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Currently magnetism is seen as moving electricity, whose magnitude is determined by electric charge and velocity of the electric charge carriers.If evidence provided by experiments above shows that magnetic force is also determined by the mass of electric charge carriers, we would need to redefine magnetism as an electro-gravity effect, since inertial mass is equivalent to gravitational mass to a very high precision.

Scientists have often thought that magnetic (and electric) fields are fundamental quantities that relate to real, physical, observable things in the universe. And they are. But, it may be possible that their potentials are even more fundamental!Hey everyone, in this video I wanted to discuss how a quantity initially created purely for mathematical convenience, ends up being a really important fundamental quantity in the study of quantum mechanics.Magnetic fields (B) are used to describe how magnets interact with each other - both the creator of the field, and any magnet placed within the field. And these fields are thought to be fundamental quantities, neatly describing the behaviour of all magnetic objects. However, sometimes magnetic fields are not mathematically simple to deal with.To overcome this issue, physicists made use of a neat math trick. They took an identity that states that the divergence of the curl of any vector must be zero, as well as the Maxwell equation that states that the divergence of any magnetic field must always be zero ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jW74lrpeM0 ) to define a "magnetic vector potential" (A). The relationship is that a magnetic field is equal to the curl of its vector potential.Now vector potentials are often easier to work with mathematically, but they aren't uniquely defined ("gauge invariance"). If we have a certain B-field, this can be described by multiple related A-fields. But when given an A-field, we can uniquely find the corresponding B-field. This is important later.When studying quantum mechanics, it turns out that the A-field can have a real, measurable impact on a system, despite only being considered a mathematical convenience. Importantly, this measurable impact has nothing to do with the corresponding B-field! This is because in a region of space where B is zero, but A is not zero, we can find the wave function of an electron being changed. Specifically, the phase of the wave function changes, and this can be measured using a particular type of double-slit experiment. This effect is known as the Aharonov-Bohm Effect.In other words, we find that the magnetic vector potential can have a real-world impact WITHOUT any influence from its corresponding magnetic field. The Aharonov-Bohm effect is telling us that electric and magnetic fields are not the fundamental quantities that we initially thought, and their potentials are the fundamental quantities! This despite potentials only being created for mathematical convenience!Caveat to the Aharonov-Bohm effect: It *may* be possible to describe the effect by purely dealing with the magnetic field and not the vector potential, but this would involve having to give up the idea of locality - we would need nonlocal fields! Timestamps:0:00 - Magnetic Field Lines: Vectors for Magnetic Interactions1:46 - Magnetic Fields vs Mathematical Convenience2:17 - A Neat Trick for Defining Magnetic Vector Potential4:00 - Sponsor Chat: Thanks to Skillshare, Check Out a Free Trial Below!5:00 - Gauge Invariance, Uniquely Defining the Vector Potential6:08 - B Fields are the Real Fundamental Quantity... Right?!6:45 - Passing an Electron Near a Solenoid (Coil of Wire)7:56 - Phase and the Aharonov-Bohm Effect9:40 - Final Thoughts

En 1905, Albert Einstein montra comment le champ magnétique apparaît, comme un des aspects relativistes du champ électrique22, plus précisément dans le cadre de la relativité restreinte.Il se présente comme le résultat de la transformation lorentzienne d'un champ électrique d'un premier référentiel un second en mouvement relatif.Lorsqu'une charge électrique se déplace, le champ électrique engendré par cette charge n'est plus perçu par un observateur au repos comme symétrie sphérique, cause de la dilatation du temps prédite par la relativité. On doit alors employer les transformations de Lorentz pour calculer l'effet de cette charge sur l'observateur, qui donne une composante du champ qui n'agit que sur les charges se déplaçant : ce que l'on appelle « champ magnétique ».On peut ainsi décrire les champs magnétique et électrique comme deux aspects d'un même objet physique, représenté en théorie de la relativité restreinte par un tenseur de rang 2, ou de manière équivalente par un bivecteur.

In 1905, Albert Einstein showed how the magnetic field appears as one of the relativistic aspects of the electric field22 , more precisely in the framework of special relativity.It appears as the result of the Lorentzian transformation of an electric field from a first reference frame to a second one in relative motion.When an electric charge moves, the electric field generated by this charge is no longer perceived by an observer at rest as spherically symmetric, because of the time dilation predicted by relativity. One must then use the Lorentz transformations to calculate the effect of this charge on the observer, which gives a component of the field that acts only on the moving charges: this is called "magnetic field".We can thus describe the magnetic and electric fields as two aspects of the same physical object, represented in SRT by a rank 2 tensor, or equivalently by a bivector.Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

hamdani yusuf, i dont really understand your claim.You say that nobody understand the magnetic force.

In the english version of wikipedia for the same subject(magnetic field), the Einsteinian model is lost (i dont know why) :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_field

Some of electrolytic solutions that will be used are NaCl, H2SO4, HCl, CuSO4, FeCl3.

Quote from: hamdani yusuf on 02/07/2016 13:47:55Some of electrolytic solutions that will be used are NaCl, H2SO4, HCl, CuSO4, FeCl3.\What happened when you used them?

Where did I say that?

Here is the visualization of the second experiment, which start from the first as described before. If the charged particle is stationary to the wire, no magnetic force is received.Next, the wire is zoomed to show the electrons and metal atoms inside.From the picture above, the electrons inside the wire move to the left with speed v, but particle q doesn’t receive magnetic force.Now if the wire is moved to the right with speed v, the speed of electrons becomes 0, while the speed of the metal atoms = v. It is shown that magnetic force F is produced downward.The picture above is equivalent to the picture from previous post.Here we can conclude that electron’s movement is not responded by the particle, while atom’s movement produces magnetic force to the particle. It seems that for a long time we had missed the difference between atoms and free electrons which cause electric current and produce magnetic force.For the second experiment, we will study the effect of the movement of charged particles inside a conductor (or convector) toward the test particle. We will study the hypothesis that magnetic force is not only affected by the magnitude of electric charge that moves inside a conductor (or convector), but also affected by the mass of the particle.Electric current in a copper wire is produced by the flow of electrons inside. The charge and mass of electrons are always the same, so we need some other particles as electric current producers to get reference. For that we will replace the conductor by a hose filled by electrolyte solution that contains ions, since ions are also electrically charged and have various masses. Some of electrolytic solutions that will be used are NaCl, H2SO4, HCl, CuSO4, FeCl3.

We also need to explain the magnoflux spin effect of the magnetic field please.