should have been produced in order to satisfy conservation laws. Proposing that the antimatter produced by this process travelled back in time doesn't seem to square with experiment, as positrons are readily observable after electron-positron pair creation takes place. If the positron travelled back in time, you'd expect to observe it before the pair production process began, not after.
Title: Re: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: Soul Surfer on 21/03/2021 23:39:56
I am afraid that you are thinking wrongly Kryptid you are starting your big bang from the singularity that has been generated theoretically to explain the symmetry breaking from scratch and there is absolutely no proof or possibility of a proper experimental proof of this. There is also no reason to believe that there is a process to drive this expansion than an unlikely event it the quantum mechanical vacuum.

I am starting my argument from the collapse of a stellar mass black hole in a universe similar to ours but made of antimatter inside its event horizon.   It is easy to prove that this collapse initially under a simple inverse square law and heading towards the plank dimensions will release far more energy than the total mass energy of our universe and there is absolutely no reason to believe that the laws of physics would change on crossing the event horizon in fact as I state above the LHC claims to have tested physics down to less than nanoseconds after the big bang. 

This will be seeded by antiparticles similar to ours and will generate particle pairs in this collapse process. this clearly provides a process with sufficient energy to create a big bang

I should add at this point the antiparticles are travelling in what they "think" as the "normal" direction of time and it is the generated particles in the pairs that are travelling backwards in time. 

Note the fact that as you cross an event horizon space becomes "time like" and time becomes "space like" (read Roger Penrose "the road to reality" to confirm this) all I am suggesting is that space and time interchange and the expansion of the particle rather than antiparticle based new big bang results in a reversal in the direction of time with the collapse continuing to produce all tyhe antimatter hidden it a kerr singularity hidden in the moment "Now!" this energy of course is seen in the form of the uncertainty principle and provides a complete and logical explanation of quantum mechanics entanglement.

The only departure from our current physical and mathematical thinking is that this universe does not have the CPT symmetry violation needed to explain why our universe consists of matter and this is just the application of Occams razor.  Why break a symmetry when you don't have to.
Title: Re: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: Kryptid on 22/03/2021 06:48:13
I just want to point out that a black hole made from matter and one made from antimatter are identical because of the no hair theorem.
Title: Re: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: puppypower on 22/03/2021 10:56:50
Positrons can be generated by modern matter through beta decay. This reaction is asymmetrical  and is favored in the forward direction, described above, even at room temperature. This reaction implies that the matter is stabilizing itself, by getting rid of some anti-matter.

This particular pathway is not the type of reaction anyone would expect at the beginning of the universe. However, it does show there are ways to make anti-matter that are not destructive to matter, but that can stabilize matter. The asymmetry that formed from matter and anti-matter, more than likely had a favored direction, as beta decay continues to show. If matter and antimatter were always antagonistic, at all conditions, such nuclei would self destruct and not emit to become  more stabile.

In beta decay, the exiled positron typically reacts with one of the atom's electrons. This is destructive. This tells me that the annihilation will works if there is symmetry. However, it appears positrons do not have the same beef with nucleus matter, due to asymmetry.

My theory is this asymmetry has something to due with an asymmetry in positive and negative charge. Based on collider data, the negative charge of the electron remains bound to the electron's mass to form a single particle, where the mass and negative charge of the electron remain one thing; one particle, even at extreme conditions. Or negative charges unifies with its mass to such a degree as to become and remain a single unified state of negative-mass; EM-gravity.

The positive charge in nature, as the rule, combined with a larger mass to form the proton. When protons are subject to collider experiments, the positive charge and mass separate and do not maintain the same level of intimacy with mass. There is no single persistent positive-mass state. Gravity does not unify with positive charge the same way even with huge mass by comparison to the electron.

My guess is the positron does not  maintain a unified state of positive charge-mass. It can only form a looser alliance. At room temperature, an interaction with an electron appears to alter the electron so it to loses this ability. This could be due to cancellation of charge or sharing of mass. The result is a movement into a higher energy state; energy, with both mass and charge being converted, even though mass is matter.

Inside the nucleus positive charge is more stabilized as a separate phase from mass, so the positron does not change this nature to any great degree. It can share with the nucleus until it becomes a burden for other reasons.
Title: Re: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: Soul Surfer on 22/03/2021 23:29:12
I agree Kryptid but that is not relevant.  We are not saying anything about what is outside of the black hole  only what is happening to the stuff that fell into it at the moment the event horizon is formed if the universe was formed from matter it will be mostly matter if it was antimatter antimatter.
Title: Re: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: Soul Surfer on 22/03/2021 23:51:45
Puppy power.   Conventional weak interaction radioactive decay processes are not relevant to this discussion only particle pair production processes. 

The conditions for stellar mass black hole formation are beyond that of a conventional atomic nucleus  They are best described as a Quark, Gluon, Lepton plasma.  However the thermal energy of the particles is still relatively low and too low for electron pair production.

There is a class of supernovae with stars of above 100 solar masses where pair production happens in the stellar core causing a thermal collapse before the gravitational collapse of the potential neutron star due to it exceeding the mass/temperature limit. 

These stars eventually completely disrupt themselves entirely as "pair production supernovae" you can check this on Wikipedia and quite a lot of recent astronomy papers.

Pair production happens when the thermal electron energies in the mix exceed twice their rest mass  or something over 1MeV

The LHC energy levels are clearly vastly higher than this showing that we understand physics at much higher energy levels than this.
Title: Re: Are we living in an Episodic Cyclic Cosmology?
Post by: Soul Surfer on 23/03/2021 16:39:09
I have just done a bit of editing on the main document and also got the image of the two sets of dimensions for a stable two part universe.  That is one with an expanding universe like ours and a Kerr black hole collapsing universe inside the moment I call "Now!" in its time dimension containing the opposite sort of matter in our case what we call antimatter. 

It is important to note that the positions of what we call matter and antimatter could be reversed and that stellar mass black holes are creating antimatter dominated universes in different space dimensions cut of from us by the event horizon.